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Michigan is now a full-service sports betting state! Michiganders and visitors to the state can place sports bets on their mobile devices, their computers, and several different retail locations around both mdjsjeux bettingadvice. The online launch in January marked the endpoint of a process that began in December Governor Gretchen Whitmer signed into law two bills, S and Hwhich legalized sports betting both online and in casinos. Incidentally, the two bills also legalized internet poker, online casino games and online fantasy sports. In short, Michigan is quite the destination for placing a bet now.

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Kissinger, the copyright owner. Responsibility for any use rests exclusively with the user. Digital Collections. Full-text What's this? Search full-text for descriptive information plus full-text that occurs in a work.

Not all works contain searchable full-text. Henry A. Conditions Governing Access The papers are open for research. Tiziano BoniniSocial media Manifesto for radioEven if social media use has entered the production routine of radio only in the last two to three years,turning out to be a crucial tool, but quite often misunderstood and underestimated too, in the case historiesanalysed so far we can note many similar social media practices, which are both effective and innovative. Thecomparative study reveals that broadcasters have finally started to understand the importance of social media innurturing their relation with audiences, like an umbilical cord connecting listeners to producers while the radio isoff.

As a conclusion, we will try to put together the best practices discovered during the research and write a kin do f Social Media Manifesto, or more simply, a bare bones guide to the ideal social media strategy for broadcasters. Dramaturgic structureSocial media management is an authorial and creative work.

It is similar to the work of a theatre directorand has to do with storytelling. And storytelling has its rules. Social media spaces are not virtual at all, they arelively spaces where people attempt to show themselves at their best, making great efforts to perform one of thecharacters they would love to look like in real life. As people's FB and TW profiles are nothing but storytellingperformances, programmes' profiles have to address issues of performance and storytelling too.

The most successful Facebook and Twitter pages analysed so far all share a specific and clearlyrecognisable dramaturgic structure: frequent, cyclical and regular updates, every day. Facebook and Twitterprovide a flood of data, and posts and tweets will quickly flow off followers' screens. Tweeting frequently will builda bigger following. Radio producers have to show listeners that they are always alive, always present, and theyhave to convince them to visit their page more often during the day.

They have to build expectations among theirfollowers. Posting 15 tweets a day, but all in the same half hour, will not do , as most of the followers will not evensee them. Radio producers have to educate the public, making them feel that their page is constantly updatedwith valuable contents. Second Act - During the show: InterActWe have noticed that successful work and presence on social media generates a continual flow ofcomments and updates from listeners during the show.

Third Act — After the show: the show must go onSuccessful programmes are conceived like multimedia projects. When the radio show comes to an end,the programme continues on the web. Cross media interactionConnect all the platforms and enforce communication flows between them. Doing radio in the age of Facebookin talk shows is to give the same importance to listener feedback, no matter which platform they came from email, phone call, sms, Facebook, Twitter.

The debate around the issue of the day starts on social media, thencontinues on air: the presenters keep quoting comments made in real time on social networks. If people get used to knowing that what happens in the social mediasphere is valuable for the programmetoo, they will participate more. Presenters and authors of the programme have to play at the listeners' level, and to build a fair and straightinteraction with them.

Every time you post something on social media you should provide it with a context for itto be properly understood, and personalise information, adding your personal view or feeling. Every podcast alertyou make has to be accompanied by a quick and personal synopsis of the programme contents, using a catchylanguage, not the cold and standardised language of marketing but the warmer one of true personal engagementwith it.

Every post is a little story. Take advantage of General Intellect and realize Walter Benjamin's dreamSocial media are wonderful tools for nurturing and empowering the General Intellect 2. Thanks to theirnetworked structure, social media seem to be making the dream of Brecht and Benjamin 3 come true: listenersbecoming authors UGC.

Among your listeners lie hundreds of experts in different fields willing to take part incontent production. Caterpillar RAI perfectly outsources some reporting to the listeners and takes advantage ofcitizen journalism: its listeners publish suggestions about topics to be discussed and offer themselves as reportersfrom the place they live in. Ask listeners to tweet their reports in real time while travelling.

The minds of thelisteners, once connected through social media, can be very powerful and fast. Share the loveShare, quote, forward, retweet valuable contents. You need to give in order to get. ReferencesAnderson, Benedict La radio. Au microphone: Dr. Walter Benjamin. Tiziano BoniniVol. On the Higher Education context many changes are occurring due to the introduction of newlearning paradigms, many of them take advantage of web 2.

Social networks are currently being a do pted in many Higher Education communities as platformsto support the interaction among community members, taking advantage of the potential of thosenetworks to foster strong and meaningful relationships and support the awareness andconsolidation of group identity. This potential is being explored to promote new possibilities forteaching and learning that include new approaches such as the personal learning environments. This article addresses the potential that radio services have for Higher Education communities in aweb 2.

The article explores theperceptions that Aveiro academic members have about webradio potentialities in terms of sense ofbelonging creation and community cohesion. Keywords: webradio, university, community, social networks Radio as a service of a university communityThe incorporation of the radio in the university field, as well as their potential use by the academiccommunity, is not a recent phenomenon. The first initiative of this kind took place in at the University ofWisconsin Faus, College radio refers to a type of station that operates within an academic community and presentscharacteristics of community radio and educational ones.

These stations can be a global institutional projectinvolving the entire university community or an initiative from a more restricted entity faculty, student union,student-teacher of a specific subject… Sauls, 1. In fact, the phenomenon of college radio has evolved from the first experimental stations and, nowadays,has multiple configurations depending on the technological support broadcast FM, AM, web , audience of aclosed circuit to a wider community of listeners , aims education, outreach, entertainment or managementmodels Sauls, 2.

Characteristics that imply a programming for the college radio, different from commercial ones. This type of stations, to which also belong community radio stations, is characterized by uncommercialobjectives and social vocation. College radio has also a cohesive feature that, combined with the fact that itoperates within an academic community, gives it characteristics of community radio stations. Indeed the main goal of any college radio is to provide a service to the community, regardless of whetherit is a strictly academic community or a wider community Sauls, 2.

The purpose of this paper is to deepen into the perceptions that different audiences in the academiccommunity of Aveiro have about the potential of a college radio for the community cohesion and the promotionof a sense of belonging,.

The underlying conception of the university webradio is here a platform with links tosocial networks, a space to share materials among professors-students or students-students, and other kind ofinteraction tools. Radio transposition to the Internet offers lots of potentialities for the college stations. In fact, since the early college radio web initiatives that took place in the late 90's, thisphenomenon has been expanding.

The radiomorphosis. A new paradigm based on the interactionThe mediamorphosis Fidler, in radio renewed the audio product with the addition of componentsinherent to digital system. Thus, webradio set up a platform where converge multiple features of the conventional media with thosederived from its new multimedia essence like flexibility, ubiquity, synchronous and asynchronous communication,language and interactive multimedia.

The phenomenon of radiomorphosis Prata, was reflected primarily on the genres and on theinteraction. Two connected areas that establish the essence of the Internet medium and alter broadcastingconcept nature Cordeiro, From the perspective of interaction, the transfer from terrestrial radio to the web has strengthenedrelations with the user through new forms of relationship.

Interaction that has evolved from participation viaemail, an e-review of wiretapping tradicional model, to other nearish and instantaneous modes like socialnetworks. This is due to the return of listeners, interacting in relation tobroadcast content and also due to the release profile on portals, directories and virtual communities" Kischinhevsky, Radio 2.

An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe interaction of these listeners in multiple social networks establishes a relation between them and thepractitioner, a relationship which allows real-time feedback regarding the contents conveyed. This enablesconsolidation of collaborative media based on a single network that combines social networking and various webtools 2.

In this context,prosumer figure rises up as a listener consumer and content producer at once Toffler The multimedia nature of the web allows to push the limits established between the radio and its listeners. A relation marked by the fact that, as Moare stressed inBuffarah Junior, 6 there is no place on the net for passive recipients.

The radio experience at that time,new concepts and gain time previously inaccessible devices " Ahmed, This new potential of Internet radio enables its use in a community college with multiple objectives. The characteristics of this digital natives group can be considered convergent with the web broadcastingpotentiality: "nomadism, individualism, customization and personalization, exhibition and voyeurism, public andprivate space, memory of the generation on demand and a young profile in transformation" Rodrigues da Cunha, This convergence should not be dismissed on college radio.

Metho do logyTo accomplish the aim of assessing the perceptions that Aveiro University members from now on AU have about webradio potential for academic community cohesion, an approach to its main audiences has beencarried out: students and professors. An approach that a do pted different samples, analysis tool and metho do logy. The selection of both convenience samples was do ne according to different criteria. StudentsAccording to Rose and Lenski and Baker students are configured as the primary recipient of auniversity webradio.

This is a circumstance of special interest from the point of view of webradios potential foruniversity community cohesion. A test sample of 78 individuals belonging to three different groups of students in the UA was chosen:communication graduate students masters and do ctorates , students coursing other subjects undergraduate andgraduate and foreign students-researchers in various scientific areas. The selection of the second group of 18 undergraduate and graduate in other scientific areas was due tothe need for a sample of students from the AU whose media consumption, and ideas regarding the potential ofan university webradio, would not be influencied by their proximity to the field.

This sample could offer a differentperspective from communication students. The third group consisted on 15 foreign students-researchers all of them users of the residence of the UA as a representation of the relevance from this population in Aveiro university community. These three groups of students have in common their status as active users of social networks one ormore.

This volume of hits in the sample reveals a prevailing culture of networks that could be transferred to theuniversity community realm. Transfer that would enable the establishment of horizontal links between equals ,vertical students-professors and even of diagonal type with other audiences AU encouraging the universitycommunity cohesion.

Figure 1. Frequency of use of social networks among students in the sampleThe questionnaire was chosen as the tool to understand the precepts that students have about thepotential of webradios for the university community. Data was collected quantitatively and qualitatively throughdifferent types of questions depending on the type of response: open, closed, multiple choice, yes or no, Likertscale or hierarchy scale.

The last part of the questionnaire focused on students preferences and perceptions about webradios andtheir ability to establish relationships with other community members, to strengthen the academic community andto foster a sense of belonging. It also included other issues, regarding the use of social media, as other tools ofweb 2. In order to validate the questionnaire, acontrol group of five individuals belonging to the population under study was used, which allowed theimprovement of the formulation of some questions, as well as the overall coherence and organization of this datacollection tool.

ProfessorsProfessors are the other main public from college radio and, for this reason, it would be interesting to learnabout their perception about college radio possibilities to strengthen of the academic community. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsin the research as a another sample could offer a richer vision of students answers about college radio and itscharacteristics.

This selection is based on the assumption that, given their expertise, these professors would present abroad knowledge of new media and its possibilities, as well as offers a critical perspective of them. In this sense, to get as much information as possible about the idea that professors have over theuniversity webradios, in-depth interview was chosen as a research tool.

An interview of 20 minutes was structured around three blocks of questions: their perception of web radioas a casual user, their perception of the possibilities of this platform for the university community in general, andtheir perception of potentials that this webradio could provide for their specific teaching. The contributions madeby professors during the course of these interviews were recorded in audio format and revised. This reviewallowed to draw ideas for the next phase of this research.

Main resultsThe work developed allowed us to deepen into the precepts that, both students and professors, haveabout the benefits of a webradio implementation for the Aveiro university community. These results werestructured in two blocks according to the sample and metho do logical differences. StudentsSurveyed students were particularly receptive to a webradio creation in the context of the Aveiro academycommunity. However, students are not so sure that this platform is a good way to establish links between the differentaudiences of university webradio.

This increase reflects a balancebetween those who advocate the potential of university webradios to establish relationships with peers and thosewho seem critics. University webradio platform interaction is a good form to establish relationships with professors32 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptionsThe students concept about the webradio platforms potential to meet people or to promote a closerrelationship with classmates is a reflection of their use of social networks.

So the fact of coursing the same degree,course or courses, do es not imply the need for online links. A completely different situation is reflected in relationships with professors. The possibility to establish such relationships between two different audiences from the university sphereallows to foresee the perception of university webradios as a cohesiveness element for this kind of community Figure 5. University webradio can promote university community cohesionAlthough most of the students do not totally agree with the creation a webradio platform to fosterinterpersonal interaction among peers or among professors, this trend is opposite when they are asked about itschances for community cohesion.

University webradio can promote the feeling of university community membershipThe same happens with the feeling of belonging. Most students think that the creation of the AU webradioincreases the identification of academic community members with the university. A similar percentage of those individuals also raises the possibility that this webradio becometheir favourite station.

The sum of these realities would foster a community of loyal listeners that would stillremain at the basis of a constant feedback process: the fact that the radio becomes a favourite station favours anincreases of the pride of belonging, which in turn brings more listeners to the radio, etc.

However, despite their consideration of the university webradio for the cohesion of the academiccommunity and of its high consumption of social networks, only few students would incorporate them into aplatform of university webradio. Only a third of the sample 37 individuals thinks that it would be interesting toinclude a link to the social networks. ProfessorsLikewise students, professors interviewed considered interesting the implementation a webradio universityin Aveiro academic community.

This interest was justified by the need to give visibility to the activities of the university and to the type ofwork do ne by its researchers. Visibility of internal type, as a channel to support the dissemination of daily activitiesbeyond the university web with low reading among students , and external, to engage a broader community inthe events taking place in the academic institution. Regarding the role of this webradio for the university community cohesion, all professors intervieweddefended its value for the creation of a sense of belonging.

In fact, for them, any new form of connection betweenthe various groups of the university improves community cohesion. A connection powered in webradio by prideof belonging. This pride of belonging is based, as targeted by professors interviewed in: Providing the community with a new channel that gives information about the events developed in theframework of the university quickly and efficiently.

Professors indicated that, despite the many events heldat the UA, there is some opacity of information. Any initiative that promotes the flow of information isoptimal to increase this sense of belonging. An approximation of Aveiro University Members perceptions Informing society about research, experience or other events taking place in the AU or in collaborationwith it. The disclosure of the activities carried out in the university not only contributes to the creation, orenhancement, of brand image of the AU, but also increases the pride of belonging of its members.

In thissense, one of the professors interviewed referred to a television program of the AU which, despite the earlymorning broadcast, contributed to the identification of members of the community with the university. Fostering collaboration between community members in developing content for this radio. This radiomanager should seek tools to review, create content, collaborate on the development of the grid etc.

Thefact that students have a channel to whose contents they could collaborate is an element of interest for anidentification with the institution. Similarsituation occurs when the voices of leaders are familiar. Also, these professors believe that social networks are an essential element to make horizontal and verticalcommunication easy, and with it, to facilitate the cohesion of the university community. Otherwise, any project is stillborn".

In short, professors defend the appropriateness of a webradio university for the academic communitycohesion. In this defense, some respondents cited the RUM University of Minho radio, Portugal as an example ofa station that encourages pride of belonging among members of the university community. These professors based on webradio cohesive role of a university the possibility of establishing a mediumto a large consumption by different audiences, sensitive to the tastes and interests of its members as well as aunique way of approaching what is happening in this community university.

Both groups believe that the radio platform on the web can be interesting for the cohesion of theacademic community and foster a sense of belonging. But students do not give too much value to this platform asa place to meet people or engage in closer relationships between classmates. Professors identified three issues which can build pride in belonging: to have a new channel of internalcommunication; the dissemination of University activities to the society and its recognition by the latter; and theinvolvement of different groups of the academic community in order to develop content for this radio.

When determining the type of social interaction tools that the webradio must configured, it is remarkablethat, while professors consider a "must" to create a platform strongly connected to social networks, only one thir do f the students consider it appropriate. In short, for students and professors, the implementation of a webradio university is an important elementto foster the university community both unity and communication a new channel of communication internal orexternal , by the participation in content production and with it, by the development of a sense of belonging.

Afeeling summed up in this sentence: "I am an official channel of the university and I have contributed to this". ReferencesAlbarran, Alan B. Radio Broadcasting Industry. Journal of Radio and Audio Media, Vol. New York: Semiotexte, pp. La Radio. Mediamorphosis: Understanding New Media. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Atlantic Journal of Comunication, Vol. Comunicar, Vol. On the Horizont, Vol. Popular Music and Communication. Newbury Parl: Sage, pp. Joint Meetings of the Popular Culture Association.

Studies in Popular Cultura, Vol. Braga: Universidade do Minho , pp. These new stations have emerged into a competitive broadcastingenvironment at a time of great technological change. New digital broadcasting platforms arebeginning to become established in parallel with Internet and mobile phone network audiodelivery mechanisms and, as a result, the future technical development of the medium as a wholeis in something of a state of flux.

At the heart of Community Radio is a range of diverse linkages and interactions with members ofindividual target communities. Within such a diverse broadcasting sector, how has the uptake ofso-called new media technologies developed, not just in terms of linear programme delivery, butalso with respect to podcasting, "listen again" services and the provision of additional text andvideo-based content?

This paper summarises the degree of uptake of new media technologies by the Community Radio sector and examines some of the impacts that may result from their use, both concerning theconsumption and the production of broadcast content. It concludes by suggesting how the futuredevelopment of Community Radio broadcasting in the UK may be influenced by the gradualacceptance of such new delivery platforms and the opportunities that may arise from suchacceptance.

Keywords: radio, community radio, technologyIntroductionOver recent years, the impact of Internet-based and other so-called 'new technologies' on Community Radio services has become increasingly important in a wide variety of ways stretching beyond the obviousprovision of additional programme content delivery opportunities.

However, the arrival of the various newtechnologies is also something of a do uble-edged sword, bringing threats as well as opportunities to theCommunity Radio sector around the world. As the senior electronic medium, broadcast radio has a long history. Evolving over time, radio hasexpanded both in terms of the number of stations broadcast and the nature of such stations.

In a Europeancontext, following an early experimental period, most jurisdictions established public service broadcasting as thefoundation of their broadcast radio provision. Later, legislative and regulatory frameworks were adapted and PSBproviders found themselves subject of commercial competition. Lawrie Hallettregulatory frameworks have gradually begun to change again, this time to accommodate Community Radio , theincreasing variety of broadcast radio services reflecting the growing diversity of the societies in which they arebased.

At the same time, however, broadcast media infrastructure is also changing. Internally, the medium isadapting to the emergence of various digital radio broadcasting platforms, whilst externally, the effectiveness ofso-called new media platforms is also creating opportunities and threats for broadcasters. The result of thiscombination of circumstances is that proponents of Community Radio seeking to establish and cement the sectoras a robust and integral third-tier of radio broadcasting, are do ing so in an atmosphere of regulatory andtechnological uncertainty and flux.

Alongside the development of platforms specifically designed for broadcasting purposes, new mediatechnologies have also been impacting on the operation of broadcast radio. Not only do the Internet the mobilephone networks provide alternative platforms for the delivery of linear radio in real time, but they also provideopportunities for the delivery of radio which is directly linked to other types of media content, and which caninclude 'on-demand' elements that can be both time-shifted and non-linear, such as 'listen again' services andpodcast programmes.

The Role of Community Radio There are some underlying commonalities which define community radio, such as operation on a not forprofit basis, a commitment to accountability and to the involvement of members of the target community in theoperation and management of the service concerned. However, a key feature of the sector as a whole lies in itsdiversity, each station is inevitably "shaped by its environment and the distinct culture, history and reality of thecommunity it serves" Buckley et al.

Put another way, there is no such thing as a typical communityradio service. Fundamentally, Community Radio services exist to serve defined communities, of place, or of interest. Nevertheless, well over such stations have been givenpermission to broadcast since full-time licensing commenced in , and more are currently in the process ofbeing licensed. As well as stations broadcasting to geographical communities, there are stations serving a varietyof niche and specialist communities, including ethnic and religious minorities, children, retired people, militarygarrisons, universities and the arts.

This public do cument, which is made available on-line by theU. To achieve the various social gain, access and accountability objectives effectively, Community Radio services require a high degree of integration with the membership of their target communities. Such integrationtakes time and effort to develop and sustain. In practical terms, effective and successful Community Radio services require underpinning structures and processes to help establish, sustain and broaden the range oflinkages and opportunities for interaction with their target communities.

In the U. A Digital Dilemma? Although the world of radio broadcasting is changing fast, the vast majority of Community Radio servicesstill currently depend on analogue broadcast frequencies in order to deliver their programming to mass audiencesin a cost effective manner.

It is increasingly the case that other non-broadcast delivery methods, such as webstreamingand pod-casting, are also able to attract listeners. However, despite their ability to deliver both linearand non-linear content, as yet, such platforms can only be considered supplementary to the use of traditionalbroadcast technologies and they are certainly not yet universally available in the same way that content deliveryvia the analogue broadcasting do main has been for many years.

In parallel, the arrival of digital radio broadcasting, in all its various forms, has resulted in politicians andregulators attempting to drive forward a process of technological transition. A key problem for theCommunity Radio sector is that the various proposals put forward by European policy makers, have tended tofocus pre do minantly on the requirements of the commercial and PSB sectors, thereby leaving Community Radio broadcasters on the periphery with a variety of resultant problems and risks for the future.

Ask politicians or regulators about Community Radio and they won't always know what you are talkingabout. Ask the same people about PSB or commercial radio and not only will they know what you are talkingabout but, almost certainly, they will also have some pretty firm opinions on the subject, perhaps dictated by theirpolitical affiliations rather than by any deep interest and understanding of the specific issues involved!

Thecomparatively limited profile of Community Radio is, in part, due to the sector's relatively small-scale bothnumerically in terms of stations broadcasting, and in relation to the often deliberately limited geographical focusof such stations. However, it is also due to the fact that, in most jurisdictions, the sector is comparatively youngand therefore inevitably lacking in terms of track-record.

It is a simple fact that, in addition to requiring a greatdeal of effort, relationships with politicians, regulators, funding bodies and partner organisations take aconsiderable length of time to establish and solidify. The historical tendency of European policy-makers to prioritise the requirements of larger PSB andcommercial broadcasters is perhaps not surprising, given the far greater scale of these sectors in comparison toCommunity Radio broadcasting.

The difficult for community broadcasters is that, in practice, this approach hasresulted in the promotion of multiplex digital platforms, such as DAB, which are simply not designed to cater forsmaller-scale local commercial and 'non-profit' Community Radio services, each with its own defined geographicalcoverage requirements.

Furthermore the current existence of a variety of jurisdiction-specific approaches to the'digital migration' of radio services in Europe creates uncertainty as to the eventual shape of the emergingtechnical and policy environment. Such political and regulatory involvement in the promotion of digital radio broadcasting, is in completecontrast to the virtual lack of such engagement with the various emerging non-broadcast delivery methods for'radio' programming content, using mobile phone networks and the Internet.

Historically, the digitalisationdiscourse as it relates to radio broadcasting has typically been characterised by considerable optimism on the partof those developing the various systems involved. Encouraged by such optimism, and by the promise ofadditional broadcasting capacity, politicians and regulators in many jurisdictions have driven forward theintroduction of new transmission platforms. However, despite such official support, broadcasters and the publicECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Halletttend to remain somewhat wary of investing in the technology and conversely remain largely supportive oftraditional FM broadcasting in particular.

In short, the problem with digital radio platforms is that they offer toofew advantages over the older, established, analogue technologies. In the eyes of the general public, theperipheral advantages offered, including additional channel capacity and enhanced radio-text etc.

With various digital transmission platforms now either operational or nearing launch, it remains impossibleto predict which option or options will eventually emerge as the accepted standards in the longer term. Thisprocess of change is being further complicated by the increasing impacts of other, non-broadcast, audio deliveryplatforms. However, what is clear is that some digital radio broadcasting platforms are more flexible than othersand that some are best suited only to particular types of radio broadcasting.

As they exist today, none of thedigital broadcast radio platforms currently operating are able to provide a completely compatible alternative toanalogue radio broadcasting in all its various forms. Despite pressure for the 'digital migration' of many radio services, given the ubiquitous and flexible natureof FM broadcasting, it also seems likely that, in the majority of jurisdictions at least, its continued use forbroadcasting remains secure for the foreseeable future.

The 'opportunity cost' associated with continuing to useBand II FM for small-scale broadcasting services, even after larger stations have moved to alternative platforms,is minimal because the frequencies involved have wavelengths which make their use for telecommunicationsservices less than ideal. In addition, as both the AM and FM bands are internationally allocated for broadcasting and are likely to remain so for many years to come , there are limits as to what other uses they may be put to.

Recent suggestions by Ed Richards, the Chief Executive of Ofcom, that Band II could be used for so-called 'whitespace'devices Ofcom, may have some validity in the medium term, but, even if this proves to be the case,such devices could be interleaved to operate alongside traditional analogue broadcasting transmitters. Although the advent of digital radio transmission platforms offers at least the potential to help reduce theimbalance between supply and demand in terms of broadcast frequency availability, such developments certainly do not herald a complete end to frequency scarcity.

Inevitably therefore, competition for access to broadcastingspectrum rights will remain a barrier to entry for the foreseeable future and for many years to come. Assuming anongoing requirement for access to the airwaves, the question for Community Radio broadcasters is how best canthey obtain usage rights to a higher percentage of total available radio-broadcasting frequencies than is presentlythe case? If the sector is to be successful in such endeavours, it needs to continue to build up its circle of friends.

It will need to convince politicians and regulators of the strength of its case, something which may be easier saidthan do ne in the context of the strong, well organised lobbying capacity available to competing PSB andcommercial operators. In part because of such frequency scarcity issues, but also because of the various additional advantageswhich such technologies offer. Community Radio has been quick to embrace a variety of Internet-based andmobile phone network technologies in order to enhance the delivery of their various services.

However, when itcomes to the alternative of delivery of content via the Internet and other communications networks, the economicand operational models are somewhat different, for both broadcaster and listener alike. For the purposes of thispaper, mobile phone networks can be considered a sub-set of Internet delivery, adding not only long-rangewireless connectivity and the delivery of web-based and other applications to portable devices, but also providingtheir own specific additional facilities such as text and picture messaging.

In light of such developments and as new forms of mobile devices, such assmart-phones and 3G connected net-books, laptops and the tablet form PC, become increasingly prevalent, thedivide between the fixed line Internet and mobile telephony networks is becoming increasingly blurred.

Dealing with the broadcaster first, in some respects, the Internet provides additional opportunities that are,quite simply, beyond the capability of traditional broadcasting platforms. Staying with tools for broadcasters themselves, a further advantage of the Internet is its ability to deliverstreams of a station's live output.

In other words, a copy of the station's traditional broadcast output can bedelivered in real-time to listeners who might be outside the coverage service area of the station's AM or FMtransmissions, or who might, for example, prefer to access such a stream while they work at an office computerterminal or from a laptop. Because of the streaming nature of such services, their consumption requires that each listeneraccessing them has ongoing connectivity to the Internet for the duration of listening.

Most flexible in terms of options for its consumption is the podcast. Those provided by radio broadcasterscan be regarded as being similar to those from other sources, although, because of their expertise and experiencein the sound medium, podcasts produced by radio professionals often have higher than average productionvalues. The main advantage of the podcast over streaming is that it frees the user from the need for a constantconnection to the Internet.

Typically, in a matter of a few seconds these can be do wnloaded to a computer, MP3player or mobile phone for later consumption and this process can be automated such that series programmingcontent is not missed by accident. Once do wnloaded, not only can they be listened to at any time, but also, theycan then be easily archived and stored indefinitely by the user, for repeated listening at a later date. Copyrightissues aside, being typically provided in MP3 format, they can, at least in practical terms, also be copied foronward distribution to other potential listeners.

The key point regarding these Internet delivery options is that, to a greater or lesser extent, each providesadditional flexibility in relation to the consumption of broadcast content. Not only are the temporal constraints ofscheduling removed, but also, because content can be accessed outside the broadcast transmission service area ofthe station concerned, so too are geographical constraints on reception.

Moreover, because, unlike traditionalbroadcasting, the Internet is fundamentally a bi-directional medium, it intrinsically enhances opportunities forinteraction between broadcasters and their audiences generally, and specifically in relation to the focus of thispaper, between Community Radio services and members of their target communities. With a little effort,community-based broadcasters can learn a great deal about their target community through a simple analysis ofwho is listening to what and where on-line.

Whilst on-line consumption of content cannot be assumed toECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, contents, audiences — conference Lawrie Hallettduplicate that carried out via traditional broadcasting platforms, it can at least provide some useful qualitativedata for programme makers and station management. The Limits of New TechnologiesAlthough the use of such non-broadcast platforms can provide broadcasters with additional flexibility, for avariety of reasons, they do not yet constitute a replacement for traditional broadcast platforms.

To begin with,rather than being one-to-many broadcasting platforms, both the Internet as currently constituted for audiocontent and the mobile phone are primarily designed as one-to-one communications platforms. At present,mobile phone and mobile Internet platforms, lack universality and tend towards end-user cost models whichdiscourage the consumption of large amounts of data. In addition, the take-up of such platforms can be lower inareas of relative socio-economic deprivation, which are often the focus of Community Radio services.

However, itis quite clear that, as the carrying capacity of mobile phone networks expands and as improved methods ofmobile Internet delivery, such as WiMax, are implemented, this situation will change for the better. In somejurisdictions "all-you-can-eat" data tariffs are already becoming available at a relatively reasonable cost althoughconnectivity and capacity both remain potential stumbling blocks to reliable portable operation.

Despite variouslimitations, convergence between broadcasting and communications platforms is already happening and, as aresult, after a long period of relative inertia, radio broadcasting is currently being exposed to the challenges of aperiod of considerable ongoing change.

Despite its various advantages and benefits for broadcasters, whatever else it may be, the Internet is mostdefinitely not a broadcast medium, that is to say, it is not a one-to-many medium, free at the point ofconsumption. At least in technical terms, once a content stream has been made available,where in the world it is consumed becomes largely irrelevant although, for some forms of content at least, theremay be financial implications related to copyright issues.

While it may be technically possible for individualjurisdictions to block or otherwise make unavailable specific types of content or particular web addresses, suchtechniques are rarely applied to anything other than overtly sexually explicit materials and, in some moreauthoritarian regimes, particular types of political content.

The benefits of increased geographical reach, do however come at a price. Broadcasters using the Internetare faced with a marginal cost per each additional listener to the data-stream concerned. In other words, becausecosts to the broadcaster are directly related to the total amount of data being delivered by it, the greater theaverage number of listeners, and the longer they listen, the greater the total cost to the broadcaster.

Morespecifically, it is the concurrent total number of listeners which can have the greatest impact upon streamingcosts. Here it is the cost of overall capacity provision rather than the actual cost of data delivery which is the issue. The greater the potential number of concurrent streams that provision is made for, the greater the cost to thebroadcaster.

Thus, in a financial sense at least, popular Internet broadcasters really can become victims of theirown success! The issue of limitations within the network structure and the transmission protocols of the Internet an do ther IP-based networks is beyond the scope of this paper. However, it is worth noting that although there areways to ameliorate the marginal cost per additional listener for example though the use of multi-cast protocolswhere available, or by employing torrent-like streams , for smaller broadcasters, and for reasons of economies ofscale, such approaches are likely to be impractical, or at best yield only marginally beneficial economic gains.

A potential problem for small-scale broadcasters in some jurisdictions is the issue of net-neutrality. Inthose countries where telecommunications companies and Internet service providers have been allowed to give44 ECREA: Radio Evolution: technology, content, audiences — conference Inareas where network infrastructure is well-developed, this issue may not be too serious a problem, as even highquality audio streams occupy a relatively small amount of bandwidth when compared to either standard or highdefinition video streams.

However, where network capacity is limited, Community Radio services could find theirstreams disrupted by parallel demand for priority traffic. A further issue confronting broadcasters when using the Internet as a delivery platform is its lack ofuniversality when compared to traditional broadcasting. To begin with, the required broad-band Internetconnection is by no means universal, especially within less economically prosperous communities. Even where abroad-band connection is present, listening to audio streams on a computer is one thing, but delivering thatstream to elsewhere in the home or office is quite another.

Even more difficult is the delivery of live streaming content tomobile and portable devices. Although it is theoretically possible to receive such material via 3G and other highcapacitymobile phone data networks, at present such networks lack robust capacity, and are particularly bad atdelivering linear content to a device on the move. Extrapolating from recent history, there seems very little do ubt that the capacity of fixed and mobilenetworks will continue to increase and that, conversely, the associated costs of such distribution are likely todecrease.

However, for the present, although the Internet is already expanding the delivery options forCommunity Radio services, specifically in relation to streamed audio many of the theoretical advantages it offersare currently somewhat hampered by technical and capacity network infrastructure limitations and, for mobileusers, the similar content capacity limitations found in associated mobile phone networks.

ConclusionsDigital delivery methods are already impacting on the activities of Community Radio broadcasters, but notin the way that might have been supposed a decade or so ago. In the United King do m at least, the sector'sinterest in taking up digital radio broadcasting opportunities has been almost non-existent, but, conversely, thevast majority of community stations have already embraced considerable use of web-based digital deliveryopportunities to supplement their traditional analogue broadcasting output.

On the broadcast radio front, recognising the various benefits of FM, the community radio sector islobbying for greater access to Band II spectrum, if and when other PSB and commercial broadcasters arepersuaded to give up simulcasting and switch their broadcasting output to digital platforms.

The UK broadcastregulator, Ofcom has long since accepted that an increase in Community Radio provision on FM could be oneoutcome of any move of larger services to alternative digital platforms, such as DAB:In time, it is possible that changes such as an end to simulcasting of existing radio services on analogue anddigital platforms could free-up spectrum that will create more space for new community radio stations.

Ofcom, 28 There is however an element of risk associated with such an approach to the long-term expansion ofCommunity Radio provision. Specifically, there remains no guarantee that digital migration will be implementedand without it access to additional FM spectrum cannot be provided. On the other hand, should digital migrationbe achieved for the majority of radio stations, then community broadcasters remaining on FM could findthemselves in what has by then become an 'analogue backwater' which the majority of potential listeners are nolonger inclined to explore.

Lawrie HallettNevertheless, given the largely inappropriate nature of existing operaional digital radio broadcastingplatforms for community radio services, it is difficult to envisage how else the sector might currently approach thisissue. That said, the current limitations of digital radio broadcasting are, to a large extent, technology specific andemerging second generation platforms, such as Digital Radio Mondiale DRM and the more advanced DRM Plusstandard, have at least the potential to be more relevant to the needs of community broadcasters, assuming thatthey do eventually become an integral part of the radio broadcasting landscape.

In practical terms, the potential emergence of digital radio platforms suitable for use by independentsmall-scale remains, at best, some years off. Whilst it would be prudent for community broadcasters not todismiss the future potential of such systems, continuing to exploit technologies which provide immediate benefitshas to remain the priority. The approach of utilising web-based digital delivery methods, accessible throughcomputers and mobile devices, is already providing increased flexibility and the ability to reach out to communitydiasporas which are not within the coverage of traditional analogue broadcasts.

The Internet and associated new technologies certainly offer some clear benefits for both Community Radio broadcasters and for members of their target communities. For Community Radio , in addition toopportunities for increased operational efficiency and flexibility, the fundamental impacts of the variousdevelopments set out in this paper are three-fold. In addition, such networks providenumerous opportunities for interaction, which traditional broadcast platforms simply cannot provide.

Finally, andperhaps more profoundly, by removing the limitations of broadcast coverage, not only are individual listeners ableto access a wider range of content, but also, as a result, the very nature of target communities is altered. However, new technologies also have their limits, lacking the universality of traditional broadcast platformsand reaching only those who are sufficiently motivated, resourced and media literate enough to engage with thevarious opportunities available through them.

As yet therefore, and despite all their obvious additional benefits,they cannot be considered as replacement technologies for traditional radio broadcasting. That said, given thevarious opportunities for enhanced interactivity and flexibility which they offer, and given the underlyingimportance of such interactivity, it is perhaps not surprising that many Community Radio services have alreadyembraced such technologies as part of their wider approach to building relationships with their targetcommunities.

However, for the foreseeable future at least, traditional analogue broadcasting willcontinue to be unique in its ability to provide locally focused, universal availability at minimal cost to bothCommunity Radio broadcasters and listeners alike. Community radio broadcasters are typically, both by nature and necessity, pragmatists, seeking to servetheir target communities in the most effective and cost effective ways possible. Digital radio platforms may notbe suitable today and whilst they may just become so in future, by that time it may well be the case that othernon-broadcast solutions will have begun to do minate what today we call radio.

In fact, the most likely future for Community Radio is probably an increasingly hybrid model combining,analogue radio and digital radio platforms with Internet and mobile phone network delivery systems. However, as the technologies used todeliver Community Radio outputs develop over the coming years, already there is no do ubt that the days of singleplatform analogue broadcasting have effectively gone forever.

ReferencesBuckley, S. Duer, T. Mendel and S. Broadcasting, Voice, and Accountability. The community radio order , number Lon do n, Her Majesty's Government. The community radio order , Number Lon do n, The Office ofCommunications. Notes of guidance for community radio licence [sic] applicants and licensees, May Revisedfrom version originally published in August Lon do n, The Office of Communications.

However, according to the results of a study carried out in September Herrera and Requejo, , the five major Spanish talk radio stations used this 2. More than 4 months later, we conduct a new content analysis to checkif the situation remains the same, or if meaningful changes have been made.

In this new analysis,we study the tweets posted by the official accounts of these stations over a 2-week period, January28 - February 10, Keywords: Twitter, Spain, radio, usesIntroductionIn less than 5 years, Twitter has become one of the most popular services on the so-called Web 2. Like the telephone, it facilitates a real-timeexchange of information.

Like instant messaging, the information is sent in short bursts. But it extends theaffordances of previous modes of communication by combining these features in both a one-to-many and manyto-manyframework that is public, archived and searchable. Twitter allows a large number of users to communicatewith each other simultaneously in real-time, based on an asymmetrical relationship between friends and followers.

Such versatility has been noted by many disciplines wanting to take advantage of this new system ofcommunication. After an initial phase of skepticism and observation, more and more media outlets and journalistsare joining Twitter. The aim of this paper is to analyze how major Spanish talk radio stations are making use of thisservice.

Do they use it to provide information or to express opinions? Do they use it to correct misinformation, orto gather opinions from their followers? To what extent do they talk with their audiences? Do they ask foraudience participation? Do the stations link to their websites, blogs, or other websites apart from their own? Dothey use hashtags?

These are some of the questions we attempt to answer in this paper. First, we provide a briefintroduction on Twitter as a Web 2. Updates areshown on the user profile page, and are also immediately sent to other users who have chosen to receive them. For this reason, Twitter is also a major component of social networking sites.

Since its inception,its popularity has increased rapidly, due not only to its advanced handling capabilities for reporting what ishappening in real time, but also for its utility in sharing interesting material. Companies and institutions can also use Twitter in diverse ways.

Therefore, experts recommend that userstake their time to define and understand the objectives of the service in order to develop a successful strategy. This exercise seems essential for choosing what content to tweet and for using the application in an optimal way. Why Twitter matters for news organizationsFor news organizations, several scholars e. Among several different proposals, one by Rusbridger , editor in chief of The Guardian, seems particularly appropriate because it is complete and concise.

However, the only way media can embrace its true potential is to avoid the same strategies that stationsused in the 1. Despite diverse proposals for media best practices on Twitter Harbison, ; Ingram, ; Kanalley,a, b; Orihuela, , , ; Posetti, ; Sawyer, ; Vargas, a, b the distinctionbetween good content practices and those related to form are useful for the purposes of this paper. Content practices are related to message intentions.

At this point, several scholars stress that the mediashould not care as much 1 about providing information and self-promotion. As for practices that media should avoid on this platform, Vargas turnsout to be very enlightening. As for best form practices, scholars stress the need to: make use of a human voice 8 , link to external contentso that their own contributions can be enriched 9 , provide information in an appealing way, conduct surveysamong their followers, use hashtags in an effective and creative way, link to other networks where the mediummight have a profile, and add multimedia value to the updates through links to pictures, videos, audio files orgraphs.

Metho do logyDespite these best practices, sometimes this 2. This was one of the mainconclusions we drew at the end of , when we conducted a content analysis of the tweets posted by the fivemain Spanish talk radio stations Herrera and Requejo, In our analysis, we coded updates posted by thesestations over a 1-week period, September 6 , Theresults showed that Tweets were used for almost noother purposes.

Conversation is human and personal sometimes fun, sometimessad, sometimes angry, sometimes rejoicing. Identifying information needs, catering our products to meet them and distributing them in a way that makessense. Being willing to participate in the community as individuals, building connections and personalizing our brand. Inviting the community toget to know our people and our processes.

Itinvolves: Hosting discussions in person and online on topics that matter to the community. Valuing how a continuing dialogue can make us better journalists and improves the journalism. It involves: Soliciting and relying on user contributions.

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There are around 30 of them in the state. As written, current laws limit gambling to those physically present in a licensed casino. Electronic sports betting is permitted, but only if conducted on-site. No mobile or online wagering can take place off the grounds of a casino. Sports betting is one of many legal forms of gambling legalized by Mississippi. The state has a long-standing reputation for gambling, dating back to the founding of the country.

Before Mississippi was even created, settlers and Native Americans were engaging in card games and betting on horse races and other sports. The Gulf Coast eventually emerged as a destination for music, food, sports and gambling. The state formalized its gambling industry in with the passage of the Mississippi Gaming Control Act , which allowed riverboat casinos in coastal counties. The first casino opened two years later, floating down the river from Iowa to its permanent home in Mississippi.

Gambling breathed new life into the region before Hurricane Katrina came to town in The superstorm brought ruin to Biloxi and Gulfport , damaging or destroying nearly every casino along the shore. With owners vowing to rebuild their properties, the law was changed to allow them to move onshore within feet of the water in the hopes of avoiding a repeat disaster. After a day review period, those regulations went into effect and licensed gaming operators began applying to offer sports betting.

Regulators spent the next few weeks preparing for the launch of sports betting and MGM won the race to come to market. Beau Rivage and Gold Strike accepted the first sports wagers in Mississippi history on August 1, In , Mississippi legalized daily fantasy sports. The Fantasy Contest Act H laid out the regulatory framework for the industry, following a similar roadmap to other states. Here was the original language that was stricken:.

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