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Michigan is now a full-service sports betting state! Michiganders and visitors to the state can place sports bets on their mobile devices, their computers, and several different retail locations around both mdjsjeux bettingadvice. The online launch in January marked the endpoint of a process that began in December Governor Gretchen Whitmer signed into law two bills, S and Hwhich legalized sports betting both online and in casinos. Incidentally, the two bills also legalized internet poker, online casino games and online fantasy sports. In short, Michigan is quite the destination for placing a bet now.

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September 6, Disc. August 7, Disc. March 3, Disc. October 20, Disc. June 15, Disc. July 20, Disc. October 23, Disc. October 16, Disc. October 30, Disc. A EMC Complete Mac mini "Core Solo" 1. Complete Mac mini "Core Duo" 1. Complete Mac mini "Core 2 Duo" 1. Complete Mac mini "Core 2 Duo" 2. Complete Mac mini "Core i5" 2. Complete Mac mini "Core i7" 2. They have focused on being fully compatible with DJI drones, although they also offer compatibility with some of the other popular drone brands.

DroneDeploy stands with an app store that allows integration with some of the most popular 3 rd party apps such as Birds. This compatibility augments the capability of DroneDeploy by leveraging the specialized functions of 3 rd party apps.

Thus, a single data set can be processed in multiple apps to generate different maps for a variety of commercial applications. With more focus on accessibility and compatibility, DroneDeploy appears to be more appropriate for entry-level drone mapping. However, mapping professional appear to prefer other software options when it comes to enterprise-level mapping needs.

The file export options offered by DroneDeploy is also quite limited compared to other software packages. The good news for entry-level drone mapping professional is that DroneDeploy is one of the more affordable software options.

With a day free trial and three options for paid subscription, the developers of DroneDeploy have really taken the effort to make their software available to as wide an audience as possible. The PrecisionHawk software suite offers end-to-end drone mapping solutions with specialized software for each step of the mapping process. The planning and execution of the mapping survey can be done via the PrecisionFlight mobile app which offers intuitive survey area definition and customized flight path functions.

PrecisionMapper is a primarily cloud-based data processing platform that allows subscribers to access a continuously growing library of data processing algorithms. From its beginnings of being known for processing of precision agriculture data, PrecisionMapper has expanded its capabilities to produce orthomosaics and 3D models on top of its long-established crop health analysis tools.

Viewing of output and mission data is done through the PrecisionViewer desktop software. It can also be used for data annotation and to interface with other PrecisionHawk software in the absence of an internet connection. Being divided into separate modules makes the PrecisionHawk software suite one of the most complicated end-to-end mapping software packages. It is not a product we would recommend for beginners. The nice thing about PrecisionHawk is that some of its cloud-based 3D map generation capabilities can be used for free, so commercial drone pilots can take it for spin before committing to a paid subscription.

DJI being the number one brand for consumer and professional drones, it is no surprise that they have come out with their own mapping software. On the flip side, the biggest limitation of this software is that it only works with DJI drones. The app is free to download, although in-app upgrades are available at different prices. This makes it a very attractive mapping software for owners of DJI drones. However, the GroundStation Pro is only a mission planner.

You can use it to set the area which your DJI drone, as well as to customize a flight path for the drone to follow. However, it does not provide post-processing capabilities. The mission planner also only accepts a maximum of 99 waypoints, which may not be enough for large mapping surveys.

Right now, the severely limited capabilities of the GroundStation Pro renders it nothing more than an entry-level survey planning app that is a good practice platform for beginner drone pilots. AgiSoft is an excellent, all-around software for processing photogrammetric images and generating 3D spatial data. It is a standalone desktop software, so it does not come with a mobile app for flight planning.

However, it can be considered on the best software packages in term of post-processing capabilities. The 3D modelling engine of AgiSoft performs exceptionally well in stitching panoramic images and even provides support for images capture with fisheye lenses. It can also create maps from thermal, near-IR, and multispectral imagery. It can generate orthomosaics, 3D models, 4D models for dynamic scenes, digital elevation models, and several other output file options.

The professional version of AgiSoft also supports Python scripting capabilities for automated data processing steps. AgiSoft was very clearly not made for beginners. Its clunky interface takes a little getting used to, even for experienced mapping professionals. AgiSoft offers a day free trial period, after which you will have to buy the software at either the Standard or Professional versions.

The Standard version is quite affordable but lacks a lot of the features available in the much more expensive Professional version. If the lack of a mission planning module does not bother you, then the AgiSoft data processing platform is one of the best enterprise-level software packages you can get. Drone mapping is a rapidly growing industry that has enjoyed the focus of drone manufacturers and software developers alike. The intense competition in the field of drone mapping software packages have resulted in budding drone mapping professionals getting spoilt with lots of high-quality options.

As always, it is a compromise between your budget and the level of sophistication you need from the software. Your email address will not be published. Sign me up for the newsletter! Posted on December 26, DJI has just released the Mavic Air 2. See all of the specs here. We may earn money from your clicks, at no extra cost for you. We are also affiliates of numerous other programs.

Outbound clicks may earn the site money. We may get compensated in other ways too. Please read our Privacy Policy. Joseph Flynt. I love diving into the latest and greatest in emerging technologies and seeing what they can do.


Of the 70 seats that; were contested. Congress held 44 but lost the rest to the ruling Jan- ata Dal and its ally, the Hindu ftmdawwntnlis t Bharatiya Jan- ata Party BJP and other sup- porters of the national coali- tion. Although Congress, as in the Lok Sabha lower house of par- liament is the largest single party in the Rajya Sabha, it Is now in a minority with ill seats in the member house.

The results reflected the out- come of recent elections to the state legislatures since one- third of the members of the Rajya Sabha retire every two years and the state legislatures become the electoral college for election of their successors.

Congress lost the key states of the Hlndi-speaklng belt in northern and central India to tiie Janata Dal and the BJP in elections held in the past four months. Consequently, its can- didates fared badly in yester- day's b iennial elections to the Rajya Sabha. This means that the ruling National Front with its allies like the BJP and the Marxists, has a clear path to pass legislation, apart from constitutional amendments which require a two-thirds majority.

Efforts to find a solution, to the Punjab question will become difficult, with the with- drawal of support from the Government of the matn Sikh party led by, Mr Simraajit Singh Mann. Vietnamese party wraps up against wind of change The collapse of communism in Europe has thrown Hanoi into confusion, writes Roger Matthews F EW political events have caught expert commentators so thoroughly off balance as the rout of communist parties in eastern Europe. And, if Vietnam does not change, then the prospects for neighbouring Laos and Cambodia are bleak, while booming Thailand can forget its grand scheme for transforming Indo- china from battlefield to market place.

Regarded as a reformer when aged 71 be was appointed Party general secre- tary in , Mr Linh recalled the struggle to drive out the French and the Americans which led to the reuni- fication of the country in As he said. Reluc- tantly, the party leadership has been forced to admit radical changes are taking place, but it wfil still not pub- licly concede that the changes may be permanent As ever, when the party senses bad news, it claims that there is Insufficient evidence to make an objective analysis.

Mr Bach disagreed and was quali- fied to do so. In a speech earlier this year he said it was absurd to think that Aslan communism was immune to changes elsewhere arid, while giving no Indic a ti o n that he opposed one- party rule, stressed that political reform had to accompany economic liberalisation.

The choice it bees Is a tough one. Many of the older men at the senior levels of the party in Hanoi say that President Gorbachev has blundered. But if he does not redeem the error they are coming to appreciate the gravity of the consequences, political and eco- nomic, for Vietnam. Logic suggests an improvement In relations between the beleaguered regimes in Peking and Hanoi, but the Vietnamese fear the price that their old antagonist Deng Xiaoping would seek to extract on Cambodia.

Internally the party recognises that its priority must be to strengthen ties with the mass erf the people. But by introducing a modest liberalisation of the economy while refusing to con- template political change, the party leadership may have set itself an impossible task.

In turn contributes to com- plaints about the poor quality of new recruits. This is particularly true In the south where not only is the party ignored by many young people, but Is also subject to stem and increasingly public criticism from older revolution- aries with impeccable party creden- tials. The pace with which the south has exploited new economic opportunities and already shed part of its commu- nist skin inevitably causes alarm in the conservative north.

Apparently superficial changes, such as Ho Chi Ifflnh City being referred to Increas- ingly as Saigon and hotels reverting to their names of 15 years ago, are symptomatic of a wider effort to test the limits of party tolerance. Paradox- ically for the party, the more the country takes advantage of greater individual opportunities offered in the economic sphere, especially in agri- culture, the more ridiculous the par- ty's furious tirades against the politi- cal evils of individualism appear.

Either way the party is in a bind. And if they cannot cope with such heresies the only option will be to halt the reform programme, slow the pace of economic recovery and torpedo hopes of getting quick access to Western aid and capital. By any standards it Is a remarkable triumph. Labor has for the first time won a fourth successive term. Even more remarkable, it has done so under the leadership of one man, Mr Bob Hawke.

The extraordinary measure of his latest achievement is evi- dent from the poor state of the economy, as always the key issue in the campaign. If any election looked untoseable for the conservative coalition of the Liberal and National par- ties, it was this one, on this issue. Despite this, the opposition under Mr Andrew Peacock was unable to convince voters that it bad the policies and ability to take over.

The electorate, he declared, voted narrowly for more of the same. It was not as though the opposition had fajlad to d efine an alternative programme. It spelled out a radical change in the traditional centralised wage-fixing system, foreshad- owed a tightening of fiscal pol- icy, promised a two-tier Income tax structure and a relaxation of the capital gains tax, and pledged faster structural reform with an emphasis on privatisation.

This was a programme which promised to carry the mo mentum of essential reform where Labor looked increas- ingly unafrfe to go. More importantly. Labor had the political skills, helped by the advantages of being in gov- ernment and an audacious strategy, to come from behind. Mr Hawke called the election for March after twice relaxing the high interest rate regime and before evidence appeared of a contracting economy and rising unemployment. When that surfaced, his promises of interest rate fells looked unchalleng ea b le.

Labor realised it would lose ground in Victoria, where the state government had made costly mfejudgments, but knew it could gain in Queensland, where the corrup- tion-tainted National party was disgraced, and in New South Wales, where a Liberal-Na- tional state government was proving unpopular. In Labor- ruled Western Australia, where it also stood to lose ground, the party limited the damage by removing the state premier.

In particular. Now that it has won, how- ever, Labor must grapple with problems which include a prob- able domestic recession which could be compounded by unfa- vourable international interest rate movements. It also committed itself to a package of wage rises and tax cuts which will do nothing to improve infla- tion. At 60, and clearly. But it seems inconceivable that Mr Keating, his most likely successor, will wait for another election before ascending to the job he obvi- ously covets.

Mr Hawke's mar- gin of victory is decHirtng with each election he fights. Squeez- ing a fifth tain out of him may be impossible. For the Liberal-National coalition, it is wiwii comfort that -the economy is in such dire straits that this might' have been the election to.

So far the failure to make headway outside Victoria has -been blamed. The leadership is a farther bone of contention. Having lost twice - in and - Mr Peacock is standing down The most likely replacement is year-old Dr John Hewson, the shadow treasurer who acquit- ted himself well during the campaign and was yesterday endorsed by Mr Pe ac ock.

But he only became shadow treasurer last year and until yesterday insisted that mb sole ambi ti o n was to become trea- surer. Now there is the pros pect of a fight between Mr Keating and Mr Hewson to lead the country. Bribe charges over Indian Airbus deal By K. The CBI charge-sheet named four former officials of the state-owned airline, Indian Air- lines and the Ministry of Civil Aviation as the accused and said other public servants - a term which would Include poli- ticians in office at the time - were involved.

Also mentioned are unnamed officials of Airbus Industrie of France and Inter- national Aero Engines of the US, the company that supplied engines for the Airbus aircraft. The preliminary charge- sheet was filed after the CBI was asked to look into corrup- tion allegations following the crash of an Airbus A air craft just before It was to land at Bangalore airport on Febru- ary 14 The entire A fleet of Indian Airlines has been grounded since then.

A court of inquiry is investigating the cause of the crash. The CBI has alleged that the Civil Aviation Ministry can- celled a letter of intent issued for the purchase of Boeing s for I ndi a n Airlines, disregard- ing recommendations of a com- mittee which examined offers from various companies. It alleges Airbus Industrie was then awarded the contract for the purchase of As without a pro per evaluation of the air- craft.

The original evaluation of various offers did not consider the A because the aircraft was still at the testing stage, j. The preliminary charges allege that after the crash of an A In June , at Paris, serious doubts were expressed about the airworthiness of the air- craft. It is alleged that the accused brushed aside all the objec- tions and gave a favourable picture of the A, the pur- chase of which was then approved by the then govern- ment The CBI will now begin formal investigations intn the allegations both in Tnriia apri abroad.

Imports, most significantly of mach in e ry, equipment and other manufactured goods, grew twice as fast as exports despite , a cheap Malaysian dol- lar. However, the amount of the deficit is disputed. Central bank intervention to support the currency and higher interest rates have illus- trated strains on the economy. Can one company carry commuters to the City, and provide the computers they carry?

Toshiba know how important it is to the or in the office, they can also help you between of superior technology for transportation business person to have the information they the two. Toshiba have been constructing worldwide. TEL: A parliamentary democracy within the Commonwealth. No withholding, capital gains or other taxes. Favourable tax treaties. M No exchange control. Banking and Insurance. Direct flights to 30 major dries.

In Malta you will be in the best of company Box St. Julians South Wales and Northern Electricity Boards emerged yesterday as probable partners in the 1. The are involved in advanced negotiations over purchasing the bulk of its elec- tricity output and wuuld take an equity ghgrpVinUHng in it Afi 12 distributors are due to be vested into the private sec- tor this weekend, together with the big non-nuclear generating companies, the National Grid and the two Scottish utilities.

There are several other gov- ernment research centres and dAfanrp bases n ea r to Camar, all within about a mile radios of other. Among them is the top secret Chemi- cal Defence Establishment, which is involved in chemical weapons studies. In the early s, Camar inspired Mr Haydan-Baillifi to a great vision. This was that be might be able to use biotech- nology ideas being researched in the laboratory - new tech- niques for manipulating genetic material - for the development of products within Porton International, which he set up in A new twist to the story could come- in the next few weeks when Mr Kenneth Clarke, the Secretary, is due to decide on whether to sen Camar - complete with its staff of and annual budget of about m - to Mr Hay- don-BaHUe'a company.

The fixture of. Camar, which monitors Infectious diseases for the National Health Service and also undertakes a variety of commercial studies' - has been uncertain for some years. Some Labour MPs, how- ever, say tint the sale would damage the standing of an i mp ortant laboratory conduct- ing. The idea of selling mar to Porton International has not gone down well with employ- ees' at the laboratory whose.

In the village of Porton, Camar, together with Porton International end Mr Haydon- Baillie, is also viewed as some- thing of a mystery. The laboratory was part of. Its steam and its first MW of electricity wifi be sup- plied to the ICI chemical works, and the rest of the power will go to the distribu- tion comnpanles via the National Grid.

No one at Ca m a r has been forced to sign the Official Secrets Act and the plant is no longer involved with weapons- related work, although its MoD history and the general secrecy at the plant has led many outsiders to believe that it is. Secrecy associated with the laboratory is reinforced by the high barbed wire fence sur- rounding it and also by the presence of two policemen based near the gatehouse to deal with any unwanted visi- tors.

If the debate about the future for Camar is foiling to disturb the calm of Porton itself, the issue is still less a subject of conversation a few miles away in the bustling Cathedral City of Salisbury. In a ballot rtf the employ- ees at the centre, 86 per cent of the who filial in their bal- lot forms said they were against the company buying the laboratory from the Gov- ernment Of those voting, 75 per cent said they were against the general idea of privatising the centre.

So If s hardly apprising Ihd Its airline can offer you more destinations in Latin America than arty other European airline. Ry to Madrid for an Immediate connection to one of Iberia's American desfinatfons. Or, if you prefer, spend a day in Madrid itself where fhe CHy Council extends an invitation to lunch, dinner, an hotel and a show in fhe city that never steeps. Vlfe Spaniards have had Amerioa dose to our hearlsfor almost 5cenhjrtes, and Ihat affection is obvious on every trip.

Quotas Iso limit choice, the NCC say. The sports have already drawn dticiaa from clothing and focwear manufacturers. Mr Calvert reckoned the 30, to 40, Of the jot lost In the OK footwear inostry over the last 30 years, cold be a tt ribute d to rising imorts. Home buyers, savers to benefit customers pro] code of By Dayfd Ba rch art.

The most radical innovation proposed is that banks be given the- power to issue a new payment lustnimeut- the. Other changes in the law. The voluntary code Is being drawn up ty an independent committee chaired by Sir George -Blanden. The introduction of a volun- tary code means that only a Hmtttvi mnnber of changes. Ferranti Defence Systems, which heads an international consortium for the- ECR90 radar, is hoping to receive a firm contract next mouth from Eurofighter, the Munich-based company handling the EFA programme.

That was one of the main conditions set by Bonn for accepting the ECR90 system. After the German company formed its separate consortium, Ferranti turned to Siemens to fill the vacuum. However, the West German authorities favour a dear divi- sion of reponsi bUiti es in the radar field, with TST leading in airborne radar and Siemens, in ground systems. Ordinary unleaded will go up 6. Other di s tribu to rs are expec- ted to follow suit, although moat Bay they are waiting to study the trend in oil over the next few days before making their decision.

BP 00, third in the distribu- tion table, said it would moni- tor the market "carefully" over the next few days. The move represents the first time that a majority stake in an ITV company has gone on offer. It is likely to presage an Intensive bout of corporate activity in the sector in the wake of the legislation on broadcasting before Parlia- ment BET and Thom EMI each hold 13Am shares in Thames, representing a combined stake of 56 per cent In both cases, the decision to dispose of the holdings is consistent with stated corporate strategies of concentrating on core busi- Luxemburg-based CLT and Carlton Communications are among a host of potential bid- ders for part or all of the stake on offer.

Yes, replied Dr Tiefenthaler, it had been mentioned very casually. No names were mentioned. He said that Sir Jack bad said that the sooner any invest- ment was made the better. Dr Tiefenthaler had contacted bis head, office in Vienna, tolling thorn that Sir Jack bait mM Hie bank would not incur a loss, that it was covered, and that it was in fin- a potential gain on the share price, even if the price went down.

Within 48 hours the riofll hart gone through. They deny charges arising from an allegedly unlawful share support operation mounted by Guinness during the takeover battle with Argyll for Distillers. The trial continues today. The relevant documents will be forwarded to your address and cortact person after receipt of your deposit in the account no. Proisl or ext. And they know that Jaeger offers a VAT refund service. But there is also another reason why the overseas visitor prefers our retadecs.

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Ring us ort or write to Gordon Probert. County Planning Officer. Gwent, NP44 2XF. Dec — f E ight years of talking, report writing, regula- ting, negotiating and a new property investment vehicle may - just may - be in the offing. It Is the authorised property unit trust At least it stands a better chance of seeing the light of day than the proposed single asset property schemes - the single property owner- ship trusts and the property income certificates which attracted so much debate between and The reason is the change in the tax regulation for unit trusts that the inland Revenue announced in the Budget.

From January 1 , the prob- lem of double taxation, almost disappears. If a company invests in a unit trust, it will have to pay 35 per cent corpo- ration tax on the income it receives. But it wiD receive a tax credit at the basic rate of income tax - 25 per cent - for the tax paid by the trust Inland Revenue observed that life assurance companies are the main corporate inves- tors in authorised unit trusts.

As their rate of corporation tax on income attributable to pol- icy holders is the same as the basic rate of income tax, their tax liability on unit trust income is wholly covered by the tax credit. Here then is the tax trans- parency - paying tax once - that was not given to the sin- gle property schemes and led to them bring stillborn. So tt is a fair bet that with tax transparency agreed for authorised unit trusts invest- ing in a number of properties, an attempt will be made to have the treatment extended to trusts investing in only one Whether there will be a rush to set up authorised property unit trusts is open to doubt The first point here is that there is no immediate hurry.

The drafts are circulating with an invita- tion for comments to be made by June. However, the form permitted to the trusts will probably not be much different from that outlined in the drafts. Further, there must be some liquidity in the fund - not more than 80 per cent of it may be in properties or in securities related to property.

The SIB draft regulations complement these and stress regular valuation of the prop- erties held by a trust There should be a full annual valuation and reviews at least monthly. Trust units should be priced at least The present climate is not friendly to new property investment monthly.

When sold the units will carry a sort of health warning printing out the risks of illiquidity. The second point about tim- ing relates to the state of the market. The climate is not friendly to new property investment as is clearly evi- dent from the sagging prices of property companies on the stock market and the virtual absence of new issues. Further, the pension funds and charities which Invest In unauthorised property unit trusts - those not open to pub- lic subscription - are seeking file redemption of more units than they are buying.

But this argument can be twisted around the other way. If returns on the property market are sagging then the possibility exists to buy proper- ties, leased on good covenants, producing a higher income yfew than vro ql d be p oasMe in a more buoyant market. Therefore, it might be said, the time to invest is Ideal Thirdly, the nature of the trusts themselves is a reason for caution.

The SIB, in the drafting of its batch of regula- tions, was most worried about the illiquidity of property investment, traditionally its bugbear. This concern still exists in the in ves tm ent com- munity. Mr James Dawnay, the chair- man of Me r c ur y Fund Manag- ers, noted that within his group a debate was taking place about whether to launch new trusts. C i -i,T- '! Approximately three acres of land available for development and property suitable for conversion into small units if required.

The successful launch of the trusts would break in to the staid and limited style of Brit- ish p r operty investment tech- niques. The argument here is that a! The greater the v a ri ety of investment possibili- ties the more open foe market will become. THE downturn on the market continued in February. The decline in growth spread across all sectors and for the first thng in the present cycle there was a negative return for all properties.

The Investment Property Databank reported that institutions sold, by value, twice as much property over the year to February than in the year. Year-on-year growth in the market has sharply deceler- ated, sliding from For foe last three months, capital growth for all p rop erti es has been neg- ative, so that the growth in the last year has slowed to roughly the rate of inflation. Decline in growth. For bothptafl pr operty and offices it wk 0.

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New Freehold iadtutdal unka In the heller ntexpdre ssmeo. Guaranteed ratal income. PremKminary planning. Excellent Pub trade and currently 14 beds. One BP wag has dubbed the process of change "Horticul- ture. Unless Horton and his senior colleagues can really loosen the reins and encourage much more trust open commu- nication, informality and risk- taking, the company's attempt to implement a new set of val- ues will not merely fail to take root through the company, but will actually provoke a back- lash of cynicism.

He had also taken part in October with his senior col- leagues in an intensive work- shop on the creation of organi- sational change. By mid-November, Browne was prepared to talk openly about the Hifffniltiflg he and his executive committee were having in adapting to a new style. He had to read the riot act - which he says has had an excellent effect.

Instead of formal organi- grams, the emphasis will be on informal "networking". In which a broad group of people — not just at hcftd nWiw hut in the businesses too — communi- cate openly and informally as the need arises. Each team does have a leader but. In the words of an internal Project document: "Managers are there to support and empower their staff, not to monitor or control their a ctivi ties.

Various parts of BP do already have electronic mail networks, but they have been designed with little thought to lntero o m munic a tio n, as Robert Horton himself found a few Tnrmfhw ago w hen he 'tried to use It to communicate with the chfaf executive of BP Chemi- cals. The introduction of a new, group-wide, communica- tions infrastructure is one of the initiatives which is planned to support the new way of working.

The appraisal system throughout BP will also be rfmngwi jn order to focus more explicitly on interpersonal skills, including the aWhty to motivate and bring out the best in staff. Along with appraisal by more than one manager, BP is considering self-appraisal and even the a p praisa l of team leaders and managers by their staff. Job grading, with more than 20 lev- els at present, will be replaced pr ogress i vely by the grading of Individuals within wide bands.

The next stage in the process will be a series of broadly simi- lar sessions for other senior managers which will be started in the late spring. In the meantime all eyes are on Robert Horton hfamrff Can he, having iTittintwd the culture change process, actually live up to its principles himself? The question may seem per- verse, but it is a vital one which many insiders are ask- ing.

At the pre-launch conference a fortnight ago, one senior executive expressed his doubts succinctly in a syndicate dis- cussion: "Do we really think Bob Is going to stop second- guessing his top colleagues? Behind the doubts lies the fact that, by his own admis- sion, Horton Is naturally a "theory X manager autocratic and impatient with people who don't make up their minds quickly. But, as one senior BP man- ager said last autumn.

But he will want to be involved in every significant decision. But he also wants to be seen as an innovative leader. If you manag B on one dimension, it's not enough - it's a matter of ambiguity and paradox. But Horton says he really is deter- mined to change.

At the end of the day-long meeting a fort- night ago, after doubts about his style had surfaced several times, his parting shot to everyone was - "This is one of the most important days in the history of BP. By our own example we can achieve a lot. Do you need finance? Trading period no more than 2 years.

Offers invited for freehold, high quality furnishings and goodwill. Considerable savings on town rents copious car parking facilities. Full details from owners. Fax 82 Undergoing struct work incl new roof. Would split All enq D. Balment Tel River Thames north side. Site is approximately 2. If you require any further details please contact K. Telephone An additional adjacent Enquiries to: M. IsrtaNv flnltlwl Ins ample ear port. Modern flexible accommodation.

Available with vacant possession. Whir Box T6S Ftnaoctal Tfanca. One South wit Bridge. Additional land for 50, sq ft. SS47IC income after e x p en s e s. Offered at The bonding consists of sqm. Constructed in Maw Bedroom 30 sqaa. DtnMe gangs onto, doors Sw. Quality to Scandinavian stan dar ds. Available spring Price pta. Csatset mar Spria tm PH or liK to Great Mid town location. WeB-known 4-star resta u r a nt on ground floor.

Only scriom buyers. Prindpak only. Commercial, land, residential. Saxon International MVi' Ajfr-h,y. Although Courtaulds now has a highly decentralised cor- porate structure, the directors have decided to retain and con- tinue to expand the central research and technology group built up during the s. We cannot afford to carry out totally blue-sky research. The other research groups are closely integrated within the individual businesses.

The most striking result of the partial refurbishment pro- gramme carried out since the mid s is a bizarre mixture of floor coverings. Sludgy yel- low linoleum runs into jazzy burgnndy-and-grey car- peting. Drab carpet tiles nestle against Amtico luxury vinyl flooring a Courtaulds product manufactured in Coventry.

The others are in smaller laboratories associated with individual businesses in the UK, US and Australia. Over the last three years Courtaulds has snapped up several specialty polymer com- panies in the US, five of which have been brought together as Courtaulds Performance Films.

These are becoming closely involved with the central research labs, with staff and technology being exchanged between the US and UK. For example, Conrtaulds's background as a textile com- pany has given it a strong grasp of the technology of dying polymer fibres and con- trolling their colour. This expertise has been transferred to one of the US companies, Martin Processing of Virginia, which manufactures dyed and coated films for controlling heat and glare on windows and fnr stage lighting!

Courtaulds has research links with several UK and US universities, including a newly sponsored professorship of polymer science at Durham University. But the company has avoided the large academ- ic-industrial collaborative pro- grammes sponsored by the UK Government and the European Commission. An example is a satellite materials research project see A Courtaulds scientist uses a specialised mass spectrometer below in which Courtaulds is working with the Royal Aero- space Establishment as cus- tomer and Id as supplier of PEEK Poly Ether Ether Ketone , a key ingredient in the composite.

The friendliness and infor- mality of Courtaulds Research strike the visitor who is more used to the formal atmosphere of many large corporate labora- tories. David Bott, wham Gia- chardi recr ui ted in to help set up a strategic research group in Coventry, was delighted to get away from the "regimentation" of BP Research where he bad spent the previous eight years. John Beswlck, head of human resources for Coort- aulds Research, organises not only team building courses but also recruitment and qHpnrtfir- training.

These are often used first in exotic applica- tions where their high initial cost mat- ters less than in mass production. Courtaulds Research has developed another composite material, this time based an glass fibres, which is Intended to absorb energy and reduce the risk of injury in car accidents. The material is too expensive for use in mass-produced cars today. However, every so often an hw pfwtfwW mfromno rhnngpc the manufacturing process.

The assembly of the seven or eight panels that form the body of a car was one of the first parts of auto assembly to be automated, and the process remains one of the most stri- king Images of the modern car factory. The panels are held in Jigs while dozens of robots spot weld them together into a sin- gle car frame.

The problem with this sys- tem la that, although it Is totally automated, it is also rigid. Them jg a limit on numbers of jigs and spot wedd- ing robots that can be installed in a single line. Moreover, when it comes tima for model changes, the jigs have to be replaced, a time consuming and expensive process. In ad ditio n, it has introduced a numerically controlled sens- ing system which, for the bene- fit, of the spot welding machines, identifies the exact location of the body as it comes along.

Thus, even min- ute changes In positioning due to wear on contact points can be compensated. The control computers also monitor all the equipment and diagnose fail- ures. At the first stage, the floor panel descends to the carrier dolly. At the third, the side panels, air box and parcel shelf are dropped into place and at the fourth the roof drops in, holding the whole frame together loosely. The frame moves into the most com- plicated station where the loca- tor sensors emerge to set pre- cisely the position of the various panels and then direct robots where to do the bulk of the spot welding.

A second body accuracy measurement is carried out at the sixth station and then. Also, the payoff will not come in a hurry. In the ordinary production environ- ment, It has few obvious advantages over conventional systems.

The body assembly process is not a critical bottle- neck in car production so the new system will not reduce assembly times. Moreover, even though a company could theoretically assemble every size and shape of body from a Mini to a Rolls Boyce in a single 1BAS line, few would assemble more than eight model types in a single factory, and that amount of flexibility can be accommo- dated in conventional systems.

The big pay off comes when the company wants to change models at Its assembly plants. Thanks to the installa- tion of the IB AS system at its Kyushu plant, the company merely has to transfer the pro- gramming from the 1BAS at Tama to the pnp at Kyushu and change some minor fixtures on the Kyushu line.

It will be able to begin Sunny production wi thin three months. If it had had to re-tool a conventional body assembly line, it would have taken 10 to 11 months. Thanks to IB AS that cost almost disappears, and is replaced by the more modest cost of re-programming the system. Also, much of the data for that programming will come from the computer aided design and engineering pro- cess.

Tsuneyuki Hane. Whether the system will have other implications in the car production or marketing processes remains to be seen. Nissan plans to Install the sys- tem in most of its factories, in Japan and also overseas. Officials said the greater accuracy of spot weld- ing would contribute to a qui- eter ride with less vibration. Officials at the Zama plant, where the system is being used on the more modest Sunny, were less willing to make such claims, perhaps because many Sunny bodies are still being welded together on a conven- tional line.

But we do not think quality is infe- rior uslnsr the old system. At a breathtaking pace charter for the group. Systematic- menting the environment care mankind is exhausting all that ally, efficiently and as quickly as program. And every year several makes survival on earth possible. Not least the ronment: at our plants, during use. VOLVO: 79, employees worldwide.

Oar position as amajor inter- national group with substantial operations in Europe and North America is a result of quality, safety, high ethics and showing care for people and the enriromnent,. H back to tie owners from whom it was conqnlfotlly par- chased at the oricfnal price, in that the statutory pre-emption rights estaUisRed when the land. British Rail bad plans for King's Cross which would put some erf the land to use.

A huge area would hot be needed for railway purposes. A consortium, of developers had been formed to acquire the land and construct an a mbitious commercial devel- opment. The railway company acquired most of It under compuls or y powers. The Great Northern Railway Company Act gave -the com- pany power to make the railway foam London to York in accor- dance with plena , and to ffa and use lands necessary for the The provisions on which the plaintHw relied were sections 67 and IQS of the Act.

First, whether those provisions still applied, or whether they expired years ago; second, whether they were repealed by certain 20th- century statutes; third, whether National Carriers could say that its acquisition of some of the land in created an imwwH.

Two principles of construction applied to s ec ti o n s 67 and - that they fawrf part of a pri- vate Act which should, in case of am hi gritty, hg construed against the promoters; and that they should be construed in their leg- ialative and historical setting. Until each railway Act was a complete and self-con- tained code. They all some provision dealing with superfluous lands..

It was intended merely as a gloss on the code, and that its operation was lim- ited to 10 years after June Section 57 read like an inde- pendent and self-contained bar- gain between the promoters and the hospital. It was not intended to be transformed and cut down by other provisions to which it made no reference. To construe the section in the way the defen- dants suggested would not be In accordance with the principle that ambiguities should be resolved against the company.

The defendants said those words meant the line of rail from London to York, and did not include yards or warehouses. But that construction produced odd consequences. It meant that if the railway from London to York were discontinued, the com- pany must sell tbe tend on which the line was constructed, but could keep yards and ware- houses.

Section applied to discontinu- ance of use for railway purposes of land on which any of the authorised works had been built, Including yards and warehouses. The section plainly applied to total abandonment to which the code could not apply, and It read like an independent provision. There was no reason to foil back on the code. It remained a free- standing provision. It followed that section 1Q2 on Its true construction applied without time ttmlt to land which ceased to be used for tbe com- pany's statutory purposes.

The defendants said that sec- tions 57 and had been repealed by subsequent legisla- tion - section 43 of tbe London and North Eastern Railway Act Section 48 of the Act pro- vided that notwithstanding any- thing to the contrary In any Act. Section 9 of the Act pro- vided that the company should have power to sell any land which was not "at the time of such sale. They were not intended to discharge any specific statutory or contractual obligations.

By that test sections 57 and were not similar, although they might overlap with superfluous land clauses. Neither section 57 nor section had been repealed by subse- quent legislation. Tbe vesting made no difference.

The feet that the land was now used by a dif- ferent company was matched by a statutory vesting or assets and liabilities and a substitution of the name or the new company In the old statutes. Luxembourg No B Notice of Meetings The shareholders are hereby convened to aud the Annual Meeting followed by an Extraordinary General Meeting which will be ar the registered office on Tuesday April 17, at 3.

Annual General Meeting with the following agenda: 1. Presentation of the reports of the Board of D ii e clu ni sod of the Auditor. Approval of the balance sheet, profit and loss account as at Decem- ber Discharge to be grained to tbe Directors and Auditor for the year ; 4.

Ejection or rc-etecticm of Directors. Decision to delete the text of Article 7 and to renumber foe two last paragraphs of Article 6 to constitute foe new Article 7. There is no requ ire ment for the Anutral General Mooing, at represented. Budapest sS This specialist team combines the expertise and technical skills necessary to advise on the feasibility and form of a project, with the project management and construction experience to coax and occasionally cajole a development from concept to completion; drawing board to grand opening.

During the entire life of a building, our Building Surveying and Architectural Services teams regularly survey and report on its condition, advise on dilapidations, undertake refurbishments, space planning and interior design, and maintenance and repair, so as to help maintain and maximise its investment potential. One day, the young lady will benefit from financial protection as hard-hatted as her choice of headwear. Some statuettes bring to life the Gallo-Roman world up to the 6th century.

They atb grouped in glass-cases around a divinity surrounded by objects of the appropriate cult. Closed Mon, ends July l Grand Palais. A deep religious sense imbues their imaginary world peopled with divinities often represented as Jaguars and serpsuits. Closed Tub. Ends July 30 Daily until April 22, except Bank Holidays.

The Barbican. Scottish Art Since - a brisk and effective cele- bration of what has always been a most vigorous and distinctive national school, yet one which has for for too long been not so modi under-rated as underk- nown in the southern Kingdom. There are still gaps and over' rapid transitions, but the show nevertheless makes its point very wad.

Dally until April 16; spon- sored by Flemings. The Royal Academy. Frans Hals - the great retrospective, already shown In Washington and due to go on to Haarlem, of the work of one of the greatest painters of the 17th century Dutch school. Until April 8. Brussels Paris Grand Palais. Soliman La ] fique. Closed Tue, Wed late dosing; ends May 14 The Fragmented Body. Parts of the human body, or the incomplete body form the landing strand of an exhibition- begmrdng with ex-votoe and reli- quaries and culminating lna cele- bration of Degas, Bourdelle, Maillol and especially of Rodin with his masterly transition from realistic to abstract sculpture.

Ends June 3. Centre Georges Pompidou. Pavel Nlkolaievlich Fflonov. Closed Tue. Daily, dosed Sunday, ends 31 March. The Enigma of the Easter Islands is partially deciphered in this exhibition of photographs and artifacts. Retrospec- tive of the Belgian abstractyex- presskmist artist Englebert Van Anderlecht Closed Monday, ends May Isy Brachot Daniel Buren, Retro- spective of work Closed Monday, ends April Until Mw Moseo Cozxar.

Jacopo Palma il Glovane On show for the first time is one of the two albums of Palma drawings owned by the 18 th century collec- tor Anton Maria Zanettl the other Is in the British Museum recently acquired by the museum, together with a seleo- tion of paintings, mainly of bibli- cal and mythological subjects.

Ends April Retrospective of Paul Klee in honour of the 60th anniversary of his death with around oil paintings, water colours and drawings from aQ periods, to be seen until May Now York.. New York Public Library. Mare than documents of the Aboli- tionist Movement, including pho- display the spirit and drive of the long effort to free the slaves.

Ends Sept Luge-scale works 1 and compressed char- Rome Villa Media. Self portraits from the Uffizi - from Andrea del Sartoto Chagall Thirty works Cram the collection started by Cardinal Leopoldo de Medici in the 17th century, marking changes in style and taste over years. Particularly interest- ing is the fierce and uncompro- mising self-portrait painted by Ingles in 18SS- Until April I by yaar-old British artist David Oliphani, is the first of a series of four shows of young British artists slated for this new, well-received arts institu- tion.

Conceptual Art a Perspective. Overall view of this relatively unknown movement which is nevertheless continually nourish- ing contemporary art production. Works range from mid to early 70s. Barcelona Ghent Museum voor Scheme Kunsten. Van den Barghe and Zad- kine.

Closed Monday, ends June Antwerp Huseo Picasso. The show includes 17 paintings by Picasso together with an important selection of works by Czech and French artists. Beribi National Gallery. Ends Jhne 8. Ends April 8. Konlnklflk Museum voor Schone Kunsten. Belgian Painters of Country Life. Museum van Hedendaagse Kara t. Beeldenstorm — Anno - Contemporary Dutch Artists. Closed Monday ends April The show has since toured Chicago. London and Cologne, to end its tour at the Beaubourg in Paris this summer.

Opening with Dick Tracy I and closing with Warhol's ver- sion of Leonardo's Last Supper, done shortly before his death In , the exhibition concen- Staatiiche Kunsthalle, Budapes- ter Strasse Lasar Segall around paintings, drawings, sculptures and graph- ics of the Brasilian painter, bom in Wilma, are to be exhibited until April Braunschweig Kunstverein, Les- singplatz Gottfried Graubner.

Around aquarelles, paintings, and gouaches. Until April Chicago Chicago Historical Society. America In the Age of Lincoln, with docu- ments, mementoes and personal effects of the Great Emancipator. Chicago Historical Society. A special exhibit of Frank Lloyd , furniture and silver shows why the details completed the Wright look. Ends June Mainz Landesmnsenm. Marc Chagall Around of his works, not shown in public before are to be only seen In Mainz until April The gouaches, water-colours, pastels and patnHnpg pi-wmit thwiliw erf the old testament Tokyo Sa arbr Qcfcon Moderne Galerte.

Growing on Isetan Museum, Shinjuku. The Japanese fascina- - Hnn with Im pniwliinliim iwiHn. Suntory M useu m. European Posters from the Grandvil Collec- tion. Closed Mondays. Trieste Royal Opera, Covent Garden Amsterdam Tea tro Verdi. Muxlekt hea- ter Turin Teatro Regfo. Dlnritrl Kavrakos and Wass w Janualako, conducted Cordon.

Shaping StiU. Palate des Beaux-Arts Sat. Madrid Berlin Opdra Comlque. Theatre Faria Opira. Thtitn de la VQle. The Bastille Opera. The newly inaugurated opera house contin- ues with Les Troyens by Berlioz. Der Barbier von Sevilla Is a well done repertoireperform- ance. Martins Dupuy. Jennifer Larmore and Angelo Romero. Spontini, Brahms. Schu- niann , Massenet, R.

Strauss and spirituals. Teatro Nuovo. Karita Mattita and Jerry Hadley. Opera House at Lin- coln Center Jeffrey Bernard is CnweR Apollo. Aspects of Love Prince of. Heidi Chronicles Plymouth. The mag nifi cent spectacle of Victor Hugo's majestic sweep of history and pathos brings to Broadway lessons in pageantry and drama Butterfly Eugene O'Neill. The surprise Tony winner for is a somewhat pretentious and obvious meditation on the true story of the French diplomat whose kmg-time mistress was a mate Chinese spy Phantom of the Opera Majestic.

Staffed with Maria Bjonuon's glided sets. Ann Francis and Marcia Rodd play the leads in this view of southern life from under the dry- ers in a busy hairdressing estab- lishment I'm Not Rappoport Briar St. Tokyo Grand Hotel Martin Bede. Grapes of Wrath Cart. Sweeney Todd Circle in the Square. An intimate production of the Sondheim- Wheeler musl- caL Maurice, Stan G.

Sovem, Cheron Ferland, and Elizabeth M. Chris p. Derek W. Hengstenberg and Francisco J. Wendy J. Jensen, Mark S. Gregory, Guy A. Baldassarre, Francisco J. Vilella, and Keith L. Coiieen e. Moulton, Ryan S. Brady, and James R. Angela E.

Gatto, Teryl G. Grubb, and Carol L. Marsha A. Graham G. Frye Book Review. Orlando H. Buteogallus a. The common alarm call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii ediiing two species of land crabs Los individuos de B. El llamado comun de alarma de gundlachii es una serie de tres o cuatro notas, mientras que el llamado de anthracinus en el continente consiste de entre 9 y 24 notas.

En la Isla de Pinos, Cuba, observamos a gundlachii alimentandose de dos especies de cangrejos terrestres Consideramos Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis, debe ser tratado como una especie distinta, endemica de Cuba, la Isla de Pinos y muchos de los cayos del archipielago cubano.

Vincent, St. Conversely, other au- thors have considered gundlachii different from Bu- teogallus anthracinus at the species level: Cabanis , Gundlach , a, b, , , Ridgway , Gurney , , Bangs , Swann , , Peters , Bond , Hellmayr and Conover , Friedmann , Monroe , , Wetmore , and others.

With rare exception, however, previous evaluations did not consider the important characteristics of breeding biology and voice, mainly because of the limited knowledge of the Cuban form resulting from the difficulty in reaching its breeding habitats. The lack of natural history information is not unique to gundlachii, but is also true for other forms of the genus Buteogallus, e. Here, we reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of Buteogallus anthracinus gund- lachii, based on our examination of more speci- mens, nests, eggs, and behavioral data, especially vocalizations, than were considered by previous workers.

All published work on the Cuban form has been based on information from the few spec- imens collected before , all of which are de- posited in foreign institutions. In this study, we in- clude specimens in North American and Cuban collections, including those collected after , and not evaluated previously.

Our main comparison in this assessment is with anthracinus, the taxon most often linked to gund- lachii. In these comparisons, we refer to Cuban populations as gundlachii and other forms as anth- racinus. It is not the purpose of this contribution to speculate on the taxonomic status of Buteogallus subtilis including the three subspecies , although we make some comparisons between subtilis and gundlachii.

Study Area Many of the observations reported here were made during our 30 yr of field experience throughout Cuba. We made more intensive observations of nesting black- hawks from to at the Los Indios Ecological Reserve, Isla de Pinos now Isla de la Juventud. Black-hawk observations were made mainly in the mangrove and gallery forests. Additional intensive obser- vations in red and black mangrove habitats were made in Cienaga de Zapata in December An elevated road bed, lined with Casuarina equisetifolia and scrub veg- December Cuban Black-Hawk Status and Biology elation, bisects the mangrove forest where we made our observations near Playa Larga.

Methods We examined specimens of Buteogallus a. Conventional measurements of wing chord flattened against the rul- er , tail, tarsus, and exposed culmen were taken to the nearest 0. Egg masses were measured to the nearest gram using spring scales.

We present sum- mary descriptive statistics mean, SD, and range for the specimens. We plotted body measurements to assess the pattern of spatial segregation among populations and forms. The hypothesis of separation derived from the plots of body measurements was tested using discriminate function analysis DFA; Kleinbaum and Kupper Results Morphometries and Plumage.

Adult morphology. Our examinations of the two taxa of B. We found sexual size dimor- phism in three of the measurements taken of spec- imens of mainland anthracinus Table 1. There- fore, size comparisons between anthracinus and gundlachii were made within sex; i.

Tarsal length was not dif- ferent in either population, so for comparing anth- racinus with gundlachii tarsi we combined male and female measurements for that morphometric pa- rameter. Measurements of gundlachii yielded a mean Dimorphic Index Storer of 6. Birds from Cuba gundlachii are substantially smaller than mainland anthracinus birds in some conventional measurements, including wing chord in both sexes and tail length in males Table 2.

Also, tarsal lengths combined male and female measurements were significantly different be- tween the two forms P — 0. A stepwise selec- tion procedure within DFA revealed wing chord, tail length, and exposed culmen were the most im- portant of the size variables measured. Plots con- trasting these variables within sex showed anthra- cinus and gundlachii tended to occupy generally distinct regions of the morphological space Fig.

For male anthracinus, the analysis pro- duced a true group classification proportion of 0. For females, the analysis produced a true group classification proportion of 0. The four adult female St. Vincent B. In general coloration, gundlachii differs from B. However, some specimens of anth- racinus, especially of the race cancrivorus, have a tendency to be less blackish, almost dark brown.

The underparts feathers of gundlachii have a light brownish-gray edge, more conspicuous to- ward the abdominal region and more broadly edged on the alula coverts than in anthracinus, with the edging on the terminal alula coverts becoming white bands. The margins of the flank and thigh feathers are heavily marked, forming a series of bands, although these bands tend to disappear in older birds.

Sexual size dimorphism in four body measurements from specimens of Buteogallus anthracinus mainland Buteogallus a. Statistical analyses are between-sex comparisons two- sample t-test; equal variances not assumed. Structure Sex Taxon B. Remiges are dark brown, with wing coverts edged in grayish-cinnamon, especially the secondaries.

The undersides of primaries and some secondaries have an extensive white patch, which constitutes the most distinctive character of the Cuban form. In subtilis, and especially anthra- cinus, this patch is mottled with grayish-brown. The tertiaries of gundlachii are heavily mottled grayish. This mottling is similar to the coloration of the primaries and secondaries of anthracinus, which has only an inconspicuous whitish patch on the un- dersides of these feathers.

On the other hand, some specimens of subtilis display more white in this region than does anthracinus, but do not ap- proach the amount shown in gundlachii. The upperparts in gundlachii are also brown, with brownish-gray or with a trace of cinnamon on the feather margins.

The head and pileum are uni- formly chocolate brown. The rectrices are darker brown, almost blackish, with a broad white band of variable width averaging 40 mm in the middle of the tail. The tip of the tail is edged in white as wide as 13 mm , which is a purer white than in anthracinus and subtilis.

The feet and cere are yel- low, the claws are black, and the iris is dark brown. The bill is blackish at the tip, becoming more yel- lowish toward the base on maxilla and mandible. Immature morphology. Immature gundlachii individ- uals are not chocolate brown ventrally, but rather whitish, and heavily mottled with brown, having some feathers with considerable beige suffusion.

Many feathers are mottled with medallion-like marks, whereas others are marked with elongated blotches, and some with streak-like dashes; these marks are seldom present in fully-feathered im- mature birds. The sides of the face and throat are whitish, speckled with hrown. The pileum, nape, and neck are heavily mottled or spotted with brown on a light white or beige background. Flanks and thighs also display considerable varia- tion, with younger birds showing a lighter whitish to brownish-beige background, whereas older birds display more mottling or barring.

The thighs are distinctly barred with light and dark bands in subtilis and anthracinus, whereas gundlachii has mot- tled or very lightly barred thighs. The white patch of the underside of primaries is even more expanded and conspicuous in subadult than in adult gundlachii.

Some bands are complete, whereas others are somewhat broken. In Cuban birds, these bands are straight and parallel, whereas in the other forms they are oblique chevron-like , as well as being much wider than in gundlachii. Natural History.

Although we occasion- ally observed black-hawks within the white sand palm savanna of Los Indios, Isla de Pinos, nearly all observations were made in the coastal zone, pri- marily in mangrove forests or at the edges of that Wiley AND Garrido VoL. Hawks hunted in the sparsely-vegetated mangrove pannes and flooded openings, where they foraged by perching in young or dead man- groves.

We also saw black-hawks foraging or roost- ing in beach and coastal habitats, frequently perch- ing in windbreaks of Casuarina equisetifolia at the edge of mangroves and dirt roads. We examined eight nests at Los In- dios within the period of May All contained eggs, except the nest examined on 27 May , which had one chick.

During our obser- vations at Isla de Pinos, which were well into the breeding season, we observed no aerial courtship, although individual gundlachii regularly soared si- lendy for short periods above their nesting areas. Of the eight gundlachii nests we examined at Los Indies, half were placed in black-mangroves and half in red-mangroves Table 3.

Each of the nests Table 3. Nest and contents data for eight Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii nests at Los Indios, Pinos, Cuba, The nests showed a large range of sizes, probably the result of additions made in successive years. Two of the nests we monitored from through were reused by black-hawks, and in- creased in size with the addition of more nest ma- terials in subsequent years.

All nests examined at Los Indios contained fresh or older lining materi- als, consisting of green leaves and sprigs of Avicen- nia and Rhizophora, and some debris. Both adults were observed bringing green lining material to nests. Nests had notably deep bowls Table 3 and when adults were on nests incubating or brooding, they remained low in the bowl and were difficult to detect. During our inspections of nests at Los Indios, adults at three nests regularly perched plac- idly within 2 m of us while we measured eggs and chicks.

Adults at a fourth nest were somewhat more aggressive, but the pair only flew low above our heads, occasionally calling, and vocalized from a nearby perch while we measured eggs. We measured 11 eggs at Los Indios Table 3. Three eggs collected by O.

The 14 gundlachii eggs we measured av- eraged Eggs of gundla- chii are typically short sub-elliptical to elliptical, with a finely granulated texture. Eggs have a dull grayish-white ground color, sometimes with a greenish or bluish cast early in incubation, and are marked with spots and blotches of dark or reddish- brown, particularly at the larger end.

Clutch sizes at Los Indios averaged 1. The egg of gundlachii is usually more colored bluish to greenish suffu- sion than those of anthracinus or subtilis, which are typically grayish or whitish Bent , Wetmore , O. Garrido pers. Diet and foraging behavior. Cuban birds were found to feed on a variety of prey Table 4.

No- table was the lack of fish prey, although fishes were available in tidal channels in the study area. How- ever, twice, hawks were observed wading in shallow tidal channels and making foot thrusts at probable fish prey. Prey captures were made in a low-angle flight, snatching the item all observations of crabs and continuing to a nearby perch, or the hawk landed near the crab and stalked it on foot. Once the hawk grasped the crab, it controlled the claws and legs on either side of the prey with its feet, then removed the carapace with a quick tug at the head region using its bill.

However, we did not observe hawks returning to the caches to feed on the stock- piled crabs. Although B. Vocal behavior. The common call of gundlachii is a series of three or, uncommonly, four notes, with emphasis on the first two elements, suggesting its Cuban common name, BA-TIS-ta Gundlach , Garrido and Schwartz , Garrido and Kirkcon- nell ; Fig.

The call has a much shorter duration and fewer elements than in other popu- lations of Buteogallus anthracinus Table 5. The common call of mainland anthracinus consists of 9- 24 notes, with the middle to the final third of the notes accentuated Fig. Sonographs of common alarm calls of Buteogallus species. Reynard , B, Buteogallus a.

Vincent J. Roche, courtesy British Library Sound Archive. C, Buteogallus a. Buteogallus urubitinga, Venezuela P. Table 5. Similarly, the common call of B. The call of Buteogallus urubitinga consists of a single note, drawn out in a high shrill keeeeeeeeh" Fer- guson-Lees and Christie ; Fig. Discussion As is normal among most birds of prey, female gundlachii are somewhat larger than males, with culmen and wing length significantly different be- tween genders.

Snyder and Wiley reported a lower index 2. Whereas measurements of selected body parts did not show complete distinction between anth- racinus and gundlachii Table 2, Fig. In con- trast to our measurements. Bangs partly based his determination of separating gundlachii from anthracinus on the former being slightly larg- er than the latter, and in having a decidedly heavi- er, broader bill.

Mainland anthracinus populations inhabit- ing mangrove habitat tend to be smaller and browner than others. The race B. Our observations revealed that Cuban birds, also mangrove inhabitants, are consistently brown- er with substantial differences in plumage pattern compared with mainland birds. Thus, such color differences may be a result of ecological parallel- ism, rather than of phylogenetic relationships.

The species of Buteogallus are partial to wetlands, swampy woods, and seacoasts Amadou In its mainland range, anthracinus has been charac- terized as inhabiting woodlands around coastal December Cuban Black-Hawk Status and Biology swamps, ponds, and streams, and especially man- groves in the swampy woodlands adjacent to the poorly-drained inlands that are affected by tide- waters Phillips et al. Wetmore noted that along large rivers they extend their range farther inland. Thomas reported anthracinus in stretches of sand dunes and savannas with clumps of palmettos and pines.

The Cuban population shows a similar preference for lowland coastal ar- eas. Gundlach and Bangs noted gundlachii was found only in mangrove swamps and on the banks of large rivers. In broad contrast, the other West Indian population, Buteogallus anthraci- nus cancrivorus of St. Vincent, mainly keeps to the high wooded valleys, although it seldom occurs far from water Lister , Clark b, Bond a.

Cuban populations of the black-hawk breed from January through June Garrido and Kirkcon- nell , with egg-laying occurring in late March or April. Bangs collected a female contain- ing a soft-shelled egg and found another tending a nest on 15 April. Bond reported a nest with a newly-hatched chick on 4 April. Garrido and Schwartz and Valdes Miro com- mented gundlachii builds its nest at a considerable distance above the ground. Nests of the Cuban form are typically rough structures of twigs, lined with green leaves and, sometimes, debris Gundlach , Bond , Garrido and Schwartz , Valdes Miro Bond , describing nests found in St.

In contrast, Bond de- scribed black-hawk nests in St. Schnell gave the di- mensions of mainland anthracinus nests as ranging from 38 cm diameter X 20 cm deep to 1. Bangs and Bond also noted gundlachii re-used nests in more than one season, which we believe accounts, in part, for the larger nest size of Cuban birds.

Black-hawks at Los Indios were remarkably non- aggressive toward humans at their nests and al- lowed us to approach much closer than other local raptor species tolerated, perhaps relying on their cryptic behavior to avoid detection at the nest. Others have also noted this tolerance in Cuban black-hawks Todd , Barbour , Garrido and Schwartz Schnell reviewed available egg specimens for Buteogallus anthracinus, summarizing mean measurements from Bent as Eggs of anthracinus we measured at the Delaware Mu- seum of Natural History averaged Interestingly, an egg reported from St.

Vincent is at the high end for the species: 61 X 47 mm Bond and exceeds the range for gund- lachii. Eggs of gundlachii we measured at Los Indios averaged only slightly smaller than those of main- land B. Gundlach reported that Cuban eggs mea- sured 58 X 45 mm, whereas Bangs reported 56 X Measurements presented by Valdes Miro are obviously in error; i. The mean mass Although we observed differences in egg color- ation and pattern among anthracinus, subtilis, and gundlachii, these characters show considerable var- iation and do not appear to be a good character for determining relationships L.

Kiff pers. Schnell noted that, in general, clutch size of Buteogallus anthracinus decreased from two eggs in the northern range to one in the southern range; several reported three-egg clutches were questionable.

Clutch sizes at Los Indios fell within that range, averaging 1. Buteogallus anthracinus feeds mainly on inver- tebrates and lower vertebrates, with occasional small birds or mammals in the diet Schnell Eor mainland populations, Thomas report- ed anthracinus preying on burrowing land crabs, which form almost the sole diet of the hawks in British Honduras Belize. The St. In Cuba, Gundlach reported remains of crustaceans, as well as frogs, snakes, and fishes in the stomachs of black-hawks.

Barbour reported land crabs as its prey in Cuba. Garrido and Kirkconnell reported its prey as mainly crabs and birds, whereas Ramsden C. The hunting behavior of Buteogallus, in general, has been characterized as sluggish.

We observed Cuban Black-Hawks caching crab prey near their nest, a habit that has also been re- ported for B. As noted by Schnell , descriptions of the vocal behavior of Buteogallus anthracinus have been confusing and conflicting. The common call of mainland Buteogallus anthracinus is distinct from the three-note call of gundlachii, consisting of notes Reynard and Garrido , Schnell Figs.

The call of Buteogallus aequinoc- tialis is a series of six or seven whistle-like notes, the first three rapid, followed by slower and de- scending elements Fig. Finally, B. Conclusions We consider Buteogallus anthracinus with its geo- graphical races, cancrivorus and anthracinus , B. Gonzalez, enabling visits to collections in several museums. Department of the Interior. We are particularly grateful to Lie. For use of tape record- ings of Buteogallus vocalizations, we thank George B.

Rey- nard, Paul Schwartz, L. Irby Davis, R. We thank Lloyd F. Kiff, Jay H. Schnell, and an anonymous reviewer for their helpful suggestions, which greatly improved the manuscript. Literature Cited Alain, H. Notas taxonomicas y ecologicas sobre la flora de Isla de Pinos. Museo Hist. La Salle Aldrich, J. Bole, Jr. The birds and mammals of the western slope of the Azuero Penin- sula, Republic of Panama.

Cleveland Mus Nat. Amadon, D. Remarks on the genus Buteogallus. Nov Colombianas Check-list of North American birds, 7th Ed. Bangs, O. Auk Birds of the Isle of Pines. Barbour, T. The birds of Cuba. Nuttall Or- nithol. Club 6. Cuban ornithology. Nuttall Omithol. Club 9. Bent, A. Life histories of North American birds of prey. Part I. Blake, E. Manual of Neotropical birds. Bond, J. Birds of the West Indies. Philadelphia, PA U. Check-list of birds of the West Indies.

Check-list of birds of the West Indies, 4th Ed. First supplement to the Check-list of birds of the West Indies Philadel- phia, PA U. Brown, L. Eagles, hawks and fal- cons of the world. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Cabanis, J. Clark, A. Lucia, West Indies. Preliminary descriptions of three new birds from St. Vincent, West Indies. Birds of the southern Lesser Antilles. Boston Soc. Cory, C. ArA Davis, L. L A field guide to the birds of Mexico and Central America. Dickinson, E.

The Howard and Moore complete checklist of the birds of the world, rev. Evans, P. Birds of the eastern Caribbean. Mac- Millan Press Ltd. Ferguson-Lees, j. Raptors of the world. Houghton Mifflin Co. Friedmann, H. Birds of North and Middle America, Falconiformes.

Garrido, O. Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Anfibios, reptiles y aves de Cayo Candles. Poeyana Gundlach, j. Nach Mittheilungen des Reisenden an Hr. Sezekorn in Cassel; von Letzterem zusammengestellt. Mit Zustzen und Anmerkungen geordnet vom He- rausgeber. Revista y catalogo de las aves Cu- banas.

Poey, [Ed. Neue Beitrage zur Ornithologie Cubas. Nach eigenen 30 jahrigen Beobachtungen zusam- mengestellt. Contribucion a la ornitologia Cubana. Ornitologia Cubana. La Habana: La Mo- derna. Gurney, J. Bowdler Sharpe Ibis, series 3, — A list of the diurnal birds of prey, with references and annotations. John Van Voorst, Lon- don, England.

Hellmayr, C. Catalogue of birds of the Americas. Field Mus. Jennings, O. A contribution to the botany of the Isle of Pines, Cuba, based upon the specimens of plants from that island contained in the herbarium of the Carnegie Museum under date of October, Carnegie Mus. Kirkconnell, A. Kleinbaum, D. Applied regres- sion analysis and other multivariable methods. Lister, C. Field-notes on the birds of St. Ibis, ser. Mayr, E. Cottrell [Eds. Check-list of birds of the world.

AND L. Species taxa of North American birds. Nuttall Ornithol. Club No. Monroe, B. Three new subspecies of birds from Honduras. A distributional survey of the birds of Hon- duras. Mo- nogr. Washington, DC U. Palmer, R. Handbook of North American birds. Peters, J. Phillips, A. Marshall, and G. The birds of Arizona. Reynard, G. Cornell Lab. Ornit- hol. Ridgely, R. The birds of Ec- uador: status, distribution and taxonomy. Christopher Helm, London, England. Ridgway, R. Studies of the American Falconidae.

Interior, U. Survey Terri- tories Schnell, J. A closer look: Common Black-Hawk. Birding Common Black-Hawk, Buteogallus anthraci- nus. In Poole, A. Gill [Eds. Sharpe, R. Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum. Catalogue of the Accipitres, or diur- nal birds of prey, in the collection of the British Mu- seum. British Museum, London, England. A hand-list of the genera and species of birds. Sibley, C. Monroe, Jr- Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world.

Snyder, N. Sexual size dimor- phism in hawks and owls in North America. SPSS for Windows SPSS Inc. Stiles, EG. A guide to the birds of Costa Rica. Comstock Pub. Storer, R. Sexual dimorphism and food habits in three North American accipiters. Swann, H. A synopsis of the Accipitres di- urnal birds of prey comprising species and subspe- cies described up to , with their characters and distribution. Wheldon and Wesley, London, England.

A monograph of the birds of prey Order Accipitres. Part VIII. Thomas, G. The Mexican Black Hawk. Condor 10' Todd, W. The birds of the Isle of Pines. Incor- porating the substance of the field-notes by Gustav A Link. Valdes Miro, V. Datos de nidificacion sobre las aves que crian en Cuba. Wetmore, a. The birds of the Republic of Panama, pt. Dykstra J. Forsman,i TimmothyJ. Cheron Ferland and Elizabeth M. Size of annual and cumulative ranges was negatively correlated with the amount of old forest within the cumulative MCP home range and within a 4.

On average, ranges used during the nonbreeding season overlapped breeding season ranges by Compositional analysis of habitat selection indicated that old forests were the most preferred cover type for foraging and roosting and that dear-cuts and non-forest cover types were rarely used. There was little evidence that owls selected riparian areas or forest edges for foraging or roosting. The large size of annual ranges on the Olympic Peninsula may be a response to low prey biomass.

Los tamanos de los rangos anuales y acumulativos se correlacionaron negativamente con la cantidad de bosque maduro presente dentro del PCM acu- mulativo del rango de hogar y a menos de 4. En promedio, los rangos usados durante el periodo no reproductive se superpusieron con los rangos del periodo reproductive en Box , Jackson, WY U. Present address: U. Encontramos muy poca evidencia de que las lechuzas seleccionan las areas riparias o los hordes de bosque para alimentarse o reposar.

Nuestras observaciones son consistentes con la hipotesis de que S. El gran tamano de los rangos anuales en Olympic Pen- insula podria responder a una baja biomasa de presas. For example, in some parts of their range, Spotted Owls may migrate during winter, moving km from their breeding season ranges into lowland forests Laymon , Zabel et al. In other regions, they are largely resident in the same areas throughout the year Forsman et al.

Home ranges and habitat selection of Spotted Owls have been studied extensively in Oregon and California, but with the exception of a study by Hamer , little information is available from Washington. We examined home ranges and hab- itat selection of northern Spotted Owls on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington to determine if patterns of habitat use differed near the northern edge of the range of the owl compared to earlier studies conducted in Oregon e.

Elevations ranged from m. The area included a mosaic of serai stages, ranging from clearings in which all trees had been recently har- vested clear-cuts to old-growth forests in which oversto- ry trees were over yr old Henderson et al. Approximately half of the area had been clear-cut within the previous 30 yr, but harvested areas were not uniform- ly distributed within the study area.

Some areas were heavily fragmented by recent clear-cuts, whereas other ar- eas had extensive blocks of mature and old-growth forest. Much of the study area was hit by hurricane-force winds in which severely damaged many stands Pierce Regenerating stands of young trees in clear-cut areas were usually even-aged, with high canopy closure.

Methods Capture and Radio-marking. Total mass of transmitter and harness was g, and transmitter life was mo. We tried to obtain a minimum of 12 mo of data from each owl. We replaced transmitters on six individuals after mo, and tracked them for nearly 2 yr. Sampling Schedule.

We attempted to obtain one noc- turnal foraging location per night on each owl at least 3 nights per wk, and one diurnal roost location per owl at least 3 d per wk. Our sampling schedule was intended to reduce autocorrelation between sequential locations Swihart and Slade a, b. However, Aebischer et al. We classified all locations as foraging locations if they occurred from 0. We excluded locations of incubating or brooding females from analyses of habitat selection, until females began to forage when the young were about 2 wk old.

Radio Triangulation. Location of radiotelemetry study areas on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, Azimuths were plotted on or scale U. Geological Sur- vey orthophotos or topographic maps. If weak signals or inconsisten- cies in the direction of bearings caused us to suspect sig- nal deflection or movement of an owl during triangula- tion, we discarded the location. Telemetry Error. We estimated telemetry error with 63 blind trials in which one observer placed transmitters in trees in owl home ranges and another observer then tri- angulated on the transmitters at night.

This estimate was similar to or less than error estimates in previous telemetry stud- ies of Spotted Owls Carey et al. Errors of this magnitude undoubtedly resulted in some locations falling in the wrong cover types, but we made the assumption that classification errors due to telemetry error were similar in all cover types, and that our overall assessment should reflect actual habitat use. Home-range Estimation.

We did so because we believe that kernel estimates based on locations where owls stop long enough for the observer to obtain a location tend to underestimate home range areas of owls because movements across intervening non-forest areas usually happen so quickly that they cannot be documented with a point on the map.

Thus, we feel that the LSCV option, which tends to fit the home range isopleth more tightly to the observed points, is likely to cause an even greater underestimate of home ranges. We used all locations for MCP estimates, but we only used foraging locations for FK estimates because FK estimates that include large Forsman et al. Vegetation cover types used to map landscapes for analyses of habitat use by northern Spotted Owls on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, Pacific silver fir was often subdominant or codominant with hemlock or redcedar.

Douglas-fir was codominant on a few areas. Also included mixed-age stands of mature and old forest in which both age classes were common. Many of the latter stands were the result of a hurricane force windstorm in January Pierce Regenerated on burned areas and old dear-cuts. Mixed-young Forest: Same as Young Forest except with inclusions of mature trees, usually remnants left during previous fires or harvest. Pole-sapling: Single-layered conifer stands in which most trees were cm DBH.

Mostly young stands regenerat- ing on old dear-cuts. Also in- cluded small areas of meadows, gravel pits, and agricultural, or residential areas. Estimation of Annual, Cumulative, and Seasonal Rang- es, Although we marked some owls in June or July of , we did not begin regular sampling of most individ- uals until late July or August , For these owls, we estimated the first annual range through the end of July If they were monitored after July , we com- puted a second annual range for the second year.

A few individuals were not marked until fall or summer , in which case the annual range was estimated for one year only. Therefore, we used all annual ranges for comparisons among owls, re- gardless of the monitoring period. For six owls tracked in both years, we estimated the cumulative range from the union of the annual ranges range A -I- range B minus the area of overlap.

Estimates of home range overlap between years, seasons, pair mem- bers, or owls on adjacent territories were based on the percent of range A overlaid by range B or the percent of range B overlaid by range A. Estimates of seasonal ranges were limited to owls tracked sl20 d during the season of interest. Habitat Mapping and Assessment of Habitat Use.

We examined second-order habitat selection i. We developed a cover-type map of the study area that included seven cover types based on structural dif- ferences in vegetation as determined from on-the-ground examination of stands and aerial photo interpretation Table 1. We visited virtually all stands within the study area on one or more occasions to determine the size and species composition of trees.

GIS layer. For convenience, we use the term cover type, even though we recognize that our designation of cover type was based on only one component of habitat i. We used compositional analysis Aebischer et al. This method treats the individual as the sample unit, accounts for lack of independence among proportions, is not sensitive to serial correlation between locations, and is based on a unique set of observed and expected values for each cover type in the home range of each individual.

Expected use was equal to the pro- portion of the cumulative MCP home range covered by each cover type, and the observed use was the proportion of locations in each cover type. Observation periods of 20 radio-marked northern Spotted Owls observed on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, Vertical lines indicate intervals used for calculation of seasonal ranges.

We used digital stream layers and elevation lay- ers in GIS to compute elevation and distance to the near- est stream for each owl location and each random loca- tion. To evaluate the amount of protection afforded by these guidelines, we examined the proportion of each cumulative owl home range that fell within a 4.

Results Sample Size and Tracking Periods. We moni- tored 22 owls in 12 territories, including 10 resi- dent pairs, one territory where we marked one member of a resident pair, and one territory where we marked an adult female that did not appear to have a mate. We did not use the data from the unpaired adult female because she did not exhibit site fidelity.

We also did not use data from one fe- male that died shortly after she was radio-marked. Of the 11 pairs in which one or both members were radio-marked, three nested during the study, including one pair in and two pairs in Annual Ranges. Most mean estimates of ranges were larger than medians because means were skewed by a few in- dividuals with large ranges Table 2. Estimates of annual home-range areas of individual northern Spotted Owls on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, Estimates of the cumulative home-range areas of northern Spotted Owls on the Olympic Peninsula, Wash- ington, These estimates probably did not reflect total overlap with adjacent residents because there were adja- cent pairs that we did not have radio-marked and because tracking periods for individual owls were not always exactly the same.

However, even with incomplete data on some individuals and no data on the pairs that were not radio-marked, it was clear that home ranges of neighbors overlapped considerably, particularly during winter. In one case, a male from one territory BPM was found on several occasions during winter, roosting in the traditional nest area of an adjacent male HRM.

Cumulative Ranges. Cumula- tive ranges of females averaged larger than cumu- lative ranges of males for all comparisons except the mean MCP Table 3. Seasonal Ranges. There was no consistent pattern of larger ranges in one season or the other.

Median estimates of seasonal ranges were smaller than means because means were pos- itively skewed by a few individuals with large rang- es. Overlap of nonbreeding rang- es of nine owls tracked in two different nonbreed- Forsman et al. Results of compositional analysis of habitat use for foraging by northern Spotted Owls on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, Rank scores indicate relative preference of cover types from highest 6 to lowest 0.

Results of pairwise t-tests indicate the relative preference of cover types. A positive lvalue indicates that the row cover type ranked higher than the column cover type and a negative t-value indicates that the row cover type ranked lower than the column cover type. A significant P-value suggests that confidence in the direction of the relationship was high. During the breeding season, movements of owls were typically centered on the nest tree or, in the case of nonnesting pairs, a regularly-used roost area.

Winter ranges typically included part of the breeding-season range plus areas peripheral to the breeding-season range. However, a few individuals spent little time in their breeding-season ranges during the winter season.

After nest- ing and producing a juvenile in , she left the nest area in August and spent most of the fall and winter in an area km away from the nest area before eventually returning to the nest area in June of The Neilton Ridge Male NRM also had a very large nonbreeding range in , but in his case, the nonbreeding range overlapped most of the breeding season range. Ranges of Pairs. There were 14 cases where we monitored annual ranges of paired owls in the same year.

Estimates of mean over- lap of annual ranges were similar, regardless of which sex was used as the frame of reference, so we based the above averages on all possible com- binations of overlap. Habitat Selection. Use of cover types for forag- ing and roosting was nonrandom.

Pairwise compari- sons of rank indicated that Old Forests were con- sistently preferred over all other cover types Table 4. Although Mixed-young Forest ranked higher than Mature Forest, pairwise comparisons of rank indicated little difference between the two types December Spotted Owl Habitat Use Table 5. Results of compositional analysis of habitat use for roosting by northern Spotted Owls on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, Results of pairwise t-tests comparisons indicate the relative preference of cover types.

A positive lvalue indicates that the row cover type ranked higher than the column cover type and a negative f-value indicates that the row cover type ranked lower than the column cover type. Similarly, Young Forest ranked lower than Mature and Hardwood Forest, but pairwise comparisons indicated that these differences were weak Table 4. Pole-sapling stands ranked lower than all other types except Clear-cuts, but the pair- wise comparisons with other types indicated that preference for Pole-sapling was not greatly differ- ent from Young Forest Table 4.

Large P-values for all pairwise comparisons of Clear-cuts relative to other cover types indicated that Clear-cuts were the least preferred cover type for foraging. In fact, out of foraging locations where cover type could be determined, only 57 1. Use of cover types for roosting indicated that Old Forests were preferred over all other cover types Table 5.

Pole-sapling, Clear-cuts, and Non-forest areas were rarely used for roosting. Of roosts located visually, none were located in Clear-cuts or Non-forest. Of roosts located by triangulation alone, and for which cover type was determined, eight were in Clear-cuts or Non-forest types; we sus- pected these were due to triangulation or mapping error. However, the number of locations within m of an edge was similar between random locations and foraging locations Landscape Composition and Home Range Size.

Size of annual ranges was negatively correlated Forsman et al. Size of annual ranges was also negatively correlated with the amount of older forest in a 4. Overlap of Management Circles with Home Ranges. On average, a 4. For 12 owls tracked in both years, average overlap of the 4.

The counter- intuitive result in which overlap of the 4. Discussion Home Range Attributes. The large ranges ob- served in our study suggest that biomass of suitable prey for Spotted Owls is lower on the Olympic Pen- insula than in western Oregon and northwestern California, where home ranges tend to be smaller Forsman et al. We did not have data on total prey biomass in our study area, but Carey et al. As in our study, Carey et al.

This sug- gests that Spotted Owls respond to decreasing amounts of their preferred habitat by increasing the size of their ranges to encompass more old for- est. However, Zabel et al. Instead, they found that home-range size was positively correlated with the proportion of flying squirrels in the diet and negatively correlated with the proportion of woodrats Neotoma spp.

In our study area, the diet was dominated by flying squirrels Forsman et al. This could explain why home ranges in our study area became larger as the amount of old forest declined. However, for a central-place forager like the Spotted Owl, the ability to increase the size of the home range and still function as a part of the resident breeding population is probably limited by energetic and so- cial constraints Carey et al.

Similar estimates were obtained in a number of other studies Fors- man et al.


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