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Michigan is now a full-service sports betting state! Michiganders and visitors to the state can place sports bets on their mobile devices, their computers, and several different retail locations around both mdjsjeux bettingadvice. The online launch in January marked the endpoint of a process that began in December Governor Gretchen Whitmer signed into law two bills, S and Hwhich legalized sports betting both online and in casinos. Incidentally, the two bills also legalized internet poker, online casino games and online fantasy sports. In short, Michigan is quite the destination for placing a bet now.

Horse racing betting terms wikipedia deutsch horse betting sites with live video

Horse racing betting terms wikipedia deutsch

In a 'result adjustment' style handicap event, the outcome may be adjusted by some factor determined by the handicap. Some forms of car or yacht racing. In a 'pursuit' style handicap race, all participants are clocked in a time trial before the race.

When this takes place at the same event as the main race, it is known as the handicap. In the race itself, the participants do not all start at the same "Go"; the starts are staggered, based on the handicaps.

The slowest swimmer, or cyclist, for example, starts first and the fastest starts last, making the end of the race hopefully close. An ideal handicap race is one in which all participants finish at the same time. Similarly, physically staggered starting positions can be used, for example, in greyhound racing a handicap race is where greyhounds based on their ability start from different starting traps set at different measurements from the finish line, and in human foot racing, for example, the Stawell Gift.

Some motorsport events, especially in sports car racing , demand teams to stop the vehicle in the pitbox a fixed period of time depending on the drivers' classification, thus giving advantage to less skilled drivers. An example of a championship using this system is the International GT Open. The advantage of this system over ballast weight systems is that vehicles have the normal performance on track, so better drivers will be able to recover time and overtake slower drivers.

A handicap race in horse racing is a race in which horses carry different weights, allocated by the handicapper. A better horse will carry a heavier weight, to give him or her a disadvantage when racing against slower horses. The handicapper's goal in assigning handicap weights is to enable all the horses to finish together in a dead heat. The skill in betting on a handicap horse race is in determining which horse can overcome its handicap.

Handicapping in the sport of golf enables players and teams of varying abilities to compete against one another. A golf handicap is a numerical measure of a golfer's potential or "average best". Better players are those with the lowest handicaps. Handicapping in go includes the weaker player being given an advantage by placing a number of stones before the stronger player commences, and by final points adjustment. Handicapping in shogi is achieved by removing one or more pieces from the stronger player's side.

Shogi Japanese chess and many of its variants have handicaps. The polo handicap is an estimation of the player's worth to his or her team. It is an overall rating of a player's horsemanship, team play, knowledge of the game, strategy and horses. The difference between the total of the polo handicaps for the players on each team is then used to determine the minimum score difference for the better team to score to enable them to win.

In polo, every player is awarded an individual handicap depending on performance. Handicaps for sailing vessels in sailing races have varied throughout history, and they also vary by country, and by sailing organisation. Sailing handicap standards exist internationally, nationally, and within individual sailing clubs. Sailing race handicaps may be based on vessel capability and-or crew experience, and today typically adjust the time a vessel takes to reach the finish point of the race. There are strategies that involve differences in the lines on the same event at different books.

One bet is called a "middle", which when a player finds two books that offer different point spreads for the same event. They will bet the more favorable spread at both books, and if the final score falls between the two, the bettor will win both bets.

On the other hand, if the total falls outside the range of the "middle" the bettor only loses a small percentage of a bet the "juice" or "vig" taken by the house. If a player bets Team B at Book 1, and Team A at Book 2, he will win both bets if either side wins by 2 or less points, and will win one bet and lose the other known as a "side" if either team wins by 3 points.

Another strategy, known as arbitrage, or an "arb" or "scalp", involves finding different moneylines for the same event. In this case, the bettor will bet the more favorable line at both books, and have a guaranteed profit. This is a no-risk bet, as the player is guaranteed a profit no matter the result of the game. Because sports betting had a social taboo at the time, Snyder was not allowed to mention betting on games specifically. Instead, he would predict the score.

Over the years the attitude towards sports betting, and handicapping in general, has changed. Billy Walters was profiled by 60 Minutes because of his handicapping abilities. D's and works off of algorithmic information for his predictions. In the past, very few people did any mathematical calculations when handicapping sporting events. Predictions were usually made from hunches or information not readily available to the public.

However, with the advancement of technology computers powerful enough to run advanced simulation models now frequent homes and offices. Brian Burke, author of The Fifth Down blog featured in the New York Times , wrote a formula using advanced statistical techniques that has shown consistency correctly predicting NFL winners. Like Wall Street did in the s, the sports handicapping industry is undergoing a quantitative revolution.

Many successful handicappers also use money management systems similar to financial investment professionals. The most popular, and mathematically superior, system is the Kelly criterion. It is a formula for maximizing profits and minimizing losses based on payout odds and win probability of the underlying asset. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For articles on human disabilities, see Disability. For other uses, see Handicap. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs additional citations for verification. Belmont Park is located at the western edge of the Hempstead Plains. Its mile-and-a-half main track is the largest dirt Thoroughbred racecourse in the world, and it has the sport's largest grandstand. One of the latest major horse track opened in the United States was the Meadowlands Racetrack , opened in for Thoroughbred racing. It is the home of the Meadowlands Cup. Other more recently opened tracks include Remington Park , Oklahoma City , opened in , and Lone Star Park in the Dallas—Fort Worth Metroplex , opened in ; the latter track hosted the prestigious Breeders' Cup series of races in The Hall of Fame honors remarkable horses, jockeys , owners, and trainers.

They are all held early in the year, throughout May and the beginning of June. In recent years the Breeders' Cup races, run at the end of the year, have challenged the Triple Crown events as determiners of the three-year-old champion. The Breeders' Cup is normally held at a different track every year; however, the and editions were both held at Churchill Downs, and , and races were held at Santa Anita Park.

Keeneland , in Lexington, Kentucky, hosted the Breeders' Cup. The corresponding Standardbred event is the Breeders Crown. American betting on horse racing is sanctioned and regulated by the state where the race is located. A takeout, or "take", is removed from each betting pool and distributed according to state law, among the state, race track and horsemen.

A variety of factors affect takeout, namely location and the type of wager that is placed. Advanced Deposit Wagering is a form of gambling on the outcome of horse races in which the bettor must fund his or her account before being allowed to place bets. ADW is often conducted online or by phone. In contrast to ADW, credit shops allow wagers without advance funding; accounts are settled at month-end. Racetrack owners, horse trainers and state governments sometimes receive a cut of ADW revenues.

The most famous horse from Canada is generally considered to be Northern Dancer , who after winning the Kentucky Derby , Preakness and Queen's Plate in went on to become the most successful Thoroughbred sire of the twentieth century; his two-minute-flat Derby was the fastest on record until Secretariat in The only challenger to his title of greatest Canadian horse would be his son Nijinsky II , who is the last horse to win the English Triple Crown.

It is the only race track in North America which stages Thoroughbred and Standardbred harness meetings on the same day. There are 15 racecourses in the Czech Republic, most notably Pardubice Racecourse, where the country's most famous race, the Velka Pardubicka steeplechase , has been run since The Czech horse racing season usually starts at the beginning of April and ends sometime in November. Racing takes place mostly at weekends and there is usually one meeting on a Saturday and one on Sunday.

France has a major horse racing industry. Besides Longchamp, France's other premier flat racecourses include Chantilly and Deauville. There is also a smaller but nevertheless important jumps racing sector, with Auteil Racecourse being the best known. The sport's governing body is France Galop. Horse racing in Great Britain is predominantly thoroughbred flat and jumps racing. It was in Great Britain in the 17th to 19th centuries that many of the sport's rules and regulations were established.

The name " Derby " has since become synonymous with great races all over the world, and as such has been borrowed many times in races abroad. The Grand National is the most prominent race in British culture , watched by many people who do not normally watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year.

The sport is regulated by the British Horseracing Authority. Despite having an ancient tradition with well-documented history, all racetracks in Greece have ceased operation due to the Greek government-debt crisis. Hungary has a long-standing horse racing tradition.

The first horse racing in Pest was noted June 6, Foremost of these is Kincsem , foaled in and the most successful Thoroughbred racehorse ever, having won 54 races in 54 starts. The country also produced Overdose , a horse who won his first 12 races, including group races in Germany and Italy, and finished fourth in the King's Stand Stakes at Royal Ascot.

Ireland has a rich history of horse racing; point to pointing originated there, and even today, jump racing is more popular than racing on the flat. As a result, every year Irish horse racing fans travel in huge numbers to the highlight event of the National Hunt calendar, the Cheltenham Festival , and in recent years Irish owned or bred horses have dominated the event.

In recent years, [ when? In the six runnings of the Epsom Derby between and , Irish horses filled 20 of the first 30 placings, winning the race 5 times. Historically, Italy has been one of the leading European horse racing nations, albeit some respects behind Great Britain, Ireland, and France in size and prestige.

The late Italian horse breeder Federico Tesio was particularly notable. In recent years, however, the sport in the country has suffered a major funding crisis, culminating in its expulsion from the European Pattern. In Wassenaar in the Hague there is a grass course at Duindigt. The industry was severely limited during the Communist era, when gambling, the major source of funding, was made illegal. Harness racing also known as trotting , is a popular sport in Sweden, with significant amounts of money wagered annually.

Horse racing in Australia was founded during the early years of settlement and the industry has grown to be among the top three leading Thoroughbred racing nations of the world. In country racing, records indicate that Goulburn commenced racing in In Australia, the most famous racehorse was Phar Lap bred in New Zealand , who raced from to Phar Lap carried 9 st 12 lb In — the mare Makybe Diva bred in Great Britain became the only racehorse to ever win the Melbourne Cup three times, let alone in consecutive years.

In harness racing , Cane Smoke had wins, including 34 in a single season, Paleface Adios became a household name during the s, while Cardigan Bay , a pacing horse from New Zealand, enjoyed great success at the highest levels of American harness racing in the s. More recently, Blacks A Fake has won four Inter Dominion Championships, making him the only horse to complete this feat in Australasia's premier harness race. In all endurance events, there are rigorous vet checks, conducted before, during and after the competition, in which the horses' welfare is of the utmost concern.

Horse racing is a significant part of the New Zealand economy which in generated 1. More than 40, people were involved in some capacity in the New Zealand racing industry in In , more than one million people attended race meetings in New Zealand. Racecourses are situated in 59 locations throughout New Zealand. During the —09 racing season 19 New Zealand bred horses won 22 Group One races around the world.

The most famous New Zealand standardbred horse is probably Cardigan Bay. The Champ de Mars is situated on a prestigious avenue in Port Louis , the capital city and is the oldest racecourse in the southern hemisphere. The Mauritius Turf Club is the second oldest active turf club in the world.

Undeniably, racing is one of the most popular sports in Mauritius now attracting regular crowds of 20, people or more to the only racecourse of the island. A high level of professionalism has been attained in the organization of races over the last decades preserving the unique electrifying ambiance prevailing on race days at the Champ de Mars.

Most of the horses are imported from South Africa but some are also acquired from Australia, the United Kingdom and France. Horse racing is a popular sport in South Africa that can be traced back to The first recorded race club meeting took place five years later in The premier event, which attracts 50, people to Durban, is the Durban July Handicap , which has been run since at Greyville Racecourse.

It is the largest and most prestigious event on the continent, with betting running into the hundreds of millions of Rands. Horse racing in one form or another has been a part of Chinese culture for millennia. Horse racing was a popular pastime for the aristocracy at least by the Zhou Dynasty — 4th century B. General Tian Ji 's strategem for a horse race remains perhaps the best-known story about horse racing in that period. In the 18th and 19th centuries, horse racing and equestrian sports in China was dominated by Mongol influences.

Thoroughbred horse racing came to China with British settlements in the middle s and most notably centered around the treaty ports, including the two major race courses in Shanghai , the Shanghai Racecourse and the International Recreation Grounds in Kiang-wan , and the racecourses of Tianjin. See below. Horse racing was banned in the Republic of China from , and the People's Republic of China maintained the ban after , although allowances were made for ethnic minority peoples for whom horse sports are a cultural tradition.

The longer race led to deaths and injuries to participating horses in both and the 11th National Games in Also, with the entry into the sport of Han majority provinces such as Hubei , which are better funded and used Western, rather than traditional, breeding and training techniques, meant that the original purpose of the event to foster traditional horse racing for groups like the Mongols was at risk of being usurped. At the National Games, Hubei won both the gold and silver medals, with Inner Mongolia winning bronze.

As a result of these factors, the event was abolished for the 12th National Games in Club horse racing reappeared on a small scale in the s. In , the China Speed Horse Race Open in Wuhan was organized as the qualification round for the speed horse race event at the National Games the next year, but was also seen by commentators as a step towards legalizing both horse racing and gambling on the races.

Almost all Chinese trainers and jockeys stabled in Wuhan. However, with the demise of the event at the National Games and the government not relenting from the ban on commercial racing, various racecourses built in recent years are all in a state of disuse: The Nanjing Racecourse, which previously hosted National Games equestrian events, is now used as a car park; [77] the Beijing Jockey Club was shut down in The racecourse in Inner Mongolia has not been active after Horse racing eventually returned to mainland China on the year as the one-day, five-card event for foreign horses, trainers and jockeys.

The British tradition of horse racing left its mark with the creation of one of the most important entertainment and gambling institutions in Hong Kong. Established as the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club in , the non-profit organization conducts nearly races every season at the two race tracks: in Happy Valley and Sha Tin.

All horses are imported since there is no breeding operation. Off-track betting is available from overseas bookmakers. In the s, the Hong Kong Jockey Club had race meetings for visitors already. Visitors were divided into public and member. The charges for these two types of visitors are different. It donates all its profits to the Hong Kong government, charities and public institutions.

In economic terms, the Hong Kong Jockey Club is an old-fashioned government-protected monopoly; all other forms of gambling are illegal in this industry. Sweepstakes were introduced in Hong Kong during the s. Special Cash Sweeps were at first drawn twice a year, and increased to three times a year later given its popularity. It carried the highest prize money amongst three types of sweepstakes.

The Last Race Sweep commanded higher prize money then Ordinary Cash Sweeps, which were drawn for almost every race and therefore carried the lowest prize money. Sweepstakes could be purchased either at sweepstakes stations or from sweepstakes vendor throughout Hong Kong. With different number print on each sweepstake, one sweepstake is drawn and assigned, for each horse participating in the race, and the sweepstake attached to the winning horse would win the first prize.

Likewise, the number of the first runner-up and second runner-up would win the second and third prize, respectively, with the rest winning consolation prizes. With introduction of new bet types in horse racing and the launch of Mark Six lottery in the s, the club finally stop selling sweepstakes in Jockey Club of Macau was established for harness racing.

It started to conduct horse races in India's first racecourse was set up in Madras in Today India has nine racetracks operated by seven racing authorities. Between them they conduct more than 21, horse races a year. The JRA is responsible for 'Chuo Keiba' meaning 'central horse racing' , taking place on the ten main Japanese tracks.

Racing in Japan is mainly flat racing , but Japan also has jump racing and a sled-pulling race known as Ban'ei also called Draft Racing. Japan's top stakes races are run in the spring, autumn, and winter. In Malaysia , horse racing was introduced during the British colonial era and remains to the present day as a gambling activity. Within and only within the turf clubs, betting on horse racing is a legal form of gambling. Mongolian horse racing takes place during the Naadam festival.

Mongolia does not have Thoroughbred horse racing. Rather, it has its own Mongolian style of horse racing in which the horses run for at least a distance of 25 kilometers. Horse races are held in Pakistan at four clubs. Horseracing in the Philippines began in The history of Philippine horseracing has three divisions according to the breeds of horses used. They are the Philippine-pony era — , the Arabian-horse era — , and the Thoroughbred-era —present. Horse racing was introduced to Singapore by the British during the colonial era and remained one of the legal forms of gambling after independence.

It remains a highly popular form of entertainment with the local Singaporean community to this day. Horse racing has also left its mark in the naming of roads in Singapore such as Race Course Road in Little India , where horse racing was first held in Singapore, and Turf Club Road in Bukit Timah where Singapore Turf Club used to be situated before moving to its current location in Horse racing in South Korea dates back to May , when a foreign language institute run by the government included a donkey race in its athletic rally.

However, it wasn't until the s that modern horse racing involving betting developed. The nation's first authorised club, the Chosun Racing Club, was established in and a year later, the pari-mutuel betting system was officially adopted for the first time. The Korean War disrupted the development of horse racing in the country, but after the Seoul Olympics in , the Olympic Equestrian Park was converted into racing facilities named Seoul Race Park , which helped the sport to develop again. The Dubai World Cup is once again the world's richest horse race.

The Pegasus World Cup had its purse reduced in to make room for a new turf race. The race track complex contains two tracks with seating for 60,, a hotel, restaurants, theater and museum. There is no parimutuel betting in the UAE as gambling is illegal. In Argentina the sport is known as turf. Carlos Gardel's tango Por una cabeza is about horse racing, a sport of which he was a known fan. Gardel was a good friend of Irineo Leguisamo , who is the most recognized Argentine jockey. At many horse races, there is a gambling station, where gamblers can stake money on a horse.

Where gambling is allowed, most tracks offer parimutuel betting where gamblers' money is pooled and shared proportionally among the winners once a deduction is made from the pool. In some countries, such as the UK, Ireland, and Australia, an alternative and more popular facility is provided by bookmakers who effectively make a market in odds.

This allows the gambler to 'lock in' odds on a horse at a particular time known as 'taking the price' in the UK. Anna Waller, a member of the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of North Carolina, co-authored a four-year-long study of jockey injuries and stated to The New York Times that "For every 1, jockeys you have riding [for one year], over will have medically treated injuries.

The study reported 6, injuries during the years — Horses also face dangers in racing. The U. Jockey Club in New York estimates that about horses died at racetracks in Another estimates there are deaths annual in the US. There is speculation that drugs used in horse racing in the United States, which are banned elsewhere, are responsible for the higher death rate in the United States.

In the Canadian province of Ontario , a study of 1, racehorse deaths between and found that the majority of deaths were attributable to "damage during exercise to the horses' musculoskeletal system ", including fractures, dislocations, and tendon ruptures. The study also found that the incidence of off-track deaths were twice as high for thoroughbreds. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Horse race disambiguation. Equestrian sport. Horse racing at Golden Gate Fields , Main articles: National Hunt racing , Steeplechase horse racing , and Hurdling horse race. Main article: Harness racing. Main article: Endurance riding. Further information: Horse breeding. Main article: Thoroughbred. Main article: Standardbred. Main article: Arabian horse. Main article: American Quarter Horse. See also: Horse racing in the United States. Main article: Horseracing in Great Britain.

See also: Horseracing in Scotland and Horseracing in Wales. Main article: Horse racing in Ireland. See also: List of horse races in Italy. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Harness racing in Sweden. Main articles: Thoroughbred racing in Australia and Harness racing in Australia. Main article: Horse racing in India. Main article: Horseracing in Japan. Main article: Horseracing in the Philippines. Main article: Horse racing in South Korea. Horses portal Sports portal. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 6 May International Federation of Horse Racing Authorities.

Archived from the original on Retrieved Official Horse Picks. Retrieved 12 September Smith, Elder.

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The exception to this is in Quarter Horse racing, where an Appendix Quarter Horse may be considered eligible to race against standard Quarter Horses. The designation of "Appendix" refers to the addendum section, or Appendix, of the Official Quarter Horse registry. An Appendix Quarter Horse is a horse that has either one Quarter Horse parent and one parent of any other eligible breed such as Thoroughbred, the most common Appendix cross , two parents that are registered Appendix Quarter Horses, or one parent that is a Quarter Horse and one parent that is an Appendix Quarter Horse.

AQHA also issues a "Racing Register of Merit", which allows a horse to race on Quarter Horse tracks, but not be considered a Quarter Horse for breeding purposes unless other requirements are met. A stallion who has won many races may be put up to stud when he is retired. Artificial insemination and embryo transfer technology allowed only in some breeds has brought changes to the traditions and ease of breeding.

Pedigrees of stallions are recorded in various books and websites, such as Weatherbys Stallion Book , the Australian Stud Book and Thoroughbred Heritage. There are three founding sires that all Thoroughbreds can trace back to in the male line: the Darley Arabian , the Godolphin Arabian , and the Byerley Turk , named after their respective owners Thomas Darley , Lord Godolphin, and Captain Robert Byerly.

They were taken to England, where they were mated with mares from English and imported bloodlines. Thoroughbreds range in height, which is measured in hands a hand being four inches. Some are as small as 15 hands while others are over Thoroughbreds can travel medium distances at fast paces, requiring a balance between speed and endurance. Artificial insemination, cloning and embryo transfer are not allowed in the Thoroughbred breed. The standardbred is a breed of horse used for a variety of purposes, but they are largely bred for harness racing.

They are descended from thoroughbreds, morgans, and extinct breeds. Standardbreds are typically docile and easy to handle. They do not spook easily and are quite versatile in what they can do. They can be jumpers, dressage, and pleasure riding horses. The Arabian horse was developed by the Bedouin people of the Middle East specifically for stamina over long distances, so they could outrun their enemies. It was not until that the Arabian was introduced into the United States.

Until the formation of the Arabian Horse Registry of America in , Arabians were recorded with the Jockey Club in a separate subsection from Thoroughbreds. Arabians must be able to withstand traveling long distances at a moderate pace.

They have an abundance of type I muscle fibers , enabling their muscles to work for extended periods of time. Also, the muscles of the Arabian are not nearly as massive as those of the Quarter Horse, which allow it to travel longer distances at quicker speeds. The Arabian is primarily used today in endurance racing but is also raced over traditional race tracks in many countries.

The ancestors of the Quarter Horse were prevalent in America in the early 17th century. These horses were a blend of Colonial Spanish horses crossed with English horses that were brought over in the s. The native horse and the English horse were bred together, resulting in a compact, muscular horse.

At this time, they were mainly used for chores such as plowing and cattle work. The American Quarter Horse was not recognized as an official breed until the formation of the American Quarter Horse Association in In order to be successful in racing, Quarter Horses need to be able to propel themselves forward at extremely fast sprinter speed.

The Quarter Horse has much larger hind limb muscles than the Arabian, which make it less suitable for endurance racing. When Quarter Horse racing began, it was very expensive to lay a full mile of track so it was agreed that a straight track of four hundred meters, or one-quarter of a mile, would be laid instead.

There is less jockeying for position, as turns are rare, and many races end with several contestants grouped together at the wire. The track surface is similar to that of Thoroughbred racing and usually consists of dirt. Muscles are bundles of contractile fibers that are attached to bones by tendons. These bundles have different types of fibers within them, and horses have adapted over the years to produce different amounts of these fibers.

Type I muscle fibers are adapted for aerobic exercise and rely on the presence of oxygen. They are slow-twitch fibers. They allow muscles to work for longer periods of time resulting in greater endurance. Type II muscles are adapted for anaerobic exercise because they can function in the absence of oxygen.

Type II-a fibers are intermediate, representing a balance between the fast-twitch fibers and the slow-twitch fibers. They allow the muscles to generate both speed and endurance. This type of fiber allows them to propel themselves forward at great speeds and maintain it for an extended distance.

Type II-b fibers are fast-twitch fibers. These fibers allow muscles to contract quickly, resulting in a great deal of power and speed. The conditioning program for the horses varies depending on the race length. Genetics, training, age, and skeletal soundness are all factors that contribute to a horse's performance. A horse's fitness plan must be coordinated properly in order to prevent injury or lameness.

If these are to occur, they may negatively affect a horse's willingness to learn. Because the skeletal system does not reach full maturity until the horse is at least four years of age, young racehorses often suffer injuries.

In the United States, Thoroughbred flat races are run on surfaces of either dirt, synthetic or turf. Other tracks offer Quarter Horse racing and Standardbred racing, on combinations of these three types of racing surfaces. Racing of other breeds, such as Arabian horse racing, is found on a limited basis. American Thoroughbred races are run at a wide variety of distances, most commonly from 5 to 12 furlongs 0. The South Westbury section is still known as Salisbury. The first record of quarter-mile length races dated back to in Henrico County , Virginia.

Each race consisted of only two horses, and they raced down the village streets and lanes. The Quarter Horse received its name from the length of the race. The American Stud Book was started in , prompting the beginning of organized horse racing in the United States.

There were tracks operating in the United States by ; and in , the American Jockey Club was formed. Belmont Park is located at the western edge of the Hempstead Plains. Its mile-and-a-half main track is the largest dirt Thoroughbred racecourse in the world, and it has the sport's largest grandstand. One of the latest major horse track opened in the United States was the Meadowlands Racetrack , opened in for Thoroughbred racing.

It is the home of the Meadowlands Cup. Other more recently opened tracks include Remington Park , Oklahoma City , opened in , and Lone Star Park in the Dallas—Fort Worth Metroplex , opened in ; the latter track hosted the prestigious Breeders' Cup series of races in The Hall of Fame honors remarkable horses, jockeys , owners, and trainers.

They are all held early in the year, throughout May and the beginning of June. In recent years the Breeders' Cup races, run at the end of the year, have challenged the Triple Crown events as determiners of the three-year-old champion. The Breeders' Cup is normally held at a different track every year; however, the and editions were both held at Churchill Downs, and , and races were held at Santa Anita Park.

Keeneland , in Lexington, Kentucky, hosted the Breeders' Cup. The corresponding Standardbred event is the Breeders Crown. American betting on horse racing is sanctioned and regulated by the state where the race is located. A takeout, or "take", is removed from each betting pool and distributed according to state law, among the state, race track and horsemen. A variety of factors affect takeout, namely location and the type of wager that is placed.

Advanced Deposit Wagering is a form of gambling on the outcome of horse races in which the bettor must fund his or her account before being allowed to place bets. ADW is often conducted online or by phone. In contrast to ADW, credit shops allow wagers without advance funding; accounts are settled at month-end.

Racetrack owners, horse trainers and state governments sometimes receive a cut of ADW revenues. The most famous horse from Canada is generally considered to be Northern Dancer , who after winning the Kentucky Derby , Preakness and Queen's Plate in went on to become the most successful Thoroughbred sire of the twentieth century; his two-minute-flat Derby was the fastest on record until Secretariat in The only challenger to his title of greatest Canadian horse would be his son Nijinsky II , who is the last horse to win the English Triple Crown.

It is the only race track in North America which stages Thoroughbred and Standardbred harness meetings on the same day. There are 15 racecourses in the Czech Republic, most notably Pardubice Racecourse, where the country's most famous race, the Velka Pardubicka steeplechase , has been run since The Czech horse racing season usually starts at the beginning of April and ends sometime in November.

Racing takes place mostly at weekends and there is usually one meeting on a Saturday and one on Sunday. France has a major horse racing industry. Besides Longchamp, France's other premier flat racecourses include Chantilly and Deauville. There is also a smaller but nevertheless important jumps racing sector, with Auteil Racecourse being the best known. The sport's governing body is France Galop. Horse racing in Great Britain is predominantly thoroughbred flat and jumps racing. It was in Great Britain in the 17th to 19th centuries that many of the sport's rules and regulations were established.

The name " Derby " has since become synonymous with great races all over the world, and as such has been borrowed many times in races abroad. The Grand National is the most prominent race in British culture , watched by many people who do not normally watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year. The sport is regulated by the British Horseracing Authority. Despite having an ancient tradition with well-documented history, all racetracks in Greece have ceased operation due to the Greek government-debt crisis.

Hungary has a long-standing horse racing tradition. The first horse racing in Pest was noted June 6, Foremost of these is Kincsem , foaled in and the most successful Thoroughbred racehorse ever, having won 54 races in 54 starts. The country also produced Overdose , a horse who won his first 12 races, including group races in Germany and Italy, and finished fourth in the King's Stand Stakes at Royal Ascot. Ireland has a rich history of horse racing; point to pointing originated there, and even today, jump racing is more popular than racing on the flat.

As a result, every year Irish horse racing fans travel in huge numbers to the highlight event of the National Hunt calendar, the Cheltenham Festival , and in recent years Irish owned or bred horses have dominated the event.

In recent years, [ when? In the six runnings of the Epsom Derby between and , Irish horses filled 20 of the first 30 placings, winning the race 5 times. Historically, Italy has been one of the leading European horse racing nations, albeit some respects behind Great Britain, Ireland, and France in size and prestige. The late Italian horse breeder Federico Tesio was particularly notable. In recent years, however, the sport in the country has suffered a major funding crisis, culminating in its expulsion from the European Pattern.

In Wassenaar in the Hague there is a grass course at Duindigt. The industry was severely limited during the Communist era, when gambling, the major source of funding, was made illegal. Harness racing also known as trotting , is a popular sport in Sweden, with significant amounts of money wagered annually. Horse racing in Australia was founded during the early years of settlement and the industry has grown to be among the top three leading Thoroughbred racing nations of the world.

In country racing, records indicate that Goulburn commenced racing in In Australia, the most famous racehorse was Phar Lap bred in New Zealand , who raced from to Phar Lap carried 9 st 12 lb In — the mare Makybe Diva bred in Great Britain became the only racehorse to ever win the Melbourne Cup three times, let alone in consecutive years. In harness racing , Cane Smoke had wins, including 34 in a single season, Paleface Adios became a household name during the s, while Cardigan Bay , a pacing horse from New Zealand, enjoyed great success at the highest levels of American harness racing in the s.

More recently, Blacks A Fake has won four Inter Dominion Championships, making him the only horse to complete this feat in Australasia's premier harness race. In all endurance events, there are rigorous vet checks, conducted before, during and after the competition, in which the horses' welfare is of the utmost concern. Horse racing is a significant part of the New Zealand economy which in generated 1. More than 40, people were involved in some capacity in the New Zealand racing industry in In , more than one million people attended race meetings in New Zealand.

Racecourses are situated in 59 locations throughout New Zealand. During the —09 racing season 19 New Zealand bred horses won 22 Group One races around the world. The most famous New Zealand standardbred horse is probably Cardigan Bay. The Champ de Mars is situated on a prestigious avenue in Port Louis , the capital city and is the oldest racecourse in the southern hemisphere. The Mauritius Turf Club is the second oldest active turf club in the world. Undeniably, racing is one of the most popular sports in Mauritius now attracting regular crowds of 20, people or more to the only racecourse of the island.

A high level of professionalism has been attained in the organization of races over the last decades preserving the unique electrifying ambiance prevailing on race days at the Champ de Mars. Most of the horses are imported from South Africa but some are also acquired from Australia, the United Kingdom and France.

Horse racing is a popular sport in South Africa that can be traced back to The first recorded race club meeting took place five years later in The premier event, which attracts 50, people to Durban, is the Durban July Handicap , which has been run since at Greyville Racecourse. It is the largest and most prestigious event on the continent, with betting running into the hundreds of millions of Rands. Horse racing in one form or another has been a part of Chinese culture for millennia.

Horse racing was a popular pastime for the aristocracy at least by the Zhou Dynasty — 4th century B. General Tian Ji 's strategem for a horse race remains perhaps the best-known story about horse racing in that period. In the 18th and 19th centuries, horse racing and equestrian sports in China was dominated by Mongol influences. Thoroughbred horse racing came to China with British settlements in the middle s and most notably centered around the treaty ports, including the two major race courses in Shanghai , the Shanghai Racecourse and the International Recreation Grounds in Kiang-wan , and the racecourses of Tianjin.

See below. Horse racing was banned in the Republic of China from , and the People's Republic of China maintained the ban after , although allowances were made for ethnic minority peoples for whom horse sports are a cultural tradition. The longer race led to deaths and injuries to participating horses in both and the 11th National Games in Also, with the entry into the sport of Han majority provinces such as Hubei , which are better funded and used Western, rather than traditional, breeding and training techniques, meant that the original purpose of the event to foster traditional horse racing for groups like the Mongols was at risk of being usurped.

At the National Games, Hubei won both the gold and silver medals, with Inner Mongolia winning bronze. As a result of these factors, the event was abolished for the 12th National Games in Club horse racing reappeared on a small scale in the s. In , the China Speed Horse Race Open in Wuhan was organized as the qualification round for the speed horse race event at the National Games the next year, but was also seen by commentators as a step towards legalizing both horse racing and gambling on the races.

Almost all Chinese trainers and jockeys stabled in Wuhan. However, with the demise of the event at the National Games and the government not relenting from the ban on commercial racing, various racecourses built in recent years are all in a state of disuse: The Nanjing Racecourse, which previously hosted National Games equestrian events, is now used as a car park; [77] the Beijing Jockey Club was shut down in The racecourse in Inner Mongolia has not been active after Horse racing eventually returned to mainland China on the year as the one-day, five-card event for foreign horses, trainers and jockeys.

The British tradition of horse racing left its mark with the creation of one of the most important entertainment and gambling institutions in Hong Kong. Established as the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club in , the non-profit organization conducts nearly races every season at the two race tracks: in Happy Valley and Sha Tin. All horses are imported since there is no breeding operation. Off-track betting is available from overseas bookmakers.

In the s, the Hong Kong Jockey Club had race meetings for visitors already. Visitors were divided into public and member. The charges for these two types of visitors are different. It donates all its profits to the Hong Kong government, charities and public institutions. In economic terms, the Hong Kong Jockey Club is an old-fashioned government-protected monopoly; all other forms of gambling are illegal in this industry.

Sweepstakes were introduced in Hong Kong during the s. Special Cash Sweeps were at first drawn twice a year, and increased to three times a year later given its popularity. It carried the highest prize money amongst three types of sweepstakes. The Last Race Sweep commanded higher prize money then Ordinary Cash Sweeps, which were drawn for almost every race and therefore carried the lowest prize money.

Sweepstakes could be purchased either at sweepstakes stations or from sweepstakes vendor throughout Hong Kong. With different number print on each sweepstake, one sweepstake is drawn and assigned, for each horse participating in the race, and the sweepstake attached to the winning horse would win the first prize.

Likewise, the number of the first runner-up and second runner-up would win the second and third prize, respectively, with the rest winning consolation prizes. With introduction of new bet types in horse racing and the launch of Mark Six lottery in the s, the club finally stop selling sweepstakes in Jockey Club of Macau was established for harness racing. It started to conduct horse races in India's first racecourse was set up in Madras in Today India has nine racetracks operated by seven racing authorities.

Between them they conduct more than 21, horse races a year. The JRA is responsible for 'Chuo Keiba' meaning 'central horse racing' , taking place on the ten main Japanese tracks. Racing in Japan is mainly flat racing , but Japan also has jump racing and a sled-pulling race known as Ban'ei also called Draft Racing.

Japan's top stakes races are run in the spring, autumn, and winter. In Malaysia , horse racing was introduced during the British colonial era and remains to the present day as a gambling activity. Within and only within the turf clubs, betting on horse racing is a legal form of gambling. Mongolian horse racing takes place during the Naadam festival. Mongolia does not have Thoroughbred horse racing. Rather, it has its own Mongolian style of horse racing in which the horses run for at least a distance of 25 kilometers.

Horse races are held in Pakistan at four clubs. Horseracing in the Philippines began in The history of Philippine horseracing has three divisions according to the breeds of horses used. They are the Philippine-pony era — , the Arabian-horse era — , and the Thoroughbred-era —present. Horse racing was introduced to Singapore by the British during the colonial era and remained one of the legal forms of gambling after independence. It remains a highly popular form of entertainment with the local Singaporean community to this day.

Win, place and show wagers class as straight bets , and the remaining wagers as exotic bets. Bettors usually make multiple wagers on exotic bets. A box consists of a multiple wager in which bettors bet all possible combinations of a group of horses in the same race. A key involves making a multiple wager with a single horse in one race bet in one position with all possible combinations of other selected horses in a single race. A wheel consists of betting all horses in one race of a bet involving two or more races.

For example, a 1-all daily double wheel bets the 1-horse in the first race with every horse in the second. People making straight bets commonly employ the strategy of an "each way" bet. Here the bettor picks a horse and bets it will win, and makes an additional bet that it will show, so that theoretically if the horse runs third it will at least pay back the two bets.

The Canadian and American equivalent is the bet across short for across the board : the bettor bets equal sums on the horse to win, place, and show. A parlay , accumulator or roll-up consists of a series of bets in which bettors stake the winnings from one race on the next in order until either the bettor loses or the series completes successfully. In Australia, certain exotic bet types can be laid as "flexi" bets.

If the bet is successful, the bettor will get either the full winning amount shown on the board, or half the winning amount. Under a flexi system the bettor can nominate their desired total wager, and their percentage of payout is determined by this wager's relationship to the full unit price. If the bet is successful, the payout will be In recent times the "Roving Banker" variant for Trifecta and First4 betting is now offered.

For a Roving Banker First4 the player selects one, two or three runners they believe will definitely finish 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th, and up to three selections as Roving Banker s with other runners to fill the remaining place s. A Roving Banker Trifecta is where the player believes that one or two runners will definitely finish 1st, 2nd or 3rd.

The bet can be placed by picking the player's favourite runner to finish in any place within the bet and complete the Trifecta with any number of other runners to fill the other placing s. Exotic wagers are usually made on horses running at the same track on the same program.

In the United Kingdom , bookmakers also offer exotic wagers on horses at different tracks. Probably the Yankee occurs most commonly: in this the bettor tries to pick the winner of four races. This bet also includes subsidiary wagers on smaller combinations of the chosen horses; for example, if only two of the four horses win, the bettor still collects for their double. A Trixie requires trying to pick three winners, and a Canadian or Super Yankee trying to pick five; these also include subsidiary bets.

There are also other bets which are large combinations of singles, doubles, trebles and accumulators some of them are called Lucky 15, Lucky 31, Heinz, Super Heinz, Goliath. The term nap identifies the best bet of the day.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Pari-mutuel gambling. Betting system in which all bets of a particular type are placed together in a pool. See also: Glossary of North American horse racing. See also: Glossary of Australian and New Zealand punting. See also: Glossary of bets offered by UK bookmakers. Retrieved 11 July Hong Kong Jockey Club. Retrieved Japan Racing Association. Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on Retrieved 18 December

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Archived from the original on May 1, Retrieved April 30, Daily Racing Form. Archived from the original on February 3, Retrieved February 3, The Courier-Journal. Retrieved November 10, Business Insider. Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved April 2, Retrieved April 4, Archived from the original on April 4, Archived from the original on March 23, Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved May 10, Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved April 15, Archived from the original on October 24, Retrieved July 3, Sports Illustrated — Vault.

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Robert E. Frank M. Forward Pass [c]. Henry Forrest. Ford Stable. El Peco Ranch. Jack A. Victor J. Sunny Blue Farm. Jack J. Count Fleet. War Admiral. Charley Kurtsinger. Gallant Fox. Herbert P. Fred Hopkins. Hanley Webb. Rosa M. Charles Thompson. Ral Parr. Sir Barton. Henry McDaniel. Hollie Hughes. John Sanford. Old Rosebud. John McCabe. Hamilton C. Thomas P. Harry C.

George Archibald. Albert Ewing. Richard F. Frederick Herbert. William Gerst. Charles Mack. Jerome B. Hal Woodford. Pete Coyne. Jack Martin. Robert Tucker. Shorty Prior. Charles E. Lasca Durnell. Harold Booker. John P. Charles R. Frank B. Van Meter. Jimmy Boland. Charles H. Charles Head Smith. Robert J. Buttons Garner. Julius C.

James Perkins. Frank Goodale. Eddie Kunze. William McDaniel. John H. Dud Allen. Jacobin Stable. Thomas Kiley. John Rodegap. Macbeth II. Now, through consolidation, they have been reduced to between 9, and 9, in Improved TV coverage and the modernisation of the law have allowed betting in shops and casinos in most countries. In the UK, on-track bookies still mark up the odds on boards beside the race course and use tic-tac or mobile telephones to communicate the odds between their staff and to other bookies, but, with the modernisation of United Kingdom bookmaking laws, online and high street gambling are at an all-time high.

A so-called super-casino had been planned for construction in Manchester , but the government announced that this plan had been scrapped on 26 February They were forced to act when research at the time found there were eight million online players worldwide. With the arrival of the World Wide Web , many bookmakers have an online brand, but independently owned bookmakers often still maintain a "bricks and mortar" only operation as the software and hardware required to operate a successful online betting operation are complex and their costs are quite prohibitive; other bookmakers operate "skins" or "white label" websites, which they purchase from one of the large firms.

The main websites require bets to be from countries where Internet gambling is allowed and from people over 18 years old. Some small bookmakers and startups purchase software from specialised white label solution providers. Since gambling products have a high conversion rate from one niche to another, most online betting websites also feature other gambling products such as poker, live dealer casino games, lottery, bingo, slots and other casino games. Controversially, the explosion in Internet gambling is being linked to a rise in gambling addiction, according to the UK's help and advice organisations for addicts, GamCare and Gamblers Anonymous.

Increasingly, online bettors are turning to the use of betting exchanges such as Betfair and BETDAQ , which automatically match back and lay bets between different bettors, thus effectively cutting out the bookmaker's traditional profit margin also called an overround.

Betting exchanges compete with the traditional bookmaker. They are generally able to offer punters better odds because of their much lower overheads but also give opportunities for arbitrage , the practice of taking advantage of a price differential between two or more markets. However, traditionally, arbitrage has always been possible by backing all outcomes with bookmakers dutching , as opposed to laying an outcome on an exchange. Exchanges, however, allow bookmakers to see the state of the market and set their odds accordingly.

With the increasing number of online betting exchanges, betting exchanges are now providing free bet offers in an attempt to lure customers away from the competition. These free bets are generally based on the size of the deposit made into the gambling account. Some bookmakers have even taken to using betting exchanges as a way of laying off unfavourable bets and thus reducing their overall exposure. This has led to insecurity from some TABs in Australia, state-run betting agencies that attempted to deny Betfair an Australian licence by running unfavourable ads in the media regarding the company.

When Tasmania granted Betfair a licence despite these efforts, the Western Australian state legislature passed a law that specifically criminalised using betting exchanges from within the state; however, the law was later ruled to be unconstitutional.

As a result, internet gambling in Australia required a new legal framework. The Interactive Gambling Act regulates the online gambling market in Australia, together with all its amendments. The last amendment was introduced on 13 September This bill states that online casinos, online poker and live betting is illegal in Australia.

Online sports betting is legal, however. Bets are also taken via phones, using email and SMS text messages, [12] though poker and other sports are more suited to other media. As technology moves on, the gambling world ensures it is a major player in new technology operations. Most televised sports in the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe are now sponsored wholly or partly by Internet and high street bookmakers, with sometimes several bookmakers and online casinos being displayed on players' shirts, advertising hoardings, stadium signs and competition event titles.

Sponsors are especially highlighted in the football category since football fans present a significant percentage of the target group the bookmakers serve. Many of the bookmakers are sponsoring some of the major football teams in the major European football leagues, [13] although Werder Bremen are currently fighting the German courts for the freedom to continue featuring bookmaker Bwin on their shirts, as Germany and France take action against online gamers. The latest amendment of the ITG states that.

New online sportsbook laws are expected in the near future in Germany, as this law is only temporary: the expiration date is set to be on 20 June The situation is not that strict in France, however. International bookmakers are allowed to enter the French market, thanks to the Law No. With the recent banning of tobacco sponsorship [17] and the significant commercial budgets available to the gaming industry, sponsorship by car manufacturers, alcoholic drinks, soft drinks and fast-food marketers is being rapidly replaced by sponsorship from gaming companies in the Far East and Europe.

This system includes new provisions for regulating the advertising of gambling products. These provisions of the Act came into effect in September It is an offence to advertise in the UK, gambling that physically takes place in a non- European Economic Area EEA or, in the case of gambling by remote means, gambling that is not regulated by the gambling laws of an EEA state.

The Gambling Commission is the body that makes sure all sites and operators follow the new restrictions. In addition to the Gambling Act of , according to the new gambling bill, online gambling sites are only allowed to offer services within the United Kingdom, if they are registered at the UK Gambling Commission. The situation is more confused in the United States, which has attempted to restrict operators of foreign gambling websites accessing their domestic market.

All forms of online gambling are illegal within the states of Utah and Hawaii, while the states of Delaware, Pennsylvania and New Jersey took a different approach: almost all forms of online gambling are legal in these states.

These are the only US states where online casino sites can be legally registered. It is important to mention that Native Americans have their own gambling legislation - the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of However, they need their state's approval in order to be able to offer their services online. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Organization or person that takes bets on sporting events. This article is about bookmaking in the sense of gambling.

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