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Michigan is now a full-service sports betting state! Michiganders and visitors to the state can place sports bets on their mobile devices, their computers, and several different retail locations around both mdjsjeux bettingadvice. The online launch in January marked the endpoint of a process that began in December Governor Gretchen Whitmer signed into law two bills, S and Hwhich legalized sports betting both online and in casinos. Incidentally, the two bills also legalized internet poker, online casino games and online fantasy sports. In short, Michigan is quite the destination for placing a bet now.

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You head to Gaplin to learn more about the inmates with chickenpox and what could have started the outbreak. You learn that Carl, one of the inmates with chickenpox from Bensil, was on the same bus with inmates from Gaplin 7 days before his rash developed. The bus was pretty full, so he sat right next to a few of the Gaplin prisoners during the ride. Moreover, Greg, the sick guard from Bensil prison also works at the Gaplin facility.

Greg is newly married and has a baby on the way so he picks up extra shifts whenever he can. He was on duty at Gaplin the day before he developed a rash. To find out who caused the outbreak you need to know when it started. After speaking with the sick Gaplin prisoners you find out that the first inmate became sick on March To see if the two outbreaks are related you make an epi curve showing the chickenpox outbreak at each prison.

Epi curves are updated as new data come in, so they are always changing. The shape of the curve can provide clues about the possible source of an outbreak, or how the outbreak may have started. It also helps to show you whether the outbreak is reaching a peak or if it's coming to an end. But Carl didn't spread the disease to Gaplin prison. Carl was on the bus 7 days before his rash started. People are infectious can spread this disease 1 to 2 days before the rash develops, up until all their chickenpox blisters have formed scabs.

This means Carl could not have spread the disease to the Gaplin inmates on the bus ride. You got it! Greg spread the disease to Gaplin prison because he was on duty the day before his rash started. A person with chickenpox can spread the disease 1 to 2 days before they get the rash, up until all their chickenpox blisters have formed scabs.

Since Greg was working at Gaplin prison 1 day before his rash started, he likely spread the disease to Gaplin prison. Sorry but a person with chickenpox can spread the disease 1 to 2 days before they get the rash up, until all their chickenpox blisters have formed scabs. Carl, the inmate, did not spread the disease since he was on the bus 7 days before his rash started.

However, Greg was on duty at Gaplin prison the day before his rash started. So he caused the chickenpox outbreak at Gaplin prison. It's been 28 grueling days of quarantine for the exposed prisoners and relentless double shifts for the guards!

The prison wardens at both facilities are anxious to return to their normal routines and activities. The inmates are eager to be let out of their cells and have visitors again. While in quarantine, 3 of the 8 exposed Bensil prisoners ended up getting sick with chickenpox. The others did not. Now that you know what the disease is and how it spread, you work to make sure the outbreak is completely over.

People who have evidence of immunity do not need to be vaccinated. Now you can focus on vaccinating exposed people who are not protected against chickenpox and end the outbreak. This includes inmates who have never had chickenpox or only had 1 dose of chickenpox vaccine.

It's also important to work with the prison to develop a comprehensive prevention plan to avoid outbreaks like this in the future. The plan should include chickenpox education for staff and inmates, early detection, isolation of cases and quarantine of exposed persons, as well as vaccination of persons who are not protected against chickenpox.

Congratulations, you solved the outbreak! The inmates, staff, and all their families thank you for your hard work. Vaccination is important but people who have evidence of immunity do not need to be vaccinated. Only people who have never had chickenpox or only had 1 dose of the chickenpox vaccine need to be vaccinated. The inmates, staff and all their families thank you for your hard work.

Vaccination is important but not everyone needs to be vaccinated. Only people who do not have evidence of immunity need to be vaccinated. This includes inmates who have never had chickenpox or only had 1 dose of the chickenpox vaccine. This outbreak was fictional but parts of it were based on real-life events. At the time of the outbreak, 1, inmates were housed in the facility.

The first case of chickenpox developed in a year-old woman who was visited by her 8-year-old daughter who had chickenpox. The second case occurred a few weeks later in a year-old who styled the hair of the first case within 24 hours of case 1 developing a rash. The third case was identified in a year-old woman who had class with the second case. Despite this high number of inmates protected against the disease, this outbreak shows how prison conditions, including close living quarters, are ideal for the spread of a highly contagious disease, like chickenpox.

Developing a chickenpox prevention plan is one way for the prison to avoid outbreaks in the future. The prevention plan should include education of staff and inmates, early detection, isolation of cases and quarantine of exposed persons, as well as vaccination of persons who are not protected against chickenpox.

There's a new outbreak starting in the middle of the country, and your help is needed to make sure it doesn't spread! It's early May in a small, rural county in the Midwest. School kids are getting sick with what seems to be a new illness that is spreading fast. Your help is needed to contain it before it becomes more widespread! Laura is a year-old high school junior who hopes to go to college on a softball scholarship in a couple of years.

She's been practicing for her upcoming softball game, when suddenly she and two of her teammates come down with a fever, cough, and extreme tiredness. Worried, the softball coach sends the girls home. Five other students also come down with similar symptoms on the same day.

Desperate to get better and not miss another game, Laura and her friends head to the urgent care clinic to get checked out. While doctors are waiting for test results, more calls start coming in about similar illnesses. You gather medical records of the 15 sick people and ask them questions to see what they have in common.

You're right! You're not sure if this is a coincidence or if age has something to do with the outbreak. It's definitely worth exploring further. Sorry, but most of those who are sick are teenagers. With 11 of the 15 patients being between the ages of 13 and 18, age may have something to do with the outbreak. It's true that a lot of the sick people go to school at Freemont High: 7 out of But that doesn't count as "most.

You'll need to do some more digging around to figure out if age has anything to do with the outbreak. The illness is spreading quickly. There are now 24 sick people! Laura and most of her friends are so sick that they've been out of school for more than a week.

Worse, a 2-year-old boy and a 3-year-old girl have been hospitalized. The tests come back positive for an influenza flu virus infection, that's caused by a very unusual influenza virus. It turns out that most of the sick people are students, but they go to different schools in a large county. You need to figure out how the illness could have spread across schools so fast.

Seasonal flu is a respiratory disease a disease affecting the lungs caused by seasonal influenza viruses. These are viruses that spread in people and cause flu epidemics every year, usually in the fall and winter months in the United States. Flu is usually spread from close contact with people via coughing or sneezing.

Seasonal flu viruses are constantly changing, which means that the flu viruses that infect people one year can be different from the flu people get sick with the next year. This is one reason why you need to get a flu vaccine every season. Each season's vaccine is tailored to match what experts predict will be the most common viruses that season. Novel flu viruses are viruses that are not usually seen in people—these viruses normally only infect animals such as birds or pigs. But they can infect people too, and even change in ways that let them spread between people like seasonal flu.

Although novel flu virus infections are rare, they can be dangerous because seasonal flu vaccines usually don't protect against them and people usually won't have much natural immune protection against them. Based on the information you gathered, you see that they have a few things in common.

Many of them played in or attended a state-wide baseball and softball tournament in Freemont, featuring teams from all across the state. Also, the county fair was recently in town, attracting big crowds. A few of the sick teenagers have traveled to other states and even other countries.

In order to get a better idea of how the sick teens were first exposed to this particular novel flu virus, you need to take a closer look and see how they spent their time over the past few weeks. You also need to interview a number of healthy teens who did those same activities.

We call this a case-control study. To figure out which activity most likely led to flu exposure, search through the data table to find the activity with the highest value for prevalence which means the proportion of a population that has a certain condition among sick teens AND the lowest value for prevalence among healthy teens.

But take a look at the people who went to the county fair. That may be where they got sick, but you still don't know how, or what it was that infected them. It is true that the data shows you that all of those who are sick in this group are teenagers, but that's because you were looking only at teenagers.

So everyone in this data table is a teen, even the healthy people. The illness is spreading! There are now 54 sick people, including 9 adults. According to a recent update, a year-old man and 3 kids are in the hospital. You meet with the fair organizers who say that more than 10, people came to the fair during the 5 day event. There were carnival rides, food stands, a concert, a barn dance, and a number of animal exhibits.

Of course, many people who went to the fair are perfectly healthy. Since this is a novel flu virus with no other cases reported, you suspect that it may have come from an animal. You take a closer look at what kinds of animals the sick people were exposed to. As you talk to the sick and healthy teens who went to the fair, you're especially interested in the types of animals they were around. Some animals get the flu too, but their flu viruses usually aren't passed on to people.

However, every now and then, an animal's flu strain or type of flu changes in a way that allows it to be spread among people easily. You learn that many of the sick and healthy teens that you interviewed spent time around cows, chickens, and pigs. Some of them only spent an hour or two with animals, and some spent as many as 10 hours with them.

You've discovered that the more time the teens you interviewed spent around pigs, the more likely they were to get sick. That's a pretty strong link. Instead, the more time the teens you interviewed spent around pigs, the more likely they were to get sick. Take a closer look. The data show you pretty clearly that the more time the people you interviewed spent around pigs, the more likely they were to get sick.

It's been 19 days since Laura and her friends first got sick from this novel flu. There are now at least 72 sick people in this county alone, 11 have been hospitalized, and one person has died! It also looks like the flu crossed the state line!

You talk to health departments across the country and learn that there are at least 4, confirmed cases in 36 states, with dozens of people hospitalized. From the looks of it, you have a large outbreak on your hands, which may even turn into a pandemic!

With the number of cases quickly rising you begin to wonder whether all of these people attended the county fair or if they got infected somewhere else. A pandemic occurs when a disease spreads and affects a very large number of people across the globe.

Scientists monitor novel flu viruses carefully. A novel flu virus might cause a pandemic if the virus can spread efficiently from person to person and if most people don't have any immunity to the new virus. If the new flu virus can only be spread from animals to people or from one person to another, but no further, then it probably won't cause a pandemic.

People can have some immunity to flu viruses that are similar to viruses they've had in the past. If a new flu virus is very different from earlier flu viruses, it may be more likely to cause a pandemic. Though most people recover from seasonal flu after a week or two, a small percentage of people with flu die every year.

A novel flu virus could be much more serious, and if a novel flu virus caused a severe pandemic, many people could die. This happened during the influenza pandemic, during which millions of people died. After careful consideration, you rule out the possibility that all of the new cases that are popping up across the country are a result of people attending the county fair.

You arrange a virtual meeting with health departments across the United States to get more information about the cases. Based on the information you gathered, you calculate the relative risk to figure out why so many people are getting sick. Relative Risk RR describes the likelihood of some event like getting food poisoning occurring in a group of people with a potential risk factor like eating spinach compared to a group without that risk factor in this example, not eating spinach.

If the RR of getting sick after eating contaminated spinach was 5, then people who ate contaminated spinach would be 5 times more likely to get sick than people who did not eat contaminated spinach. The closer the relative risk is to 1, the greater the likelihood that an event occurring like getting food poisoning is about the same for both groups.

You can forget about pigs now. It looks like people who live with someone that has this flu are at high risk of getting sick too! This means the new flu virus has developed the ability to be spread easily from person to person. It may have started by spreading from pigs to people at that county fair, but now it's spreading from person to person, and fast!

Mosquitoes don't spread the flu. Most flu is spread between people, although a few animals i. From the looks of it, people who live with someone who has this new flu virus are at a high risk of getting sick too. This means that the new flu virus has developed the ability to spread easily from person to person. This new flu virus has developed the ability to be spread easily from person to person. After confirming your suspicion that the new flu virus is now being spread from person to person, you work with other experts at the Centers for Disease and Control and Prevention CDC , as well as state health departments across the country, to keep track of the number of people who are sick.

At last count, there were at least 52, sick people, 1, people in the hospital, and 94 deaths. Worse, you learn that there are now thousands of cases in different countries. People are scared; the story of the new flu is all over the newspapers, Internet, and TV news!

You tell people to stay home from work or school if they feel sick, so they don't spread the flu to others. That's right. The best way to fight the flu is to make sure that as many people as possible have received a vaccine that will protect them from the virus. This is true for seasonal and novel flu strains. If the vaccine isn't available yet, you should work to educate the public on ways to prevent the flu and its spread, like avoiding contact with people who are sick, washing hands often, and staying home if they're sick.

Everyone should avoid contact with sick people, regardless of whether they've been vaccinated or not. Since the flu vaccine is considered the best form of protection, it's a good idea to recommend people to get vaccinated as soon as possible. If the pandemic vaccine isn't available yet, you should work to educate the public on ways to prevent the flu and its spread, like avoiding contact with people who are sick, washing hands often, and staying home if they're sick.

It's always a good idea to wash your hands often, to avoid getting sick. But if you're using your hands to cover your mouth while you cough or sneeze, be sure to head to the nearest sink to wash your hands right after. Otherwise, you can easily spread your germs to whatever or whoever you touch next.

In general, the best way to fight the flu is to make sure that as many people as possible get a vaccine that will protect them from the virus. This is true for seasonal and novel flu viruses. If a pandemic vaccine isn't available yet, you should work to educate the public on ways to prevent the flu and its spread, like avoiding contact with people who are sick, washing hands often, and staying home if they're sick.

Although this outbreak was not real, it's based on similar outbreaks that have occurred in the past. Experts at CDC are constantly on the watch for new flu viruses that could potentially spread worldwide, infecting millions.

In recent years, novel influenza viruses, from birds and pigs, have infected many people. Luckily none of these viruses have caused a pandemic since the H1N1 virus. Investigations into novel flu cases help scientists understand how and where the next flu pandemic may begin and allow for the creation of new, targeted flu vaccines that can protect us from novel flu viruses.

Millions of people get seasonal flu every year. While most recover some people die. People who are at greatest risk of severe or fatal flu illness include very young children, older adults, pregnant women and people with certain chronic health conditions. Make sure to "Take 3" actions to fight flu every year— 1 get a seasonal flu vaccine, 2 follow important safety steps like good hand washing and avoiding others when sick, and 3 take antiviral drugs if your doctor prescribes them.

Antiviral drugs may be especially important in a pandemic if vaccine is not available yet. Note: Several aspects of the original outbreak and investigation have been altered to fit the format and length of this application. Your colleague interviews local cases to get information that may help solve the outbreak. Cases Salmonella , to spread to multiple states. Definition A traceback investigation is conducted to find the ultimate source of contamination during an outbreak.

Health Tips To help avoid Salmonella infection from live poultry, follow these simple tips: DO Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water right after touching live poultry or anything in the area where they live and roam.

Use hand sanitizer if soap and water are not readily available. Adults should supervise hand washing for young children. Clean any equipment or materials associated with raising or caring for live poultry outside the house, such as cages or feed or water containers. DON'T Don't let children younger than 5 years of age, older adults, or people with weakened immune systems handle or touch chicks, ducklings, or other live poultry.

Don't snuggle or kiss the birds, touch your mouth, or eat or drink around live poultry. Don't let live poultry inside the house, in bathrooms, or especially in areas where food or drink is prepared, served, or stored, such as kitchens or outdoor patios. Don't give live baby poultry as gifts to young children. Answer 1: Advise people not to eat chicken for months.

Instead, you need to: Communicate to the public about the outbreak and its source so that customers who recently ordered chickens from this hatchery can take precautions to avoid becoming ill. Coordinate with local public health and agriculture officials in Kansas to work with the hatchery to put interventions in place to eliminate this strain of Salmonella and prevent future outbreaks. Your hard work helped solve the outbreak!

Answer 2: Recommend that people not keep chickens in their yards. What you need to do next is: Communicate to the public about the outbreak and its source so that customers who recently ordered chickens from this hatchery can take precautions to avoid becoming ill. Answer 3: Find out who else bought chickens from the hatchery. Learn More Salmonella infections linked to live poultry. Visit CDC. We need your help. Your mission is to find out what the disease is and how to stop it.

Clue 1 Sam is an inmate and kitchen staff member at Bensil federal prison. Cases You start your investigation by checking the medical logs and records of any inmate who was treated for a rash in the prison health clinic in the last 4 weeks. Definition What is a clinical case definition? Confirmed case of chickenpox : A person who has a positive lab test or has symptoms of chickenpox meaning that they meet the clinical case definition and is linked to another confirmed or probable case.

Probable case of chickenpox : A person who has symptoms of chickenpox meaning that they meet the clinical case definition but does not have a positive lab test or is not linked to another probable or confirmed case. Notes Chickenpox is caused by a virus that spreads easily from an infected person to others who have never had the illness or received the chickenpox vaccine.

It can be spread by: Breathing in virus particles that come from chickenpox blisters or by the cough or sneeze of an infected person. Touching the virus particles that come from chickenpox blisters. It takes 10 to 21 days after exposure for someone to develop chickenpox.

Symptoms usually include: Blister-like rash Itching Tiredness Fever A person is infectious, meaning they can spread the disease, starting 1 to 2 days before they get the rash, up until all of their chickenpox blisters have formed scabs. Let's go, you've got work to do! Answer 3: Isolate probable and confirmed cases, quarantine exposed persons, and vaccinate everyone. Clue 2 You receive word that Sam's kitchen supervisor has been hospitalized with pneumonia and has a severe rash, with hundreds of blisters covering his body.

Better work fast! No time to spare, let's see if the lab results can shed some light on what's really going on. You carefully studied the data and noticed that most of the cases live in Unit A. Let's see if the lab results can shed some light on what's really going on. Clue 3 Lab results are back and confirm that the hospitalized prisoner along with the sick inmates from Unit A and the guard have chickenpox.

Notes What is contact dermatitis? Use of power to scale motor cost is incorrect. Materials costs scale with motor volume, and volume scales with torque, not power. Scaling by power rather than torque is important when comparing motors designed to operate at different speeds.

The P2 motor is inline with the engine and transmission and has the same revolutions per minute rpm as the engine. This constraint is not present in the PS hybrid, thereby allowing the use of a higher speed and smaller motor. Power is equal to torque times speed, so a slow motor, such as is used in a P2 architecture, will have a higher torque and be much heavier than a PS motor that is designed to operate at much higher speed and lower torque.

For example, a PS motor that operates at 6, rpm will weigh half as much as a P2 motor operating at 3, rpm. Also, the PS architecture appears to be more effective in reducing fuel consumption, as illustrated in Table 4. The technology for powering the motor from the battery has been developed for industrial use over the last 60 years; the main problems are improving efficiency and reducing size while providing adequate cooling.

Research is ongoing in the use of wide band gap WBG materials in place of silicon and in the development of high-temperature, high-frequency capacitors. Presumably to meet the needs of xEVs, the development of power electronics devices using WBG materials has increased, and power electronics may very well find limited application in vehicles by Nikkei Since devices using WBG materials operate at higher temperatures, their advantage will be reduced package size, easier cooling, and, possibly, higher efficiency.

Cost will continue to be an issue. Choice of voltage for the vehicle electrical system has been based on safety, electric loads, efficiency, and available technologies. The electric system powering accessories and the starter operates at 12 V, powered by a lead acid battery.

Attempts made in the past to replace the 12 V system with a higher voltage, specifically with 48 V, did not succeed because of safety concerns. At voltages higher than about 24 V, a break in the wire could create a sustainable arc that could ignite the insulation, causing a fire. Typically this starts at 48 V for stop-start systems and goes up to V.

The 12 V system is still used to power all low-power accessories, lights, and the like. To prevent fires, all voltages higher than 12 V use special color-coded wires, heavier insulation, and special connectors. Many xEVs use an electrically driven air-conditioning compressor to provide cooling when the engine is stopped.

This is normally driven from the high-voltage battery Green Car Congress , Note that these vehicles have a 12 V system for accessories, and often they have a dc to dc converter to make sure the 12 V battery is charged since it provides essential functions. Power electronics for charging the battery are in development. The simplest way is to use a controlled rectifier, perhaps with a dc to dc voltage booster. In this way the devices used for driving the motor can be reused for charging since the two functions are not performed at the same time.

This does not provide galvanic isolation between the battery and the plug, however, and most automakers have used a more complex circuit with high-frequency conversion that allows transformer coupling. For PEVs, an interesting development is to charge the battery without plugging in to an outlet.

This can be done by inductive coupling between two coils: one in the ground and the second on the vehicle. The two coils can be separated by as much as 12 inches and the radiated field can be controlled so that it does not exceed harmful levels Miller and Onar It does not seem likely that such a feature will have much effect on adoption of PEVs and thus will have minimal impact on fuel economy.

Cooling is critical for batteries, power electronics, and motors. Eventually, all heat generated has to be rejected to the ambient, but how it is done affects both effectiveness and cost. The heat can be rejected to a liquid or directly to the air. For electrified powertrains, battery cooling is most critical since battery life depends essentially on two factors: deterioration due to temperature during shelf life and the number of charge and discharge cycles Steffke et al.

Time will tell how critical cooling is for battery life, although there are indications that air cooling for the Leaf battery may be inadequate Gordon-Bloomfield b. Ideally one would like to have one liquid cooling circuit for the whole powertrain, but the lower temperature required for batteries than for either power electronics or motors makes a single system difficult to optimize.

WBG materials offer the possibility of using engine coolant since they can handle higher temperatures. Vehicle electrification requires more than the addition of motors and batteries and, for BEVs, removal of the ICE and transmission. The preceding sections of this chapter describe the potential for engine technology changes, as well as required motors, power electronics, and cooling systems to enable electrification.

The chapter describes more sophisticated. Less obvious changes may also be required, especially for PEVs, where the battery is larger and the ICE is either absent or likely to be turned off for large portions of the duty cycle. For example, the ICE provides much of the climate control within a vehicle, so in its absence, systems must be added to heat, cool, and defrost the vehicle.

The results were used to estimate the costs for a P2 architecture. Apart from the size of the P2 motor discussed above, the committee agrees with the teardown costs of the PS hybrid as applied to that architecture and the P2 architecture. Discussions with several automakers and one supplier knowledgeable in the complexities of wiring and other subsystems identified added costs for more extensive wiring, power cables with RFI suppression, and sealed fuel tanks, among other unestimated or underestimated costs.

Batteries are required in conventional vehicles for electric starting of the vehicle. For the improved fuel economy provided by regenerative braking and electrically powered drive, larger batteries are required. Current vehicles on the market typically use nickel metal hydride NiMH or lithium ion Li-ion batteries for hybrid vehicles and Li-ion batteries for battery electric vehicles.

These high-power, high-energy, large-volume, heavy batteries are the most significant incremental cost for vehicle electrification Whittingham In this section, current and near-term to battery technologies will be discussed. The focus will be on Li-ion batteries since NiMH batteries are not expected to see significant development.

Longer-term battery technologies will be discussed in the next section. The rechargeable, lithium-ion battery was first introduced as a commercially viable product by the Sony Corporation in the early s following more than two decades of research in the field Whittingham Since that time, Li-ion technology has matured to the point of dominating the consumer electronics market.

State-of-the-art Li-ion batteries now enable portable electronic devices, which have changed the way we live and communicate. The success of Li-ion batteries has prompted a surge in research and development aimed at harnessing the energy-storage capabilities of Li-ion chemistries for more advanced applications such as PEV transportation.

However, despite the success of Li-ion with respect to consumer electronics, transportation applications are considerably more demanding, particularly in terms of battery life, safety, and cost USABC a, b. As such, several major challenges must be addressed and overcome if Li-ion is to power the next fleet of light-duty vehicles. While there are currently many novel Li-ion-related technologies under investigation Yang et al. The cathode, or positive electrode, is lithiated on discharge, while the anode, or negative electrode, is lithiated on charge.

As in Figure 4. When the battery is discharged, the lithium ions travel back to the cathode and produce an external electrical current. Layered LiCoO 2 shown in Figure 4. During cell operation at 3. Electrons must travel through the external circuit, constituting an electric current that powers the attached device load on discharge.

Reproduced with permission. NOTE: Crystal densities are theoretical values, while tap densities represent typical, practical values, determined experimentally as the actual weight per unit volume occupied by a given material.

Volumetric energy densities are calculated using the crystal densities for comparison because the optimum, final electrode densities will vary among materials. Capacity and voltage targets for 0. This instability, the high possibility of thermal runaway in inadequately controlled batteries, and the relatively high cost of cobalt have led to efforts to find alternative cathode materials to LiCoO 2 that provide Li-ion cells with superior energy density, rate capability, safety, and cycle life.

Several alternative cathode materials to LiCoO 2 have been exploited by the Li-ion battery industry over the past decade. On the. However, in practical cells, when these high-energy NMC oxides are cycled against graphite, deliverable capacity decreases dramatically with cycle number along with a significant decay of cell discharge voltage Li, Y.

In order to overcome the capacity limit of current technology, materials such as Sn and Si Hou et al. However, the application of bulk silicon anode faces one major problem: During the reaction that forms the silicon—lithium alloy corresponding to the insertion of lithium in the negative electrode during the charging process , the volume expansion from the delithiated phase to the lithiated phase may reach percent Figure 4.

This high expansion, followed by a contraction of the same amplitude upon discharging rapidly leads to irreversible mechanical damage to the electrode and eventually leads to a loss of contact between the negative electrode and the underlying current collector, which causes a rapid capacity fade during cycling. Furthermore, silicon usually possesses low electrical conductivity, which has the effect of kinetically limiting the use of the battery.

A significant effort is under way to enable this system by designing conductive binders that can minimize any particle isolation or by incorporating Si in graphene sheet to keep good conductivity at the electrode level during cycling Wang et al. A battery management system BMS for Li-ion battery packs is responsible for ensuring that all the battery cells operate within prescribed intervals of voltage, temperature, and Li-ion concentration, as shown in Figure 4.

Battery SOC describes the remaining energy of a battery, which is equivalent to the ubiquitous fuel gauge of a conventional vehicle. Information on the battery SOC is very important for supervisory controllers in electrified vehicles to determine power flows to maximize system efficiency. Many studies have been conducted to develop methods for accurate SOC estimation.

These methods can be divided into three categories: coulomb counting, voltage-inversion, and model-based estimation. Coulomb counting relies on the integration of the current drawn from and supplied to a battery over operation time Ng et al. This method is advantageous owing to its simple structure and ease of implementation.

However, sensor accuracy, temperature-dependent capacity, and calibration of the initial battery SOC make it difficult to accurately estimate subsequent battery SOC. On the other hand, the voltage-inversion method utilizes the one-to-one relationship between voltage and battery SOC Pop et al. That is, the available capacity is determined by measuring terminal voltage during battery discharge operations. However, it is not easy to provide constant discharge current during battery operation.

Corrections due to current. Various model-based methods with current and voltage measurement closed-loop estimators have been developed for battery SOC estimation in an effort to overcome the drawback and merge the benefits of the coulomb counting and voltage-inversion methods Plett a; Lee et al. The closed-loop SOC estimator relies on coulomb counting that is modified by an error between the estimated voltage and measured cell voltages.

Clearly, a voltage prediction is necessary for forming the voltage error, and many recent efforts have targeted computationally efficient and physics-based models that emulate the electrochemical cell behavior. The estimation gain can be computed using various techniques such as pole placement, sliding mode observer, and Kalman filter, including extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter.

Battery SOP refers to the constant power that can be safely drawn from or provided to a battery over a certain period of time. Much effort has been devoted to developing model-based methods to estimate battery SOP in real time Plett a; Smith et al. Battery SOP estimation is also important for battery thermal management for applications with limited cooling for Li-ion batteries.

Battery SOH as an indicator of battery degradation defines the present performance of a battery relative to its fresh condition. The performance degradation of a battery may be the result not of a single mechanism but of several complicated mechanisms. Nonetheless, degradation mechanisms can lead to either a decrease in total available capacity or an increase in internal resistance. Thus, various model-based estimation techniques have been developed to identify those parameters with voltage and temperature measurement Kim ; Verbrugge and Tate ; Goebel et al.

For electrified vehicles, which require high voltage levels, large banks of series-connected cells are used to satisfy the power demand. Generally, a battery pack consists of hundreds of individual cells. Since aging, use, and calendar life lead to cell-to-cell variability, BMS should be able to equalize cells, referring to cell balancing or cell equalizing, in order to prevent individual cell overcharge or overdischarge.

Cell balancing methods can be divided into two categories: dissipative and nondissipative. Dissipating methods equalize the cells by extracting energy from the higher charged ones and dissipating it on shunts or resistors Asumadu et al. Nondissipating methods, on the other hand, can be divided into discharge equalizing systems, like multioutput transformers Kutkut et al.

It should be noted that each approach, regardless of its advantages and drawbacks, relies on an estimated SOC to perform cell balancing. The processor, the voltage and current sensors, wiring harness, and switching network for the cell-balancing add to the cost of a battery. The accuracy of the BMS and confidence in its functionality are also responsible for defining the battery SOC range, hence influencing the battery size and thus the vehicle cost.

Finally, the BMS influences the vehicle fuel consumption indirectly, by informing the hybrid electric vehicle supervisory controller about the battery status and availability SOC, SOP and hence defining the operating window for the internal combustion engine. Batteries are designed to store energy and deliver it at needed rates, producing the power required to move the vehicle.

There are trade-offs in choice of battery chemistry and battery component design to maximize energy or power. For example, batteries that are designed to contain as much charge as possible, as used in BEVs, are designed for higher energy. In contrast, batteries that must survive more charge and discharge cycles, such as those used in HEVs, are designed with higher power in mind.

Designing battery materials that can provide more power would enable a larger SOC swing for HEVs, enabling the necessary acceleration and regenerative braking with use of a smaller battery, which could lower the battery cost. That system is low voltage 2. This will lead to higher costs. In addition, the spinel has a dissolution issue that requires overdesigning the battery pack, leading to significant cost increases.

As of now, there is no system under development that is targeting high power that can be used in The recent penetration of lithium-ion Li-ion batteries into the vehicle market has prompted interest in projecting and understanding the costs of this family of chemistries. The BatPaC model is a publicly available bottom-up design and cost model developed for the Li-ion chemistries with support from the U. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Office. A detailed description of the BatPaC model is available in Nelson et al.

To date, a number of cost models for various levels of detail have been published in different forms Anderman et al. The cost of a battery will change depending on the materials chemistry, battery design, and manufacturing process Gallagher et al. Therefore, it is necessary to account for all three areas with a bottom-up cost model for Li-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation.

The cost of the designed battery is calculated by accounting for every step in the Li-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer OEM calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year in dollars.

A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and, perhaps more important, understand the driving forces for the results. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery.

Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences for cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the OEMs.

In order for electric vehicles to become truly mainstream, significant breakthroughs are required in their energy storage systems. Fuel cell vehicles face challenges in increasing durability and decreasing cost as well as in the hydrogen supply infrastructure. Both systems, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in particular, require deployment of an infrastructure for refilling with electricity or hydrogen. The following section describes the battery and fuel cell technologies likely to be in use in some portion of the fleet by From to , the existing cathode chemistries, including NMC cathodes rich in nickel, will likely be refined and the trade-offs between safety, cost, energy density, and power will be better understood.

On the anode side, the industry is predicting a blend of mostly graphite with 5 to 10 percent Si-based anode. As a result, the battery will cost significantly less. As discussed above, the rechargeable Li-ion batteries have transformed portable electronic devices and likely will play a key role in the electrification of transport in the near- to midterm.

However, the inherent energy density of the current Li-ion technology is not sufficient for the long-term needs of extended-range BEVs. In this section, the committee provides a brief overview of three systems beyond Li-ion—rechargeable Li-S, Li-air, and magnesium batteries— and addresses some of the key challenges for each individual system.

Two major technical bottlenecks prevent the realization of a successful rechargeable Li metal battery Wu et al. The other is the low coulombic efficiency during the repeated cycles, although this can be partially compensated for by an excess amount of lithium.

Overcoming these hurdles presents an enormous challenge to the lithium battery industry. Recently, researchers demonstrated that the growth of the lithium dendrites can be partially prevented through either a physical blocking mechanism using solid-state poly ethylene oxide copolymer electrolytes Balsara et al. However, these mechanisms are effective only under very limited conditions—that is, at high temperature or low current density.

Therefore, work is needed to look for a more reliable way to prevent dendrite growth in order to push the lithium anode for broad applications. Despite these obstacles, significant efforts are still being made to capitalize on and exploit the advantages of the metallic lithium systems such as Li-S and Li-air batteries, with a big assumption that these obstacles can be overcome eventually. The rechargeable Li-S cell operates by reduction of S at the cathode upon discharge to form a series of soluble polysulfide species Li 2 S 8 , Li 2 S 6 , Li 2 S 4 that combine with Li to ultimately produce solid Li 2 S 2 and Li 2 S at the end of discharge, as illustrated in Figure 4.

This contrasts with conventional Li-ion cells, where the lithium ions are intercalated in the anode and cathodes, and consequently the Li-S system allows for a much higher lithium storage density Barghamadi et al. Sulfur is an abundant material available on a large scale and at low cost as a side product of petroleum and mineral refining, which makes it attractive for low-cost and high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries.

Furthermore, the unique feature of the Li-S chemistry provides inherent chemical overcharge protection, enhancing safety, particularly for high-capacity multi-cell battery packs Yang et al. Although sulfur-based electrochemical cells had already been reported in , the electronically insulating nature of sulfur, the solubility of intermediately formed polysulfides in common liquid organic electrolytes, and the use of metallic lithium as a negative electrode have still not been solved satisfactorily.

In addition, the formed polysulfides in the electrolyte migrate to a lithium metal anode and are electrochemically reduced Yan et al. Recently, the interest in Li-S-based secondary batteries has been steadily increasing thanks to the design of new nanostructure materials that may be able to overcome issues related to the conductivity of bulk materials Xiulei et al. Moreover, the development of new electrolytes, binder materials, and cell design concepts in general has led to significant advances in the field of Li-S-based secondary batteries within the last few years Barghamadi et al.

There is no doubt that Li-S batteries remain attractive for the longer term because of their inherently high energy content, high power capability, and potential for low cost, although they are still in the development stage. Li-air batteries could theoretically provide the needed order of magnitude improvement in energy density because.

Unlike any other battery technology, Li-air energy density is competitive with that of liquid fuels. The Li-air technology has the potential to significantly reduce the cost well below that of Li-ion technology due to the higher specific energy densities and the lower cost of the proposed cell components, in particular of the carbon-based cathode materials versus the nickel, manganese, and cobalt oxides used in Li-ion battery cathodes.

The non-aqueous electrolyte is preferred, as it has been shown to have higher theoretical energy densities than aqueous electrolyte designs Zheng et al. Current Li-air batteries are still in the experimental stage, and the realization of the high theoretical energy densities and practical application of this technology have been limited by the low power output i.

These limitations are caused by the materials and system design:. It has recently become apparent that the electrolyte plays a key role in Li-air cell performance McCloskey et al. The oxygen anion radical O 2 — intermediate or other reduction species that may be formed during the discharge process can be highly reactive and may cause the electrochemical response to be dominated by electrolyte decomposition rather than the expected lithium peroxide formation.

The overall result is the consumption of the alkyl carbonate electrolyte. Although electrolyte stability is of paramount importance, cathode materials also represent a major technology challenge in Li-air cell development Li, F. The ultimate goal is to determine how to effectively increase the specific capacity and power capability of Li-air cells yet still achieve long cycle life. Attaining that goal strongly depends on the mate-. Though it offers a high theoretical energy density, in practice a Li-air battery may reach an energy density only twice that of a Li-ion battery.

Decreasing the lithium metal content may be limited by the difficulty of manufacturing thin lithium metal electrodes, resulting in about a four times excess lithium used. More significantly, if Li-air batteries must use pure O 2 rather than ambient air, then the size and weight of an oxygen tank must be taken into account in the energy density calculation.

Li-air technology is likely to take more than 30 years before a real practical prototype can be developed and used to power an electric vehicle. Magnesium-based batteries are, in principle, a very attractive alternative to other batteries, including Li batteries. Mg and its compounds are usually less toxic and safer than Li compounds because Mg is stable when exposed to the atmosphere. Mg is also lightweight, which, in theory, could enhance the volumetric energy density of the cell.

A rechargeable magnesium battery has been regarded as highly promising technology for energy storage and conversion since its first working prototype was ready for demonstration about a decade ago, and it could compete with lead-acid or Ni-Cd batteries in terms of energy density and self-discharge rate Yoo et al. To become practical, Mg batteries are still required to attain a specific energy comparable to that of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. Solid-state lithium battery designs have the potential to deliver at least two times the volumetric energy density of conventional Li-ion batteries at less than half the cost per kilowatt-hour.

This approach eliminates binders, separators, and liquid electrolytes. By eliminating these components, one can get around 95 percent of the theoretical energy density of the active materials. Solid-state batteries could herald a breakthrough in electrified driving because they are more compact and offer higher energy density than state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries see Figure 4.

In the absence of a thermally sensitive solid-electrolyte interphase, solid-state batteries intrinsically have a higher tolerance to thermal abuse and are much safer than Li-ion batteries using a flammable electrolyte. In addition, the solid-state electrolyte is mechanically strong enough to efficiently suppress the growth of lithium dendrites, which might cause an internal short inside a lithium battery using a liquid electrolyte, so it can enable the use of lithium metal as the anode for high energy-density batteries.

Solid-state batteries generally have a low power density, primarily because of two physical limitations associated with solid-state electrolytes: 1 low Li-ion conductivity. In principle, solid-state electrolytes are a class of single-ion conductor, in which the Li-ion can diffuse inside the solid while anions are immobilized. The disadvantage of a single-ion conductor is that the anion cannot establish a concentration gradient to assist the transfer of Li-ions in the electrolyte and the electrolyte-electrode material interface.

Moreover, the engineering design of a solid-state battery has to be balanced between energy density and power density. A thicker cathode film is ideal to maximize the loading of active components for a high energy density. Toyota is leading all-solid-state battery development and is planning to use solid-state lithium batteries as early as the s. Since , Toyota has managed to achieve fivefold increases in the power output of its experimental solid-state batteries Kotani Although the current technology is still in the laboratory stage, Toyota expects it to be ready for cars in the early s.

If technology development is successful, the batteries could give BEVs a range of more than miles on a single charge. The committee believes that fuel cell technology will be part of the vehicle mix in The proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell is the selected fuel cell technology for the automotive sector as it can be applied to all vehicle classes and platforms.

Hyundai is pursuing FCEVs independently. The hydrogen infrastructure plans under development to support FCEVs will be discussed in the next section. While the committee does not expect a significant impact on CAFE in the time period, it will be valuable to understand the development of both the technology and the hydrogen infrastructure to achieve the future prospects of this technology. The fuel cell system consists of an anode supply system for hydrogen, a cathode supply system for air oxygen , a thermal management system, other supporting hardware known as balance of plant BOP , as well as the controls to integrate the electrical power generation into electric vehicle type architectures.

These PEM fuel cell systems produce DC electricity electrochemically as do battery-type vehicles and have operating temperatures of 60 tooC. The basic PEM technology concept and corresponding system architectures lend themselves very well to the transportation sector.

It is very difficult to give cost numbers for a technology still under development. Automakers that are part of the U. DRIVE partnership participated in the vetting of the report. Key assumptions from this cost analysis report are shown in Table 4. These costs clearly need to be driven down through improved materials, better system integration, and greater volumes.

The automakers take different approaches to the fuel cell system. An automotive system shown in schematic form in. Some use humidifiers to ensure good proton conductivity of the membrane, while others are driving material developments for self-humidifying membranes. In an automotive application, as described, gaseous hydrogen is supplied to the anode side via onboard storage tank s , and air oxygen is supplied to the cathode side under pressure through an electrically driven compressor to improve the operating performance of the system.

In order to achieve the high power densities required for packaging in a vehicle, the stacks are liquid cooled and are configured in a series fashion of cells depending on the application and system requirements, as shown in Figure 4. More important from a vehicle perspective are the whole sys-. Hydrogen H 2 is oxidized at the anode, separating electrons and protons. Electrons pass through the external circuit, doing electrical work before reaching the cathode. In parallel, protons move through the electrolyte to the cathode, where protons and electrons reduce oxygen to water to complete the electrochemical circuit.

Sponsor: Cadex Electronics Inc. System efficiencies can approach the DOE target of 60 percent at the 25 percent load points in the typical driving ranges. These efficiency numbers include hydrogen as the fuel, electrical power required to run the air compressor and other ancillary power requiring devices, termed the balance of plant BOP , and the delivery of DC electric power to the inverter. Fuel cell systems can be very efficient from off idle to approximately 25 percent load, where the majority of normal passenger car operation occurs.

Automotive companies have been developing the PEM technology for more than 20 years. Major accomplishments in the areas of durability, cost, and packaging have allowed the construction of prototype fleets of 10s and s of vehicles. Much work has been done with the materials supply base for the membranes, catalysts, metal plate materials, and gas diffusion layers, and suppliers are working on the aforementioned BOP components.

An example of cost reduction in materials is in the catalyst area. The last several years have seen a focus on reduction of platinum group metal PGM content, Pt alloys, novel support structures, and non-PGM catalysts. Catalyst cost is projected to be the largest contributor to overall system level costs at high volume. Demonstrated small-scale performance at overall catalyst levels of 0. Current prototype vehicle fleets generally use grams of Pt for a kW stack, so much work needs to be done in the scale-up and engineering of full automotive size systems to get to levels currently achievable in the lab.

The automakers have announced commercial vehicle sales in the timeframe. To support their expectations, in they announced the following partnerships, mentioned earlier: 1 Toyota and BMW, 2 Daimler, Ford, and Nissan, and 3 GM and Honda, all of which were to assist in the product commercialization phase. Additionally, Hyundai has a significant internal program and publicly announced on November 20, , plans to offer its next-generation Tucson fuel cell vehicle for the U.

The first vehicles were delivered to lessees in June at several Southern California Hyundai dealers Voelcker These programs and partnerships between the major players are being put in place to help reduce the engineering costs associated with new technology developments and more closely focus suppliers of both the fuel-cell-specific materials and the BOP components and subsystems such as compressors, sensors, and ancillary equipment.

These partnerships also give credibility to the technology and its status. The automakers are being forthright regarding their perspectives on fuel cells and the challenges yet to be overcome. Toyota has gone on record Ohnsman that the automotive fuel cell propulsion system is the system of the future from its perspective and has significant advantages over battery vehicles in the matters of range and refill or recharge time in the case of batteries.

Other automakers have made similar public announcements. Honda, for example, recently announced improvements to the hydrogen vehicle filling process to shorten times and make it more customer-friendly Honda To meet commercial high-volume product targets there are still several hurdles to overcome. Validated durability is a key at both the catalyst and the membrane level.

The automakers, national labs, and the supplier base have done a tremendous amount of work to understand fundamental failure mechanisms and then address them through materials development, design improvements, and system-level controls refinements. Thinner supported-type membranes improve voltage performance and efficiencies as well as water management issues.

Materials that can conduct and operate at lower levels of relative humidity are the ultimate goal that the supply community continues to pursue. These developments are continuing and occurring globally, with key suppliers and development programs in the United States, Japan, and Europe as the OEM engineering and commercialization programs move forward.

Gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles, including conventional HEVs, use the extensive existing petroleum fueling infrastructure. Similarly, PEVs and FCEVs require an infrastructure for fueling on electricity or hydrogen, but this infrastructure may or may not resemble the existing petroleum infrastructure. Much electric infrastructure exists in private and public buildings and may be co-opted for electric vehicle charging; however, public electric fueling infrastructure is still in development.

Hydrogen fueling infrastructure is in an even earlier stage of development and cannot rely on existing infrastructure; this represents a higher barrier to FCEV deployment than does the electricity infrastructure for PEV deployment. The infrastructure that develops to fuel PEVs may not resemble the gas station model that has developed for ICEs, however.

Because PEVs currently refuel more slowly than gasoline vehicles, and because an existing infrastructure of power lines and outlets reaches nearly every building, many PEV drivers have found it convenient to refuel at home or other locations where their vehicle remains parked for long periods. Some workplaces have chosen to implement charging at their parking facilities NRC In some areas of high PEV deployment, public charging infrastructure is developing.

Both Nissan and Tesla are building national networks of charging stations. Among current commercial models, only the Model S is practical for cross-country travel, as its charging time is much shorter than its range NRC Several parts of the world are preparing for fuel cell vehicles by developing a hydrogen infrastructure for refueling. The hydrogen fuel for FCEVs is required to be very high purity to ensure optimum performance. Work needs to be done to determine trade-offs with performance and life with lower grades of industrially-produced hydrogen.

Most notable infrastructure developments are occurring in California, Germany, Japan,. South Korea, and the U. Global deployments of hydrogen refueling are shown in Figure 4. The implementation of a hydrogen infrastructure is required for FCEVs to reach a high volume of adoption.

There has been much discussion and debate over when and if such an infrastructure should be realized. In the United States, this has become politicized, but in other areas of the world FCEVs and hydrogen are being considered in a more long-term context to reduce CO 2 footprints and enable other applications of the technology.

As of late , there were 10 public hydrogen fueling stations in the U. The California Fuel Cell Partnership reports that if all currently planned and funded stations are built as expected, there will be 37 in the state by Elrick Several additional states have expressed a commitment to provide infrastructure to support forthcoming fuel cell vehicles. On October 24, , eight U. The credit expired December 31, DOE The Agencies estimate the effectiveness of various electrification technologies as described above.

Additionally, while certification data exist for current and past model years, the standards are binding to for fuel economy and for GHGs. Technologies will. The data for the GM eAssist used as an example in the technical support document TSD for an MHEV illustrate the difficulty in using conventional comparator vehicles to derive the benefit of hybridization alone.

The Malibu and the LaCrosse are similar vehicles and yet they show different fuel consumption improvements upon hybridization. The LaCrosse shows an increase of 37 percent in fuel economy between the conventional and hybrid versions, while the Malibu shows an 11 percent increase in fuel economy. The Malibu comparison was used to determine the fuel consumption reduction of MHEVs because the conventional and hybrid models have the same size engine and are thus more comparable than the LaCrosse models, which do not have the same engine size.

GM claims that because of the boost that the 15 kW motor provides, the LaCrosse eAssist has acceleration similar to that of the conventional LaCrosse despite a smaller engine Hall ; Hawkins et al. In mph performance, however, the 8. For similar reasons, the Jetta and the Fusion models shown in Table 4. Using these estimates, the committee concludes that the effect of hybridization is a 10 percent reduction in fuel consumption for the mild hybrid.

Note that the Agencies assumed an incremental fuel consumption reduction effectiveness of 6. The addition of stop-start incremental effectiveness of 2. The TSD reports vehicle simulation resulting in a total fuel consumption effectiveness of The Agencies base their high reduction in fuel consumption for the P2 on a Ricardo study and claim the effectiveness of the P2 hybrid used in this final rulemaking is This total effectiveness estimate includes the transmission effectiveness of Removing the transmission effectiveness, leaving out stop-start effectiveness of 2.

This is larger than indicated by examples in Table 4. Part of their reasoning seems to be that by , automakers will find ways to improve the P2 system. The Sonata hybrid shows an increase in mpg of only The Jetta, like the LaCrosse, has a downsized, turbocharged engine, so it combines two technologies and is not indicative of what can be achieved with hybridization alone. Further comparisons of P2 vehicles with their conventional analogs are available in Annex Table 4A.

In early studies, the ALPHA model had been used to estimate the effectiveness of P2 and PS hybrids and was successfully validated against current examples of these architectures to within 5 percent of the test fuel economy Lee, S. ALPHA may improve estimation of fuel consumption reduction for strong hybrids. The estimate would depend on whether engine downsizing is also assumed. As the table shows for the hybrid Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry, both lie at the upper end of the Agency estimates without any downsizing.

The NRC estimate of PS effectiveness is based off the Agency estimate at 33 percent on the low end, and the Camry hybrid-conventional comparison of a fuel consumption reduction of Hybridization of the ICE drivetrain with the addition of an electrical system improves fuel economy and reduces GHG emissions. For compliance purposes, this can be recorded in a straightforward way by measuring the fuel consumed in the test cycles, as for a typical ICE vehicle, and described in the J SAE standard Hybrid-EV Committee Including the energy used and carbon emitted to generate electricity or hydrogen adds to the complication, as discussed in Chapter 10 DOE d.

The preceding sections describe the technologies used for vehicle electrification, their likely penetrations and estimates of their effectiveness when implemented to , as well as technologies likely to be used to Particular areas that the Agencies should reexamine in the midterm evaluation include the cost of technologies required for consumer acceptance of stop-start, the cost of motors for strong hybrids, in particular the P2 system, and the nonbattery component costs for PEVs.

Although this figure may be relevant for some conventional powertrain technologies, in the opinion of the committee this is optimistic for electrified powertrains. Using Ford as an example, , units sold in would constitute approximately 15 percent of its sales. Even if all xEV sales are combined, it is highly unlikely that the xEV share of the market will be that high for Ford. Since unit costs are higher for low volumes, this assumption leads to an underestimate of the cost of hybridization.

Despite the low projected production volume and the high volume used when calculating the component costs, the battery costs for seem reasonable. This could be due to one of two things:. For the P2 and PS, different lower bounds were estimated for the fuel consumption reduction based on comparisons between hybrids and their conventional counterparts.

Justification for these cost increases is described earlier in the chapter. Finding 4. In projecting mild hybrid costs, the Agencies sized the battery based on an assumed 40 percent SOC swing, thus making the Agencies estimate of the battery of the mild hybrid half the size and half the cost of current implementations.

Recommendation 4. Battery life is a key element in electrified powertrains, and premature failure should be avoided. It is a function of energy and power requirements, battery chemistry, and required battery life. Battery life depends on the number of cycles required, the stability of the chemistry to cycling at the required state of charge swing, the thermal and stress evolution it undergoes, and its shelf life.

Due to rapid development of battery technology, there are no real-world data to validate battery life beyond those from simulations and accelerated aging tests, so the appropriate state of charge swing to meet the conventional powertrain warranty of 8 years and , miles is unknown. GM is sizing the battery more conservatively than Nissan by using a smaller swing in SOC and, accordingly, a larger battery.

The Agencies accepted the state of charge swings of the two automakers and assumed a higher cost per kilowatt hour for the power-optimized battery of the PHEV. PS hybrids. The cost estimate is partly based on the assumption that electric motors scale as power. In fact, the rotor volume and cost depend entirely on torque and hence the cost of electric motors scale with torque.

The P2 motor is inline with the engine and transmission and has the same rotational speed as the engine. This constraint is not present with the PS hybrid, thereby allowing the use of a higher speed, smaller motor. Also, to minimize NVH, it appears that some automakers are not using the crankshaft-mounted electric motor for starting but are augmenting the conventional cranking motor and 12 V battery. The effectiveness of the PS hybrid models now available in the market as compared to the effectiveness of their conventional analogs with the same engine show that the PS architecture provides hybrids with significantly greater reduction in fuel consumption than similar P2 hybrids and their conventional analogs.

For the midterm review, the Agencies should undertake a teardown of the next generation PS and P2 architectures to update cost. Full system simulation of P2 and PS architectures should be undertaken to estimate effectiveness for the midterm review. Based on inputs from automakers, battery suppliers, and independent consultants, it is the opinion of the committee that the battery cost estimates used by the Agencies are broadly accurate, while the cost of the nonbattery elements is too low, perhaps by a factor of as much as 2.

To conservatively estimate these unaccounted-for costs, the committee used a high cost estimate of 1. The Agencies should commission teardown studies of the most successful examples of 1 stop-start, 2 strong hybrids PS, P2, and two motor architectures ,. At that time there will be better estimates of volumes for each type in the to time frame so that a better estimate of cost can be calculated. These technologies are still in the development stage and have many challenges related to poor efficiency, poor cycle life, and serious safety concerns due to the use of very reactive lithium metal.

FCEVs will have minimal impact, if any, on CAFE compliance based on current automaker plans for market introduction but may become more important by A coordinated national plan for H 2 infrastructure deployment will be required if successful, high-volume FCEV deployment is to be realized.

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Liu, P. Sushko, J. Liu, and J. Dendrite-free lithium deposition via self-healing electrostatic shield mechanism. Journal of the American Chemical Society 11 : Dinger, A. Martin, X. Mosquet, M. Rabl, D. Rizoulis, M. Russo, and G. The Boston Consulting Group. Accessed December 11, DOE Department of Energy. Accessed September 3, Accessed September 4, Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit. Alternative Fuels Data Center.

Alternative Fueling Station Locator. Dubarry, M. Truchot, B. Liaw, K. Gering, S. Sazhin, D. Jamison, and C. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications: III. Effect of thermal excursions without prolonged thermal aging. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 1 : AA Petroleum Weekly Archive.

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