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Michigan is now a full-service sports betting state! Michiganders and visitors to the state can place sports bets on their mobile devices, their computers, and several different retail locations around both mdjsjeux bettingadvice. The online launch in January marked the endpoint of a process that began in December Governor Gretchen Whitmer signed into law two bills, S and Hwhich legalized sports betting both online and in casinos. Incidentally, the two bills also legalized internet poker, online casino games and online fantasy sports. In short, Michigan is quite the destination for placing a bet now.

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While the effectiveness of the international human rights system has been questioned by a vast array of different scholars, the central theme of this Symposium will focus on the legacies and repercussions of the hegemony of Western thought within both feminist research and practice in the sphere of international law and attempts and proposals for overcoming these.

It particularly aims to bring together researchers who have been working at the intersection of the emerging scholarship on transnational law and feminist theories. Transnational law has been arguing for an inquiry into the role of law in context through the consideration of the diverse actors, norms and processes that both legal scholarship and practice are faced with as a result of globalisation.

With transnational legal scholarship offering a variety of tools and frameworks that could have potential for cross-border feminist research and practice in international law and vice versa , the Symposium encourages applications by those who have been attempting to connect the two disciplines. The Symposiums aims to draw attention to some of these blind spots by inviting submissions from scholars whose research engages in a more contextualised approach to feminist theory and practice by allowing for the inclusion of non-liberal knowledge and discourse that might find their roots outside of the Eurocentric understanding of law and gender equality.

Contributions are invited from scholars and activists in the field of law, gender studies, feminist theory, international relations and other disciplines that consider the kinds of questions listed above. As a result, accepted papers will be given to be published in this special issue after a peer review process. Please submit an abstract of no more than words, a short bio max. Draft papers will be due to at the end of February with the final papers having to be submitted by the end of April , after the Symposium.

Quality articles based on presentations made at the Symposium will be published in our annual Symposium edition. Current plans call for the Symposium to take place entirely online. Preference for presentation times will be given to those also planning to submit an article for publication. The COVID care crisis and other multiplying effects of related shutdowns, embedded inequalities, and health and safety risks are likely disproportionately impacting people with caregiving responsibilities in academia.

At the same time, schools and other institutions providing support to families and marginalized groups are temporarily closed, permanently shutting down, or buckling in response to state or local mandates as well as financial and personnel pressures. All of these factors threaten the output, visibility, status and participation of women and other primary caregiving faculty and staff in legal academia.

Left unaddressed, these disparities also have the potential to alter the landscape of legal academia and further marginalize women and the perspectives they bring to legal scholarship, education, and public dialogue. This symposium seeks to raise awareness of the current COVID care crisis and its impacts on academia, and to begin a dialogue on concrete and innovative responses to this crisis.

There will be no registration fee for presenters or other participants in order to maximize engagement and inclusivity. Panels will be grouped by theme and topic. The organizers are exploring publication opportunities with various law journals, with expected publication in late Abstracts must be submitted to Sarika Laljie by October 30, The authors of the selected papers will be notified by November 10, The symposium is organized by Prof.

More info is available here. For decades in Britain, periods were embarrassing, fact. Then in the BBC broke a story on period poverty. Tina Leslie, a health worker in Leeds and her colleague, had noticed girls were not attending classes during their periods. On questioning, it emerged that the girls were not going to school because they could not afford period products and were afraid of leaking.

The story hit a nerve with the British public and overnight it became the top topic of conversation. The growing debate seemed to miss one key element, the voices of the girls themselves. We decided to conduct research, working with a network of the UKs leading menstruation experts advising and guiding the work, to hear directly from girls about their experiences of menstruation.

We decided to try something new. We came at it from a light hearted approach, using fun to get people talking about periods. Out of a late afternoon team brainstorm, the idea of an emoji for menstruation was born. Something light hearted we could launch on Menstrual Health Day and that supporters, especially young people, could be encouraged to use in conversations online to tackle some of the silence and stigma around periods.

This would then pave the way for us to share some of the more serious issues attached to menstruation with this audience who now were talking about periods. The period emoji idea immediately struck a chord with the people who supported the charity. We ran a poll of women and asked if an emoji was something they would use and if stigma around periods ever held them back. The answers blew us away: two thirds of women did not feel comfortable discussing their period with their Dad or male friends and more than 1 in 10 women did not feel comfortable talking about periods with their female friends.

So off we went, working with activists in the Global North and South as we wanted the design to be as globally appealing as possible. We ran our five designs past a number of experts before putting these out to the public to vote. Our plan was that we would take the winning emoji to the Unicode Consortium to be developed into a global emoji for the emoji keyboard, available on practically all devices these days.

We launched this campaign and asked the public to vote for their favorite period emoji. We expected a few thousand votes at the most. Within days it went viral, we had dozens of celebrities sharing this. We were being featured in the media including radio, TV and press across the UK and then globally. By the end of less than 2 weeks we had over 37, votes! And most importantly, the issue was a national conversation. We were thrilled! At the end of voting, the period pants were the winning design so, as promised we submitted a proposal to the Unicode Consortium to have these made into an emoji.

Then the waiting started. This was a bit of a shock, what with million people menstruating right now and over half the planet having experienced this directly in their lives. It felt much more widely usable than the goblin mask, 12 different types of trains and dumplings, in our opinion.

We tried to push back but no luck. So our next move was to submit another proposal, this time for the runner-up design. Whilst the pants had the most votes, the blood drop came in close second place and was equally inclusive. We were told by the Consortium that NHS Blood was also looking to have a blood drop emoji and that our chances would improve if we teamed up, which we did.

After 2 years of campaigning and liaising with the Unicode Consortium we finally got the blood drop emoji in October Perhaps an even bigger win, in our view, was the two years of conversations that happened around the period emoji campaign. The global conversation about periods was shifting dramatically, the USA was changing its tax laws, handmade pads and menstrual cups were growing in popularity in Malawi and Uganda, Pad Man had opened up the conversation to Bollywood and a film about an Indian menstruation activist won an Oscar.

The vast, global media coverage this received was unprecedented for periods, as was the online buzz. The campaign went viral twice in these two years and there was more conversation about periods than ever before.

Whilst this online conversation did include the good, bad and the ugly or rather the extensive and often nasty trolling , in itself this broke down the silence and helped further the cause and awareness of periods, period stigma and period poverty globally. And for this, we are very proud. The UK movement for period equity went from strength to strength, sex and relationships education became statutory in schools, English schools were given free period products for pupils and the government committed to abolishing the Tampon Tax.

We worked closely with the government as they created a new Period Poverty Task Force, committing funding to eradicate the problem. Without a doubt there is still more to do and we have yet to understand the impact of COVID on all of these issues.

What we do know is that poor quality education and stigma in the UK and globally are still holding girls and other menstruators back. Do we hope there will be bloody tampons, pads, pants and uteruses added to the emoji keyboard in the future — yes absolutely!

And if the emoji has helped people talk about periods, then we are proud to be part of a global movement to view periods as part of a normal, healthy body. Carmen was interviewed by Emma Barnett for her book Period about menstrual health and stigma, as well as featuring in the documentary Picture Character on how to get a global period emoji.

Leading the period emoji campaign remains one of her proudest achievements. She has secured changes to the law and policy regarding teenage pregnancy, sex and relationships education , street harassment and more. She has run campaigns to end period poverty and taboos and working with Carmen on the blood-drop emoji campaign.

The United States is a nation in transition, struggling to surmount its racist past. This transitional imperative underpins American race jurisprudence, yet the transitional bases of decisions are rarely discussed and sometimes even denied. By analyzing opinions concerning school desegregation, voting rights, affirmative action, and disparate impact, this Article uncovers two main ways that the Supreme Court has pursued racial transition.

With this shift, civil rights measures that were once deemed necessary and urgent have been declared inappropriate and outdated. Because both reckoning and distancing approaches claim to advance transition, this Article evaluates these approaches from the perspective of transitional justice, a field that helps societies to overcome histories of oppression. Transitional justice theory further offers a novel account of judicial disagreements and independent criteria for deciding which claims about transition should have purchase.

The full article is available here. Worldwide, menstruation has long caused marginalization and vulnerability for some. The pandemic has amplified these conditions. This Article makes three claims. The first is descriptive, identifying four interrelated aspects of global period poverty that have gained new salience during the coronavirus pandemic: lack of access to affordable menstrual products; lack of access to other needed supplies and services for health and sanitation; lack of menstruation-related information and support from schools and health professionals; and menstrual stigma and shame.

Finally, the Article explores the heightened visibility of menstruation-related concerns during the COVID crisis as suggestive of an emerging popular awareness of period poverty. I also saw her when I attended oral arguments at the Supreme Court. She was a formidable jurist, lawyer, and academic. When I learned of her death, I could not help but think of how moments like this one cause us to remember where we were and what we were doing.

I was frantically trying to meet my September 18 deadline to re-apply for promotion. When I learned of the news, I could not help but cry, for a moment. All the tension during the preparation of my application materials culminated with the news of her death. I started to think about her legacy and what she meant for many people in this nation. She paved the way for many of us to do what we do as professional women. During her many talks, Justice Ginsburg openly shared her experiences with job discrimination.

I cannot help but think that, perhaps, those lived experiences fueled her sense of justice and injustice and the drive to right the wrongs she knew many women and other oppressed people face. She helped so many, including when all she could do was write powerful dissenting opinions, such as in Ledbetter v. The Equal Pay Act claims were dismissed on summary judgment at the district court level. Justice Ginsburg was the only woman on the Court at the time of that decision.

In her dissenting opinion, Justice Ginsburg made the case for the particular circumstances involved in pay disparity cases and why it was difficult for employees to meet the days from the first paycheck disparity limitations period.

She urged Congress to correct the majority decision. Her dissenting opinion led to the passage of the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of , the first legislation enacted during the Obama Administration. She showed us that there is power in voicing dissent. They both acknowledged that they had no problem forging a personal relationship because they respected their disagreements on matters of law.

Her story is full of lessons. As an academic, I foresee that a body of work will continue to develop from all the law review articles and books that will be written about her and her actions in furtherance of a more perfect union. She did her work. It is now up to all of us to continue with what remains undone, including telling the stories that must be told and litigating the cases that must be litigated, all the way to the Supreme Court if necessary, even if we must wait for a dissenting opinion to lead to legislative action as in the Ledbetter case.

Some of us will now show our dissent through our vote with the hope that it will turn into a majority vote. Check it out! Andrews was profiled in the book Feminists Who Changed America She died in at the age of 78 her obituary is here. Although the precise date is unknown, Dr. It is a first-person account of her experiences in the s and s. If it were, we would not be discussing community gardening, desirable as it is, nor the use of computers, which I should imagine most of you know already.

That O. But it might stand for Outrage, which is where we were, in , when the second wave of feminism began. How many of you have had an abortion or know someone who has? Well, I knew one in my student days; she was filthy rich and she had to go all the way to Mexico to accomplish it. How many of you use contraceptives? Well, when I married, contraceptives had just become legal for married women only. My doctor — actually the third doctor I went to for contraception since the previous two refused — gave me a diaphragm to practice inserting but punched a hole in it so it would not be effective.

I could get an intact diaphragm after I got the marriage license. Well, when I was in college, such products were sold from behind the counter of the pharmacy. You had to ask for them and believe me, you died of embarrassment.

How many of you wear jeans, leggings, whatever? Well, I adhered to a dress code, in college and beyond. Women wore skirts yes, even for sports and never above the knee. How many of you have looked for a job? How many of you have a credit card? When I graduated, got a job secretarial and applied for a store credit card, I could get it … if my father signed for it. How many of you have thought of becoming doctors, lawyers or merchant chiefs?

And doctors? Not acceptable because women would faint at the sight of blood think about it. How many of you have asked for a raise lately? My roommate did, and very daring it was of her too. Her boss refused. Because she worked at Harvard Business School where she would meet plenty of eligible men and she ought to be grateful for such a perk. Feminists believe that women are real people. That they can and should make their own decisions and that they can and should be free to develop themselves and their talents, free to build a good community and a good world, without the censure and restrictions of those who would make their decisions for them.

If I could give you anything, I would give you the passion that drove the feminist movement so that you understand the purpose, respect the dignity and intelligence of women and work to free women all over the world for the sake of your daughters, granddaughters and great-granddaughters.

Online 1 : Here is the abstract:. The coronavirus pandemic caused an unprecedented shutdown of the United States. The stay-at-home orders issued by most states typically banned large gatherings of any kind, including religious services. Churches sued, arguing that these bans violated their religious liberty rights by treating worship services more strictly than analogous activities that were not banned, such as shopping at a liquor store or superstore.

This short Essay examines these claims, concluding that the constitutionality of the bans turns on the science of how the pathogen spreads, and that the best available scientific evidence supports the mass gathering bans. Read the full essay here. Johnson is nationally recognized as a leading scholar of financial markets regulation with research and teaching expertise in the areas of securities regulation, corporate governance, risk management, compliance, and innovative financial technology, including digital financial products and markets.

She has presented her research on systemic risk, risk management, cyber risk regulation, emerging technologies—such as artificial intelligence and distributed digital ledger technologies—and macroprudential financial markets regulation throughout the United States and abroad. Read the full notice here. Congratulations, Professor Johnson! We write to you in troubling times, yet we are hopeful for a brighter future ahead. First, we hope that you are taking care of yourselves and your loved ones.

The Issue will be published in May , with an accompanying remote symposium in March In the wake of numerous police shootings of unarmed Black men and women, the murder of protesters, and the lack of justice for many of the perpetrators, a statement from ELJ will no longer suffice; to be an anti-racist Journal, we must act.

Therefore, this spring, we will use our platform to elevate scholarship that seeks to facilitate racial justice and dismantle white supremacy by publishing a Special Issue and holding a remote symposium. ELJ is looking for essays from 7, to 15, words that expose systemic racism in the law or propose anti-racist solutions to make the law more just. Brown will be writing the introduction to the Special Issue. We will accept abstracts as submissions, and if your essay is selected, you are not required to participate in the Symposium, but you will have a standing invitation to do so.

We will accept essay submissions on a rolling basis. The deadlines for submission and publication are below:. To submit your essay, please email Sam Reilly at samuel. ELJ is committed to being an anti-racist organization, both in our ranks and in our scholarship. This is just one part of that mission. We look forward to reading your essays and moving the conversation forward. Drury was tried for her murder and was found guilty, but he appealed the decision claiming he had been provoked into killing Marylin because she had been unfaithful to him.

This appeal has had a profound impact on our law around provocation through sexual infidelity. Her students produce some engaging work that may be of interest to readers. It compares the backgrounds, education, experience and judicial philosophies of each judge and the context in which she was appointed. The podcast is available here. In case you missed it, there is a new lawsuit challenging the Michigan state sales tax on menstrual products.

The Detroit News has a story here. Read more here. There are already bills pending in the Michigan legislature that could eliminate the tax. Lawyers at Period Equity are leading the charge. How many days a month have you missed work or requested a day off for stomach pains and cramps because of menstruation?

The policy, not common among large global companies, allows up to 10 days of period leave a year and applies to transgender employees. The policy is considered a bold move in tackling an age-old taboo in India, where 71 percent of young women remain unaware of menstruation until their first cycle, according to UNICEF. You should feel free to tell people on internal groups, or emails that you are on your period leave for the day. Read the full article here. Read more in this article by Ari Berkowitz, for the Conversation.

Tracy A. Here is the abstract. A key question for legal scholars and political scientists is whether women jurists judge differently than men. Some studies have suggested that women judges are more likely to support plaintiffs in sexual harassment, employment, and immigration cases. Other studies conclude that women are more likely to vote liberally in death penalty and obscenity cases, and more likely to convince their male colleagues to join a liberal opinion.

Yet other studies have found little evidence that women judge differently from men. This article explores the jurisprudence of the first woman judge, Judge Florence Allen, to test these claims of gender difference in judging. Judge Allen was the first woman judge many times over: the first woman elected to a general trial court Cuyahoga County Common Pleas in , the first woman elected to a state supreme court Ohio , the first woman appointed to a federal appellate court U.

Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in , and the first woman shortlisted for the U. Supreme Court. Her forty years on the bench included cases of constitutional law, administrative power, criminal process, labor rights, and patent cases. The discussion was pretty intense. I cried for several days. It took me a long time to realize that the student had done me a favor. She felt safe enough and cared enough about me and about the class to talk to me. I tried to face my racism bravely.

And I was lucky to have help—from friends and from a diversity consultant who was on retainer that semester by the school. I had been skeptical about her, the diversity consultant. Frances Kendall understood that it was imperative for the students of color in the class to have a safe space to talk. She urged we meet in two separate groups: a group for the students of color led by my friend and colleague Professor Trina Grillo and the white students with me led by Francie.

In the white group, Francie led a conversation about the ABCs of white privilege. Yes, you may have been disadvantaged in other ways, even suffered greatly. Yet having white privilege conveys a particular, distinct societal benefit. Then these groups met together. White privilege is evasive. And they wrote about them because it was less usual for someone white to notice and speak out about racial injustice. Even though I have studied white privilege and thought a lot about it, I still forget.

Which is part of the privilege. I have half-joked how I had to go through the process of writing the book Privilege Revealed with contributions by Margalynne Armstrong, Adrienne Davis, and Trina Grillo to remember what I knew. The full post is available here. This open access handbook, the first of its kind, provides a comprehensive and carefully curated multidisciplinary and genre-spanning view of the state of the field of Critical Menstruation Studies, opening up new directions in research and advocacy.

This handbook is an unmatched resource for researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and activists new to and already familiar with the field as it rapidly develops and expands. The book is available for free download here.

Bridget J. Magazine July 23, Julie D. Margaret E. Johnson, Marcy L. ABA Journal July 23, Twitter links powered by Tweet This v1. Feminist Law Professors Nearly all of us root for fairness, not for our own sex. Auer, Raphael A. Becker, William E.

Bergstrand, Jeffrey H. Bergstrom, Theodore C. Berlemann, Michael Bernard, Andrew B. Berne, Michel Bernhofen, Daniel M. Blau, Francine D. Boyarchenko, Nina Boyer, Pierre C. Brueckner, Jan K. Brunnermeier, Markus K. Bryson, Alex Buch, Claudia M. Chiroleu-Assouline, Mireille Choi, E.

Constant, Amelie F. De, Prabir Deardorff, Alan V. Eugster, Beatrix Evans, David S. Feld, Lars P. Fitzpatrick, Maria D. Fiva, Jon H. Goodspeed, Timothy J. Gordon, Roger H. Hanushek, Eric A. Hartman, John L.

Hartog, Joop Hartwick, John M. Hines Jr. Hoover, Gary A. Johnson, Noel D. Kessing, Sebastian G. Kessler, Anke S. Kessler, Judd B. Kokovin, Sergey G. Licandro, Omar Lichtenberg, Frank R. Mason, Charles F. Massetti, Emanuele Masterov, Dimitriy V. Mathys, Nicole A. Michael, Michael S. Pyle, William Rablen, Matthew D.

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We also include a dummy variable for whether the person is in informal employment formal is omitted. All standard errors are clustered at the region level. Measured here by age minus years of schooling minus six. In a third question, respondents were provided with the average wage of an academic secondary school graduate and asked to estimate the average wage of a technical secondary school graduate. At the individual level, the international literature says it is less clear that short unemployment spells have a lasting impact on the labor market.

Newmark showed that staying in the same job had positive impacts on wages for both men and women in the United States, while Gregory and Jukes showed churning itself to be a smaller issue than long unemployment spells. Cruces, Ham, and Viollaz show that for Brazil, a spell of unemployment among youth increases the probability of being informal and unemployed in early adulthood, but, again, these effects dissipate after the age of Caseiro, A. Maciente, and P. Almeida, Rita Kullberg, Carlos H.

Corseuil, and Jennifer Pamela Poole. Cruces, G. Ham, and M. Evidence from Brazil. Cunningham, Wendy. Rogers, and M. Da Rocha, L. Pero, and C. Ferreira, F. Firpo, and J. Explaining the Decline in Earnings Inequality in Brazil, — Ferreyra, M. Avitabile, J. Haimovich Paz, S. Gonzaga, Gustavo. Gregory, M. Washington DC: World Bank. Newmark, A. Pinto, Rafael de Carvalho Cayres. Departamento de Economia, Rio de Janeiro. Quntini, Glenda and John P. Rocha, L. Pero, and Carlos Corseuil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Ruhm, C. World Bank. Zylberstajn, E. The World Development Report WDR; World Bank acknowledges the recent strong expansion in access to education around the world, including in Brazil, but flags as a very worrisome trend the slow progress in improving learning levels. Figure 4. They lead to a lack of interest and motivation in school among adolescents and, ultimately, in high dropout rates from the formal schooling system.

As shown in figure 4. Source: Barbosa and Costa Notes: Figure reports the average proficiency and the share of students who meet level-1 standards in math. Notes: Based on the group of students ages 15—29 years old, who have dropped out of the formal schooling system. An overloaded curriculum and perceived waste of time are likely important drivers.

If youth find additional education ill-suited to jobs within the labor markets they want to enter, they are more likely to drop out and attempt to join the labor market with the education they have, rather than flounder in school where they lack both opportunity and income.

As Machado and Muller also show, the process of dropping out is quite different for boys and girls. For both, however, the lack of support systems and incentives to continue investing in education are important. The first section of the chapter revisits the reform, which proposes a new competence-based curriculum and the expansion of the full-time school model nationwide.

This discussion is informed by relevant international experiences with the design and implementation of such reforms. The ongoing upper secondary reform aims mainly to address the overloaded curriculum—focused on memorization of academic subjects—reduced school hours and instruction time, and the perceived irrelevance of the curriculum for entry into the labor market and higher education. Until , Brazilian high school students had 13 mandatory subjects during a four-hour public school day.

Approximately 40 percent of young boys identified lack of interest, including in the contents of a poorly structured curriculum, as their main reason for dropping out figure 4. It is, thus, reasonable to establish a link between this lack of school engagement and the general lack of skills needed for the labor market among graduates from public upper secondary schools.

Adding flexibility to the curriculum is key; the old upper secondary curriculum included thirteen mandatory subjects, and students had little or no flexibility in pursuing their fields of study. The new curriculum is a long overdue and promising reform to reduce the number of dropouts while supporting learning among adolescents. Drawing from experiences in Mexico and other OECD countries, such as Poland and Portugal, the addition of flexibility to a new competence-based curriculum can be an important step in increasing student motivation and engagement in Brazil.

Strengthening access to relevant technical subjects while maintaining a good balance between basic foundational and technical skills is also important to increase the attractiveness of secondary education Almeida, Amaral, and Felicio In most OECD countries, the offering of accelerated, flexible curricular pathways instead of sequential courses is associated with greater student retention and final certification. The FTS program lengthens the school day at the upper secondary level,5 where most students in public schools have, on average, four hours of daily classes.

The reform provides financial support for states to increase the school day to at least five hours in all schools and to seven hours in selected targeted schools that is, from to 1, hours per year in the latter. The federal government establishes the functional norms for all levels of education, including the new core secondary. While promoting flexibility and encouraging different modalities, curriculum reform has the potential to create and deepen educational inequities, as some states and schools will be more efficient in the redesign of their curricula to be aligned fully with the BNCC and the NEP legal framework, while others will do a better job of integrating new technologies and adapting textbooks; others will offer better teacher training programs to SEEs officials, technical staff, school principals, and pedagogical coordinators; and still others will be more effective in redeploying teachers.

Almeida, Amaral, and Felicio discuss three main advantages of the Brazilian technical and vocational education and training TVET system that should be preserved, as well as strengthened. First, the system displays high levels of vertical permeability across upper secondary and tertiary levels. In other words, those in technical education in Brazil are likely to move from secondary to higher education which is unusual for technical education in Latin America , so it is not a deadend track.

Second, and related to this, students in upper secondary technical education have greater employability and wage returns than their peers in academic tracks Almeida, Anazawa, Menezes-Filho, and Vasconcellos This vertical permeability is important to keep and strengthen further Almeida, Amaral, and Felicio ; Schwartzman and Moura Castro The three main alternative tracks at the upper secondary level integrado, concomitante, and subsequente all combine technical courses with general courses.

While the current reform addresses important issues, including the imbalance in workload across tracks, ample room remains to make curriculum more relevant and its delivery more cost effective during implementation. Almeida, Amaral, and Felicio and Silva, Almeida, and Strokova discussed in depth the still-reduced collaborations with the private sector of most public TVET providers across a wide range of program features such as curricular contents, teacher training opportunities, and internships.

To ensure the quality of technical education and promote public and private partnerships in the formal public school system, more such partnerships need to arise. This will inevitably bring new challenges, including certification and accreditation issues. Supporting the development of socioemotional skills Schools in Brazil especially private schools are increasingly incorporating socioemotional skills SESs into their curricula, with promising results in learning outcomes Loureiro and Szerman While for some youth the optimal age for the development of SESs comes earlier in the life cycle, others best gain these skills in their teenage years.

Multiple types of interventions could be developed to support SESs, including schoolwide approaches, standalone interventions, and post-school programs. Among public schools, the experience of the state of Rio de Janeiro is probably the best known. These encouraging results led to an expansion of this program in to more than 50 state schools.

Mexico and Peru, for example, have experimented with schoolwide. As illustrated by box 4. It consisted of a socioemotional learning curriculum, teacher training programs, and specialized support by psychologists, pedagogues, and social workers. Like Escuela Amiga, it includes a socioemotional curriculum, and it provides virtual courses and online resources and materials for teachers. The curriculum proposed series of scripted minute lessons following the SAFE sequenced, active, focused, and explicit approach to classroom activities.

The implementation of these programs highlights important lessons. First, while classroom teachers were charged with the task of delivering the sessions, some were less prepared and motivated to do so than others. Offered the opportunity to teach SESs, most teachers took it. This had advantages over hiring external facilitators in terms of costs and connection with students.

Second, making printed materials available for all the students and teachers was challenging. In Peru, toolkits were delivered in the first phase of implementation of Escuela Amiga, but later the only available materials were those provided online. Frequently, teachers and schools did not have the resources to print them. In Mexico, the materials are also available online for teachers and schools to print using their own resources, which imposes similar constraints to those seen in Peru.

In many cases, this approach conflicted with more traditional ways of teaching. Teachers also faced the constraints imposed by their own social and emotional skills. The programs found that training all the teachers could be costly, while cascade training might be ineffective and online training insufficient. In addition to any or all these forms of training, having mechanisms in place for teachers to evaluate their experiences of implementing these curricula proved important and to evaluate their own performance proved essential to ensuring the sustainability and adoption of the program.

These mechanisms could take the form of support groups within schools, mentoring, or, as in the case of Escuela Amiga, external but regular support, or they could include a combination of all these. Piloting and evaluating models for extending the school day The FTS reform at the upper secondary level can produce important impacts on education if design and implementation arrangements are made at the subnational level.

Recent evaluations in LAC have shown extension of the school day may positively influence dropouts and learning, but success depends on the implementation arrangements Holland, Evans, and Alfaro Box 4. In Pernambuco, the extended-day policy has expanded the network of full-time schools in upper secondary education grades 10—12 through two models: reference schools and technical schools.

The target group for both p rograms are underperforming schools. This expansion of educational, cultural, and athletic and arts experiences is promoted through the assignment Sources: Loureiro and Szerman , and Cruz et al. Cruz et al. Brazil has made strong progress in recent decades to encourage attendance, reduce poverty, and improve preparation of learners with expansion of access through Bolsa Familia, among other efforts.

Here we argue that the moment is right. Current demographic trends provide a major opportunity to raise teacher standards over the next decade. With the school-aged population in ensino fundamental expected to fall by 25 percent from to , lower-performing teachers can be weeded out through early retirement, new teachers can be recruited to higher standards, and salaries can be made more attractive on average and, importantly, based on performance. New research prepared for this book, however Barbosa and Costa , shows no evidence that these efforts have translated into improved secondary student learning.

The share of those holding college degrees rose from 89 percent in to 93 percent in During this period, Brazil progressed in the dispersion of this indicator across states. Barbosa and Costa assessed whether this trend correlated with improvements in learning. These results are clearly illustrated by figure 4. As discussed by Bruns and Luque and Barbosa and Costa , one likely explanation is the low quality of applicants to the teaching profession. As in many countries in LAC, teaching does not attract top talent in Brazil.

As figure 4. In addition, Barbosa and Costa and Louzano et al. In general assessments, the highest scoring candidates for education departments tend to score. Source: Bruns and Luque The low prestige of the teaching profession, linked to nonselective admission to teacher training and low standards for teacher recruitment, along with flat salary trajectories with no incentives for performance, combine to make the profession unattractive to smart, ambitious individuals.

Furthermore, the recent expansion in initial teacher training, supported partly by the expansion of online courses, is not equipping teachers with adequate skills, either academic or pedagogical. Many of the courses are based on distance. In general, the quality of the curricula is poor, and future teachers graduate with weak knowledge in subject areas and no exposure to the best pedagogical skills.

In contrast, at the public or top private universities, where one out of four teachers is trained, the trainees have greater access to academic resources. Still, anecdotal evidence indicates the curricula at these institutions are very theoretical and divorced from hands-on pedagogical practices. Finally, because the average quality of graduates is low, screening applicants in the formal schooling system as they enter the profession is extremely important in Brazil.

According to Bruns et al. Barbosa and Costa have shown that the wage gap between teachers and other professions has been closing since the early s. Salaries are, however, still very far below those paid in professions where the quality of professionals is higher at entry as proxied by the average student admission tests. Accountability for developing teacher performance is also low.

Absence and tardiness are endemic among teachers 20 percent are absent from school on any given day , and classroom observations based on the Stallings classroom observation instrument show that, even when they are not absent, they lose 5 percent of every class hour because they are out of the classroom—arriving late or leaving early. Moreover, they have found teaching practice highly traditional, with heavy reliance on the blackboard and almost no use of information and communication technologies ICT , and with teachers spending most of their time lecturing or reading aloud rather than questioning students, which research shows is most effective in promoting learning.

Like accountability pressure, effective support for teachers, with in-service training, is also low. Important facts emerge from classroom observation research documented by Bruns et al. Sources: Bruns and Luque ; Stallings and Knight Note: Figure reports the results of the application of the Stallings observation instrument in selected LAC countries. First, teachers with the same formal qualifications and salaries, working within the same schools, often perform very differently.

The absence of a teacher evaluation system that can identify and reward the better-performing teachers undermines the long-term incentives for better performance. Second, every school has within it untapped potential for teachers to learn from their peers, but the traditional models of in-service training, delivered by university faculty far offsite, do nothing to catalyze and support this learning. How can these challenges to improving teacher performance be addressed?

At the federal level, having a nationwide teacher entrance exam would be an important initiative. Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru have set national minimum competence standards for teachers and administer an entrance exam to all new teacher graduates that benchmark their readiness to be qualified teachers. The exams generate evidence on the relative quality of different teacher preparation programs and makes it possible to monitor the quality of teacher candidates over time.

This reform has been controversial in most countries, especially among teacher unions. Implementing a national exam of this sort in Brazil would send a strong signal that the country is committed to providing all children with good teachers. Another important initiative would be to develop accreditation standards for preservice teacher education schools.

Chile and. Peru have made strong efforts to eliminate the lowest quality teacher training schools. In Brazil, university autonomy precludes closing them directly, but accreditation reviews coupled with poor results on a national teacher entrance exam would help pressure these deficient training schools out of the market.

Brazil has ample room to strengthen its evaluation of secondary school teachers, with the MEC stimulating this progress with financial incentives. Bruns and Luque Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru all either have in place or are developing such systems. In Brazil, teacher training is mostly the responsibility of the MEC and the states. Some states and municipalities are working with the more promising training approaches, combining in-classroom learning with classroom observation and coaching.

The federal government could provide incentives for them to do more evaluations and generate more evidence on which approaches are most cost-effective in their localities. This would make future public spending at all levels of government more efficient. Once successful models are established, the federal government can provide funding and technical support to help the weaker states and municipalities adopt them.

Can technology support teaching and learning? Can it be useful in supporting teachers to teach students at the individual level, especially in very diverse classrooms? Technology-aided instruction, however, has not been always associated with positive impacts on academic outcomes.

While some programs have been effective in improving test scores see, for example, Banerjee et al. Although inconclusive, the evidence suggests that the design and implementation of programs are crucial, and policymakers must be cautious about pronouncing technology interventions effective before scaling them up Glewwe and Muralidharan Technology is already profoundly changing the education sector in Brazil by promoting literacy and equity in access and, one could argue, motivating students and teachers.

Following this international trend, Brazil is committed to implementing further programs that expand access to computers in public schools and incorporate technology into the learning process. The early results on learning have been promising. Exposure to technological resources is expected to accommodate individual learning needs better and entice students to pursue higher levels of education.

Computer-based instruction can also be used to customize learning plans World Bank In partnership with the private sector, this Rio state program aims to reduce age—grade distortion in secondary public schools. It exposes students who are at risk for repeating a grade or of dropping out to technological resources, followed by group discussions. Other states such as Amazonas or Bahia exploit technology to provide online lessons to high school students in more remote and rural areas who lack access to physical schools.

One initiative that does attempt such evaluation is underway in an experimental municipal school of the largest favela of Rio de Janeiro. Online lessons are giving by external lecturers with expertise in advanced topics, and students have individualized learning plans that accommodate their interests and needs. Investing in school- and state-level management Learning in Brazil is undermined by school leaders in most of the secondary schools with weak management skills and low-quality, school-based management practices.

The WDR World Bank stresses the importance of improving the management aspect of Brazilian schools, which, if it likely does not affect learning directly, does so indirectly, through its impacts on teacher quality and use of learning resources. The purpose of the PDE is to spur innovations at the subnational level to made schools more accountable and orient them toward learning.

The efforts include, among others, promoting greater school autonomy, supporting merit-based appointment of school directors, and promoting greater community engagement. The program promotes collaboration. Many systems have designed more targeted training programs for teachers and school leaders, together with other school support programs—for example, the holding of annual meetings between the secretary of education and all school directors in subregional offices to discuss progress and agree on state-level learning targets.

During these meetings, regional staff offer technical support on school development plans to school directors of low-performing schools. Yet these efforts remain isolated and have not been enough to change the poor management practices observed across most systems. Bloom et al. The capacity of school leaders to set and share long-term visions for their schools, as well as to offer feedback to teachers based on classroom observation and support them in implementing learning assessments, are important features of the most successful school management models.

The absence of merit-based promotions and the low-quality training programs undermine the quality of school directors. In Brazil, most school directors are middle-aged college-educated women. They receive three times the average salary of teachers, and turnover among them is 20 percent in municipal and 30 percent in state schools. They typically are experienced teachers and hold relatively short job tenures.

Reflecting the lack of a federal pre-service strategy for school leaders directors and pedagogical coordinators , most have never received any school management training. The program expanded rapidly, but its effectiveness has never been evaluated. Several interventions to improve the quality of school management have been implemented at the subnational level, but few have survived political transitions.

Bruns, Filmer, and Patrinos and Barrera-Osorio et al. Many certification programs and community consultations were also created to replace the political appointment of most of school directors Luck Most of these programs do not continue after governments changed, typically every four years with political elections.

The system includes two important features. It is administered to all fifth and ninth grade students when the latter finish ensino fundamental. Second, Brazil. Brazil is still not systematically using the information, however, to target and monitor education policies. The discussion draws heavily on Almeida, Fitzsimons, and Rogers and Loureiro and Szerman , bringing together global experience in dropout prevention for Latin America and for Brazil, respectively.

The adolescent fertility rate births per 1, females ages 15—19 has been steadily decreasing in Brazil, but, overall, it is still high—in , it was above the average level for LAC, at Nationwide, The lack of sex education and limited use of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy are likely among the causes. In addition, traditional culture and social norms especially in rural areas likely also play a role.

Moreover, the most vulnerable youth often lack the motivation and aspirations to continue education and seek entry into the labor market Machado and Muller Sex education in the. A regional report on teenage pregnancy for Latin America and the Caribbean reviewed rigorously evaluated interventions to reduce teen pregnancy, including schoolbased interventions Azevedo et al.

While such rigorous evaluations are scarce, school-based programs preventing pregnancy and programs encouraging pregnant teens and teen mothers to remain in school seem to reduce dropouts Steinka-Fry, Wilson, and Tanner-Smith Promoting peer support and educating teens on the drivers of their decision making regarding pregnancy and fertility are especially important. The former approach makes use of peer promoters—that is, educators or counselors of similar age and background to those in the target group.

The counselors are not professionals but trained volunteers who educate and counsel adolescents in need of reproductive health information and services. Advocates of peer education typically argue that young people relate best to people of their own age with similar backgrounds and interests and who use language and messages meaningful and relevant to them Azevedo et al.

Developing higher-level cognitive and socioemotional skills, including higher levels of critical thinking about existing social and gender norms, are other possible ways to reduce teen pregnancy. The first part of this chapter discussed how Brazil can take advantage of the current reform to more strongly emphasize these skills among youth. In addition to basic cognitive competencies such as literacy and numeracy or information processing and critical thinking, these include decision making, organization, efficiency, problem solving, and written and oral communications Cunningham and Villasenor Merit scholarships are another instrument with the potential to motivate and engage youth to stay in school while reducing opportunity costs, especially among girls.

Instruments that combine such achievement awards with financial incentives can help the most vulnerable youth overcome financial constraints while motivating them to increase the effort they put into completing secondary education. Several interesting international experiences have shown gender-sensitive results from similar programs.

One, implemented in secondary schools in Israel, gives cash rewards to upper secondary students for progressing through the grades and for completing school. Although an evaluation did not show an effect on males, the program did increase completion rates among girls by roughly 10 percentage points Angrist and Lavy Similarly, an evaluation of a U.

How to reduce teen pregnancy with school-based interventions? These students provided information to peers through adolescent-friendly events, including customized workshops, games, and other interactive activities. In the second, behavioral component, information was sent via cell phone text messages at crucial times, including weekend evenings, to remind teenagers of their long-term aspirations. Using a randomized controlled trial RCT , Cuevas et al.

No reduction in teen pregnancy was found to be associated specifically with the text message intervention. TOP is a high school— level teenage pregnancy and school dropout prevention program that specifically targets students at high risk of dropping out for teenage mothering or fathering. The TOP curriculum covers such topics as values, human growth and development, relationships, coping with family stress, and other social and emotional issues relevant to youth transitions from adolescence to adulthood.

Evaluations of TOP show participants have lower rates of risky behaviors, such as failing classes, being suspended from school, dropping out of school, and becoming pregnant in adolescence Frost and Forrest ; Allen In an evaluation conducted by Allen , participants in TOP had half the risk of pregnancy of the comparison group, and participants who were already mothers or fathers showed one-fifth the risk of a repeat pregnancy.

This chapter has already discussed in detail the remarkably high rates of age—grade distortion and grade repetition in Brazil, as well as the large within-country inequities in these regards. Remedial instruction can help students, especially disadvantaged ones, catch up to their peers by strengthening their proficiency levels in basic subjects, thus keeping them in the formal education system. Several states and municipalities have developed their own remedial programs Loureiro and Szerman To promote remedial education, local and state governments have formed partnerships with educational nongovernmental organizations NGOs and the private sector.

The Ayrton Senna Institute, together with subnational governments, has implemented several programs to reduce age—grade distortion rates and in primary schools. Both use specific remedial learning material and include systematic support from teachers and a school coordinator. While both seem to be showing positive results, rigorous evaluations of their impacts on age—grade distortion have yet to be done. Programs based on cognitive behavioral therapy CBT can support changes in thoughts and behaviors, especially among the most vulnerable high school students.

Students learn to recognize difficult situations that have provoked negative responses in the past and to identify and implement acceptable responses. By practicing these skills through various teaching and role-playing activities, they learn to engage in appropriate behavior more consistently in such situations.

CBT techniques delivered to at-risk youth can reduce depression and anxiety, ultimately preventing dropout. Little rigorous evaluation evidence is as yet available on CBT-based interventions with young people in secondary schools, and well-conducted randomized controlled trials are clearly needed. One large RCT was conducted by Heller et al. BAM included regular interactions with psychologists, after-school programming, and in-school programming designed to reduce common problems related to judgment and decision making, and the study found its effects were quite substantial.

Program participation reduced violent-crime arrests during the program year by 8. The Dominican Republic invested in such a program with positive returns see, Jensen These outcomes suggest that information-based programs work better at preventing dropout where students are initially less informed—most likely in poorer areas—and where the information intervention is supported by financing for students from poor households. On average, the monthly earnings of workers with degrees from higher education institutions are more than double those of high school graduate workers.

According to Ferreyra et al. The expansion was also supported by new student financing programs, including the well-known Financing of Higher Education FIES program and ProUni, which are described in detail in a background paper prepared for this book Verhire and Nascimento ProUni is a federal scholarship program, created in , that gives tax incentives to private providers who offer full or partial scholarships to low-income students. Finally, the expansion in access to higher education has also been supported by affirmative action programs for the lowest income students.

Brazilian youth among the bottom quintile of the income distribution still have less access to higher education than those in the top quintile; 10 percent versus 55 percent, respectively, go to college. Once in college, lower-income youth are also less likely to complete their undergraduate degrees, in part because of their less adequate academic readiness Ferreyra et al. Although little empirical evidence is available on dropout rates in higher education in Brazil, some estimates put it between 25 and 50 percent of students.

Research on the link between student aid and college completion has demonstrated that aid tends to improve student performance and reduce dropouts. Bettinger This seems to be also true for Brazil, where evidence indicates FIES and ProUni students who graduated from high school between and were 25—67 percent more likely to complete college Xavier Many lower-income youth attend short-duration and market-oriented technological courses provided mostly by private universities in the areas of business administration, finance, human resources, logistics, and marketing; evidence.

In a background paper prepared for this book, Almeida et al. Overall, public financing of higher education accounts for 30 percent of the overall budget and is in line with peer countries World Bank But this spending is mostly concentrated among the higher-income groups, who are more likely to complete high school with high enough grades to qualify for admission to college. Reforms in FIES and ProUni have aimed to reduce public financing while increasing the quality of education by raising the threshold in the test scores for students to gain access to these subsidies.

In , the FIES interest rate also increased, from 3. Together, these reforms caused the number of new loan contracts to fall. While the unbalanced public spending across basic and higher education, and the high inefficiencies in the basic education system, may be acknowledged as the main reasons higher-education spending has been focused on the better-off students, room still remains to rethink the design of student financing programs.

Although the quality assurance of the higher education system is wellgrounded on a set of sophisticated student and provider information, it, too, can be strengthened by including a stronger focus on relevance and labor market insertion of graduates. Also advisable would be to make available to youth more and better information on the employability and earnings of graduates of different higher education providers, which today are assessed and disclosed by only a few.

Providers could, for instance, follow the example of Italy, where universities and private business work together to make academic information available to students that they can upload to individual digital files to help match them to jobs. This is especially important in light of the heterogeneity of the labor market returns across socioeconomic backgrounds, courses, and providers, as documented above. The Italian consortium AlmaLaurea, described in box 4. AlmaLaurea successfully integrates the collection of student data, labor market outcomes, and curricula vitae to provide the relevant stakeholders with a suite of services.

AlmaLaurea in Italy: Emphasizing labor market intermediation AlmaLaurea is an interuniversity consortium that emerged in Italy in from the collaborative efforts of a group of researchers at the University of Bologna. AlmaLaurea has also signed agreements with other European universities. In Asia Latin America, it facilitates the mobility of both the Italian and foreign students in its networks in the international labor market.

In Italy, the databank covers approximately 78 percent of Italian graduates and includes more than 1. AlmaLaurea supplies reliable data to the governing bodies of the consortium universities, as well as the assessment units and committees dealing with teaching activities and career guidance. Moreover, AlmaLaurea creates more equal conditions for young people to get access to both the Italian and international labor markets.

In , an impact study of AlmaLaurea concluded that graduates of universities in the consortium had more than a 2 percent higher chance of finding a job and a 3 percent higher average monthly income, and were 2. TABLE 4. This chapter relies on several sources, including new background papers prepared especially for this book.

The Programme for International Student Assessment PISA , led by the OECD, is a worldwide project intended to evaluate education systems by measuring the performance of year-old students on mathematics, science, and reading.

ENEM is a nonmandatory, standardized national exam that evaluates high school students in Brazil. Since , ENEM has been used both as an admissions test for enrollment in higher education and for high school certification. The decision to drop out of school in Brazil is usually made in critical moments, such as during family struggles, transition into high school, or family shocks. For young men, the transition into adulthood is expressed in their increased focus on their work lives in search of financial independence.

For young women, it is expressed in their desire to form their own families. In both cases, these transitions represent a shift in the meaning of education in their lives. The NEP establishes that, by , at least 25 percent of all students enrolled in public upper secondary education in Brazil must attend full-time schools.

At the time of the completion of this book, the BNCC was under consultation with the civil society. In the Rio model to develop SESs, teachers support students in various ways. During guided study periods, they help them search for information of interest and synthetize it. They also hold meetings with small groups of students to discuss their academic or personal concerns. During self-management periods, students are granted autonomy to decide which activities to participate in artistic activities, sports, workshops, and so on ; during intervention project and research periods, they are organized into groups to develop projects related to real-life experiences InnoveEdu.

In some cases, the intervention raises test scores or improves other outcomes; rigorously obtained evidence has shown effects on attainment and dropout rates in Argentina Llach, Gigaglia, and Orgales and Brazil Dias and in Chile Pires and Urzua , with an especially large increase of 21 percent in graduation rates in Argentina. The review. The program started in with 1, schools, and, by , more than 65 percent of the Brazilian municipalities had schools participating in the program.

They found, on average, no impact on dropout rates; but cities with higher gross domestic product GDP per capita did experience reductions. Focusing on urban schools that implemented the program in , Oliveira and Terra also did not find any effect on dropout rates. As long as the initiative consolidated, the negative effects tended to diminish and ultimately be reversed.

Oliveira and Terra did not find any impact on test scores. For details, see Bruns and Luque The Stallings observation instrument was applied in selected LAC countries, including Brazil, between and In addition to Brazil, participating countries included Colombia, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru, and a pilot effort was carried out in the Dominican Republic not reported.

In Colombia, Honduras, Jamaica, and Peru, school samples were representative at the national level. The samples in Brazil and Mexico were representative at the level of participating subnational governments: the states of Pernambuco and Minas Gerais and the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil and the Federal District Distrito Federal, or D.

High-performing schools achieve an average of 85 percent of class time spent on instruction, which is taken as a benchmark for good classroom practice. In Brazil, basic education includes fundamental education with low fundamental education covering grades 1—5 and high fundamental education covering grades 6—9. IDEB shows how well students are learning and how efficiently their schools or school systems are performing Bruns, Filmer, and Patrinos IDEB scores are available for approximately 5, municipal school systems, 26 state systems, and the federal district.

Hence, every segment of the Brazilian education system can be benchmarked. Although not mandatory, the ENEM is used to determine entry into university. The assessment covers student performance in different fields, including science, Portuguese, math, and general knowledge. Loureiro and Szerman is a complementary paper to this one, focused specifically on evidence for Brazil at secondary schools. Drawing on rigorous studies to support policy recommendations is especially important in this area.

Brazilian youth who drop out of school are clearly different from those who. In the North, the shares are Many teenage girls do not feel motivated enough to continue studying, and some prefer to anticipate motherhood. Youth who were given information on the actual returns to education substantially increased their attainment.

The effects were strongest for students from less poor households. To qualify for a full exemption from four different types of taxes, private higher education institutions must offer scholarships equivalent to 8. Priority must be given to full scholarships, with a required ratio of at least one scholarship student to every 22 paying students. If full scholarships provided to students do not meet the 8. Created in , FIES expanded after In , FIES loans benefited more than , students enrolled in private institutions.

Evidence presented by Waltenberg and Carvalho shows these actions have been successful in improving the chances of lower-income youth to get access to all types of higher education institutions, public and private. Almeida, Caseiro, Maciente, and Nascimento used unique administrative data sets and PSM methodology to compute the labor earnings of selected higher-education courses during — Each program is assessed every three years, and the assessment is compulsory.

Allen, Anita. A Brief History of an Obsession. Amaral, and F. Loureiro, L. Costa, M. Drabble, and B. Unpublished background education paper to the Brazil Systematic Country Diagnostic. Policy Research working paper; no. WPS Fitzsimons, and H. Angrist, J. Avitabile, Ciro, and Rafael E. De Hoyos Navarro. Ayrton Senna Institute. Annual results report working paper. Azevedo, J. Diaz-Bonilla, B. Atuesta, and R. Azevedo, Joao Pedro, M. Favara, S. Haddock, Luis F.

Bagues, M. Sylos Labini. Banerjee, A. Cole, E. Duflo, and L. Barbosa, M. Barrera-Osorio, Felipe, and Leigh L. IE Policy Research working paper WPS Barros, R. Carvalho, S. Franco, and R. Lopez-Calva and Nora Lustig, — Bettinger, E. Beuermann, D. Cristia, Y. Cruz-Aguayo, S. Cueto, and O. Bloom, N. Lemos, R. Sadun, and J. Van Reenen. Centre for Economic Performance, London. Bruns, B. Evans, and J. Filmer, and H. Bruns, Barbara, and Javier Luque. Busso, M. Cristia, D. Messina, and L.

Chetty, R. Friedman, and J. Fiszbein, A. Schady, F. Ferreira, H. Francisco, M. Grosh, N. Keleher, P. Olinto, and E. Frost, J. Glewwe, Paul, and Karthik Muralidharan. Rise Programme. Peterson, and L. State Trends in Student Performance. Holland, P. Alfaro, and D. Impact Evaluation series. Kudo, Ines. Lai, M. Lombardo, B. Chakrabarti, C. Ecker, S. Sadek, S. Wheelwright, D. Murphy, J. Suckling, E. Neuroimage — Lombardo, G. Pasco, A. Ruigrok, S. Wheelwright, S.

Sadek, B. June Linden, Leigh L. Llach, J. Londono-Velez, J. Rodriguez, and F. Loureiro, Andre, and C. Louzano, P. Malamud, Ofer, and Cristian Pop-Eleches. Neri, Marcelo. Pires, T. University of Maryland. Rigby, Claire. Schwartzman, S.

Silva, J. Almeida, and V. Washington, DC. Steinka-Fry, K. Wilson, and E. Verhine, R. Vinuela, Lorena, and Laura Zoratto. Waltenberg, F. Xavier, T. These policies also help to determine the quality of matches between firms and young workers.

The chapter points to policy solutions to this problem and recommends structural changes to improve the efficiency of the labor market. Also discussed are reforms to the labor code that were legislated in and their potential impact on the prospects of working youth. The reforms constitute an ambitious step in the right direction that could lower insider advantages, increase the share of formally employed young people, and improve the quality of labor market matches.

Much more can still be done, however. Human capital is the most important asset in which households can invest, and the labor market is where people go to seek a return on that investment. These policies vary widely across countries in their character, the combination in which they are deployed, and the extent to which the authorities have implementation, monitoring, and enforcement capacity to make the measures amount to more than just pages in the labor code World Bank The best example of an institution according to this typology is the space afforded in the legal code of many countries for collective bargaining.

Another salient example of an institution are the structures and procedures for resolving labor disputes, which in Brazil are prominent in the form of a dedicated branch of the judicial system. Even outcome measures such as the employment rate, rate of unemployment, earnings differentials, and the share of workers with legal employment contracts suggest that the usual policy constraints on performance of the labor market did not hold back job creation during the decade of high growth that ended abruptly in Silva, Almeida, and Strokova And although the number of jobs has fallen and open unemployment risen sharply since then, the importance of labor market policies relative to broader economic forces in determining these outcomes is a matter of debate.

In contrast to some of the countries of Southern and Central Europe, structural unemployment in Brazil has been relatively low, firms find it fairly easy to dismiss workers, and people move across jobs and in and out of the labor market frequently. The most apparent are a persistently substantial share of the labor force working informally, particularly young people; unusually high rates of churn even among people with formal jobs; a court system congested with cases; and low labor productivity.

Left unaddressed, these disparities also have the potential to alter the landscape of legal academia and further marginalize women and the perspectives they bring to legal scholarship, education, and public dialogue. This symposium seeks to raise awareness of the current COVID care crisis and its impacts on academia, and to begin a dialogue on concrete and innovative responses to this crisis. There will be no registration fee for presenters or other participants in order to maximize engagement and inclusivity.

Panels will be grouped by theme and topic. The organizers are exploring publication opportunities with various law journals, with expected publication in late Abstracts must be submitted to Sarika Laljie by October 30, The authors of the selected papers will be notified by November 10, The symposium is organized by Prof.

More info is available here. For decades in Britain, periods were embarrassing, fact. Then in the BBC broke a story on period poverty. Tina Leslie, a health worker in Leeds and her colleague, had noticed girls were not attending classes during their periods. On questioning, it emerged that the girls were not going to school because they could not afford period products and were afraid of leaking. The story hit a nerve with the British public and overnight it became the top topic of conversation.

The growing debate seemed to miss one key element, the voices of the girls themselves. We decided to conduct research, working with a network of the UKs leading menstruation experts advising and guiding the work, to hear directly from girls about their experiences of menstruation. We decided to try something new. We came at it from a light hearted approach, using fun to get people talking about periods.

Out of a late afternoon team brainstorm, the idea of an emoji for menstruation was born. Something light hearted we could launch on Menstrual Health Day and that supporters, especially young people, could be encouraged to use in conversations online to tackle some of the silence and stigma around periods. This would then pave the way for us to share some of the more serious issues attached to menstruation with this audience who now were talking about periods.

The period emoji idea immediately struck a chord with the people who supported the charity. We ran a poll of women and asked if an emoji was something they would use and if stigma around periods ever held them back. The answers blew us away: two thirds of women did not feel comfortable discussing their period with their Dad or male friends and more than 1 in 10 women did not feel comfortable talking about periods with their female friends.

So off we went, working with activists in the Global North and South as we wanted the design to be as globally appealing as possible. We ran our five designs past a number of experts before putting these out to the public to vote. Our plan was that we would take the winning emoji to the Unicode Consortium to be developed into a global emoji for the emoji keyboard, available on practically all devices these days.

We launched this campaign and asked the public to vote for their favorite period emoji. We expected a few thousand votes at the most. Within days it went viral, we had dozens of celebrities sharing this. We were being featured in the media including radio, TV and press across the UK and then globally. By the end of less than 2 weeks we had over 37, votes! And most importantly, the issue was a national conversation. We were thrilled! At the end of voting, the period pants were the winning design so, as promised we submitted a proposal to the Unicode Consortium to have these made into an emoji.

Then the waiting started. This was a bit of a shock, what with million people menstruating right now and over half the planet having experienced this directly in their lives. It felt much more widely usable than the goblin mask, 12 different types of trains and dumplings, in our opinion. We tried to push back but no luck. So our next move was to submit another proposal, this time for the runner-up design. Whilst the pants had the most votes, the blood drop came in close second place and was equally inclusive.

We were told by the Consortium that NHS Blood was also looking to have a blood drop emoji and that our chances would improve if we teamed up, which we did. After 2 years of campaigning and liaising with the Unicode Consortium we finally got the blood drop emoji in October Perhaps an even bigger win, in our view, was the two years of conversations that happened around the period emoji campaign.

The global conversation about periods was shifting dramatically, the USA was changing its tax laws, handmade pads and menstrual cups were growing in popularity in Malawi and Uganda, Pad Man had opened up the conversation to Bollywood and a film about an Indian menstruation activist won an Oscar.

The vast, global media coverage this received was unprecedented for periods, as was the online buzz. The campaign went viral twice in these two years and there was more conversation about periods than ever before. Whilst this online conversation did include the good, bad and the ugly or rather the extensive and often nasty trolling , in itself this broke down the silence and helped further the cause and awareness of periods, period stigma and period poverty globally.

And for this, we are very proud. The UK movement for period equity went from strength to strength, sex and relationships education became statutory in schools, English schools were given free period products for pupils and the government committed to abolishing the Tampon Tax. We worked closely with the government as they created a new Period Poverty Task Force, committing funding to eradicate the problem.

Without a doubt there is still more to do and we have yet to understand the impact of COVID on all of these issues. What we do know is that poor quality education and stigma in the UK and globally are still holding girls and other menstruators back. Do we hope there will be bloody tampons, pads, pants and uteruses added to the emoji keyboard in the future — yes absolutely! And if the emoji has helped people talk about periods, then we are proud to be part of a global movement to view periods as part of a normal, healthy body.

Carmen was interviewed by Emma Barnett for her book Period about menstrual health and stigma, as well as featuring in the documentary Picture Character on how to get a global period emoji. Leading the period emoji campaign remains one of her proudest achievements. She has secured changes to the law and policy regarding teenage pregnancy, sex and relationships education , street harassment and more.

She has run campaigns to end period poverty and taboos and working with Carmen on the blood-drop emoji campaign. The United States is a nation in transition, struggling to surmount its racist past. This transitional imperative underpins American race jurisprudence, yet the transitional bases of decisions are rarely discussed and sometimes even denied.

By analyzing opinions concerning school desegregation, voting rights, affirmative action, and disparate impact, this Article uncovers two main ways that the Supreme Court has pursued racial transition. With this shift, civil rights measures that were once deemed necessary and urgent have been declared inappropriate and outdated. Because both reckoning and distancing approaches claim to advance transition, this Article evaluates these approaches from the perspective of transitional justice, a field that helps societies to overcome histories of oppression.

Transitional justice theory further offers a novel account of judicial disagreements and independent criteria for deciding which claims about transition should have purchase. The full article is available here. Worldwide, menstruation has long caused marginalization and vulnerability for some. The pandemic has amplified these conditions. This Article makes three claims. The first is descriptive, identifying four interrelated aspects of global period poverty that have gained new salience during the coronavirus pandemic: lack of access to affordable menstrual products; lack of access to other needed supplies and services for health and sanitation; lack of menstruation-related information and support from schools and health professionals; and menstrual stigma and shame.

Finally, the Article explores the heightened visibility of menstruation-related concerns during the COVID crisis as suggestive of an emerging popular awareness of period poverty. I also saw her when I attended oral arguments at the Supreme Court. She was a formidable jurist, lawyer, and academic.

When I learned of her death, I could not help but think of how moments like this one cause us to remember where we were and what we were doing. I was frantically trying to meet my September 18 deadline to re-apply for promotion. When I learned of the news, I could not help but cry, for a moment. All the tension during the preparation of my application materials culminated with the news of her death.

I started to think about her legacy and what she meant for many people in this nation. She paved the way for many of us to do what we do as professional women. During her many talks, Justice Ginsburg openly shared her experiences with job discrimination. I cannot help but think that, perhaps, those lived experiences fueled her sense of justice and injustice and the drive to right the wrongs she knew many women and other oppressed people face.

She helped so many, including when all she could do was write powerful dissenting opinions, such as in Ledbetter v. The Equal Pay Act claims were dismissed on summary judgment at the district court level. Justice Ginsburg was the only woman on the Court at the time of that decision.

In her dissenting opinion, Justice Ginsburg made the case for the particular circumstances involved in pay disparity cases and why it was difficult for employees to meet the days from the first paycheck disparity limitations period. She urged Congress to correct the majority decision. Her dissenting opinion led to the passage of the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of , the first legislation enacted during the Obama Administration.

She showed us that there is power in voicing dissent. They both acknowledged that they had no problem forging a personal relationship because they respected their disagreements on matters of law. Her story is full of lessons.

As an academic, I foresee that a body of work will continue to develop from all the law review articles and books that will be written about her and her actions in furtherance of a more perfect union. She did her work. It is now up to all of us to continue with what remains undone, including telling the stories that must be told and litigating the cases that must be litigated, all the way to the Supreme Court if necessary, even if we must wait for a dissenting opinion to lead to legislative action as in the Ledbetter case.

Some of us will now show our dissent through our vote with the hope that it will turn into a majority vote. Check it out! Andrews was profiled in the book Feminists Who Changed America She died in at the age of 78 her obituary is here.

Although the precise date is unknown, Dr. It is a first-person account of her experiences in the s and s. If it were, we would not be discussing community gardening, desirable as it is, nor the use of computers, which I should imagine most of you know already. That O. But it might stand for Outrage, which is where we were, in , when the second wave of feminism began. How many of you have had an abortion or know someone who has? Well, I knew one in my student days; she was filthy rich and she had to go all the way to Mexico to accomplish it.

How many of you use contraceptives? Well, when I married, contraceptives had just become legal for married women only. My doctor — actually the third doctor I went to for contraception since the previous two refused — gave me a diaphragm to practice inserting but punched a hole in it so it would not be effective. I could get an intact diaphragm after I got the marriage license. Well, when I was in college, such products were sold from behind the counter of the pharmacy.

You had to ask for them and believe me, you died of embarrassment. How many of you wear jeans, leggings, whatever? Well, I adhered to a dress code, in college and beyond. Women wore skirts yes, even for sports and never above the knee. How many of you have looked for a job? How many of you have a credit card? When I graduated, got a job secretarial and applied for a store credit card, I could get it … if my father signed for it. How many of you have thought of becoming doctors, lawyers or merchant chiefs?

And doctors? Not acceptable because women would faint at the sight of blood think about it. How many of you have asked for a raise lately? My roommate did, and very daring it was of her too. Her boss refused. Because she worked at Harvard Business School where she would meet plenty of eligible men and she ought to be grateful for such a perk. Feminists believe that women are real people. That they can and should make their own decisions and that they can and should be free to develop themselves and their talents, free to build a good community and a good world, without the censure and restrictions of those who would make their decisions for them.

If I could give you anything, I would give you the passion that drove the feminist movement so that you understand the purpose, respect the dignity and intelligence of women and work to free women all over the world for the sake of your daughters, granddaughters and great-granddaughters. Online 1 : Here is the abstract:. The coronavirus pandemic caused an unprecedented shutdown of the United States. The stay-at-home orders issued by most states typically banned large gatherings of any kind, including religious services.

Churches sued, arguing that these bans violated their religious liberty rights by treating worship services more strictly than analogous activities that were not banned, such as shopping at a liquor store or superstore. This short Essay examines these claims, concluding that the constitutionality of the bans turns on the science of how the pathogen spreads, and that the best available scientific evidence supports the mass gathering bans. Read the full essay here. Johnson is nationally recognized as a leading scholar of financial markets regulation with research and teaching expertise in the areas of securities regulation, corporate governance, risk management, compliance, and innovative financial technology, including digital financial products and markets.

She has presented her research on systemic risk, risk management, cyber risk regulation, emerging technologies—such as artificial intelligence and distributed digital ledger technologies—and macroprudential financial markets regulation throughout the United States and abroad. Read the full notice here.

Congratulations, Professor Johnson! We write to you in troubling times, yet we are hopeful for a brighter future ahead. First, we hope that you are taking care of yourselves and your loved ones. The Issue will be published in May , with an accompanying remote symposium in March In the wake of numerous police shootings of unarmed Black men and women, the murder of protesters, and the lack of justice for many of the perpetrators, a statement from ELJ will no longer suffice; to be an anti-racist Journal, we must act.

Therefore, this spring, we will use our platform to elevate scholarship that seeks to facilitate racial justice and dismantle white supremacy by publishing a Special Issue and holding a remote symposium. ELJ is looking for essays from 7, to 15, words that expose systemic racism in the law or propose anti-racist solutions to make the law more just. Brown will be writing the introduction to the Special Issue. We will accept abstracts as submissions, and if your essay is selected, you are not required to participate in the Symposium, but you will have a standing invitation to do so.

We will accept essay submissions on a rolling basis. The deadlines for submission and publication are below:. To submit your essay, please email Sam Reilly at samuel. ELJ is committed to being an anti-racist organization, both in our ranks and in our scholarship. This is just one part of that mission. We look forward to reading your essays and moving the conversation forward. Drury was tried for her murder and was found guilty, but he appealed the decision claiming he had been provoked into killing Marylin because she had been unfaithful to him.

This appeal has had a profound impact on our law around provocation through sexual infidelity. Her students produce some engaging work that may be of interest to readers. It compares the backgrounds, education, experience and judicial philosophies of each judge and the context in which she was appointed. The podcast is available here. In case you missed it, there is a new lawsuit challenging the Michigan state sales tax on menstrual products. The Detroit News has a story here.

Read more here. There are already bills pending in the Michigan legislature that could eliminate the tax. Lawyers at Period Equity are leading the charge. How many days a month have you missed work or requested a day off for stomach pains and cramps because of menstruation? The policy, not common among large global companies, allows up to 10 days of period leave a year and applies to transgender employees. The policy is considered a bold move in tackling an age-old taboo in India, where 71 percent of young women remain unaware of menstruation until their first cycle, according to UNICEF.

You should feel free to tell people on internal groups, or emails that you are on your period leave for the day. Read the full article here. Read more in this article by Ari Berkowitz, for the Conversation. Tracy A. Here is the abstract. A key question for legal scholars and political scientists is whether women jurists judge differently than men. Some studies have suggested that women judges are more likely to support plaintiffs in sexual harassment, employment, and immigration cases.

Other studies conclude that women are more likely to vote liberally in death penalty and obscenity cases, and more likely to convince their male colleagues to join a liberal opinion. Yet other studies have found little evidence that women judge differently from men. This article explores the jurisprudence of the first woman judge, Judge Florence Allen, to test these claims of gender difference in judging. Judge Allen was the first woman judge many times over: the first woman elected to a general trial court Cuyahoga County Common Pleas in , the first woman elected to a state supreme court Ohio , the first woman appointed to a federal appellate court U.

Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in , and the first woman shortlisted for the U. Supreme Court. Her forty years on the bench included cases of constitutional law, administrative power, criminal process, labor rights, and patent cases. The discussion was pretty intense. I cried for several days. It took me a long time to realize that the student had done me a favor. She felt safe enough and cared enough about me and about the class to talk to me. I tried to face my racism bravely.

And I was lucky to have help—from friends and from a diversity consultant who was on retainer that semester by the school. I had been skeptical about her, the diversity consultant. Frances Kendall understood that it was imperative for the students of color in the class to have a safe space to talk. She urged we meet in two separate groups: a group for the students of color led by my friend and colleague Professor Trina Grillo and the white students with me led by Francie.

In the white group, Francie led a conversation about the ABCs of white privilege. Yes, you may have been disadvantaged in other ways, even suffered greatly. Yet having white privilege conveys a particular, distinct societal benefit. Then these groups met together. White privilege is evasive. And they wrote about them because it was less usual for someone white to notice and speak out about racial injustice. Even though I have studied white privilege and thought a lot about it, I still forget.

Which is part of the privilege. I have half-joked how I had to go through the process of writing the book Privilege Revealed with contributions by Margalynne Armstrong, Adrienne Davis, and Trina Grillo to remember what I knew. The full post is available here. This open access handbook, the first of its kind, provides a comprehensive and carefully curated multidisciplinary and genre-spanning view of the state of the field of Critical Menstruation Studies, opening up new directions in research and advocacy.

This handbook is an unmatched resource for researchers, policy makers, practitioners, and activists new to and already familiar with the field as it rapidly develops and expands. The book is available for free download here. Bridget J. Magazine July 23, Julie D. Margaret E. Johnson, Marcy L. ABA Journal July 23, Twitter links powered by Tweet This v1. Feminist Law Professors Nearly all of us root for fairness, not for our own sex.

Skip to content. Home About this Blog Comment Policy. Share this: Twitter Facebook. Posted on January 21, by Bridget Crawford. Bye-Bye U. K Tampon Tax. Congratulations to Liz Schneider and Ben Liptzin! Posted on January 3, by Bridget Crawford.

Abstract deadline Abstracts must be submitted to Sarika Laljie by October 30, Essay deadline Essays for participating speakers are due by December 20, Conference date The conference will take place online on Friday, January 15, Organizers The symposium is organized by Prof.

A Podcast Of Interest! Remarks of Zelle W. Scottish Feminist Judgments Podcast!

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