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Michigan is now a full-service sports betting state! Michiganders and visitors to the state can place sports bets on their mobile devices, their computers, and several different retail locations around both mdjsjeux bettingadvice. The online launch in January marked the endpoint of a process that began in December Governor Gretchen Whitmer signed into law two bills, S and Hwhich legalized sports betting both online and in casinos. Incidentally, the two bills also legalized internet poker, online casino games and online fantasy sports. In short, Michigan is quite the destination for placing a bet now.

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Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of Arlesheim is a statistic town and a municipality in the district of Arlesheim in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Arlesheim District is one of the five districts of the largely German-speaking canton of Basel-Country, Switzerland.

Arnex-sur-Nyon is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Arnold Spencer Leese — was a British fascist politician and veterinary surgeon. The first season of the television comedy series Arrested Development aired between November 2, and June 6, , on Fox in the United States. Saint Arsenius Arsenios of Corfu, also known as Arsenius of Kerkyra, died or perhaps is one of the principal patron saints of Corfu along with Saint Spyridon.

Birmingham has a distinctive culture of art and design that emerged in the s, driven by the historic importance of the applied arts to the city's manufacturing economy. Arth is a village, a statistic town, and a municipality in Schwyz District in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland.

Arthur Allen Cohen June 25, — September 30, was an American Jewish scholar, art critic, theologian, publisher, and author. Christian Heinrich Arthur Drews November 1, — July 19, was a German writer, historian, philosopher, and important representative of German monist thought.

Arthur Hertzberg June 9, — April 17, was a Conservative rabbi and prominent Jewish-American scholar and activist. Arthur Kurzweil born is an American author, educator, editor, writer, publisher, and illusionist. Arthur Seligman June 14, — September 25, was an American businessman and politician. Arthur Ocean Waskow born Arthur I.

Waskow; is an American author, political activist, and rabbi associated with the Jewish Renewal movement. Arthur Young — was an English clergyman of the Church of England and religious writer. ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. Arye Oded born is a retired Israeli diplomat, scholar, and author of books and research articles about Africa - Israel relations, Islam, and Judaism in Africa.

Asa was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the third king of the Kingdom of Judah and the fifth king of the House of David. Asadollah Asgaroladi is a business magnate in Iran with business interests in exports, banking, real estate and healthcare. Aschbach is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is traditionally recited after engaging in an act of excretion, but is also included in many Jewish prayer books as a part of daily prayer prior to birkot hashachar.

The purpose of this blessing is to thank God for good health. It expresses thanks for having the ability to excrete, for without it existence would be impossible. Though recited normally by observant Jews each time excretory functions are used, hence giving it the name the "bathroom blessing", it is also recited during the Shacharit service due to its spiritual significance to Jews, humans are made in God's image, so it is an expression of awe toward God's creations.

Khasidei Ashkenaz; "German Pietists" were a Jewish mystical, ascetic movement in the German Rhineland during the 12th and 13th centuries. Ashkenazi Jews in Israel refers to immigrants and descendants of Ashkenazi Jews, who now reside within the state of Israel, in the modern sense also referring to Israeli Jewish adherents of the Ashkenazi Jewish tradition. Ashley Michelle Tisdale born July 2, is an American actress, singer, and producer. Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

Asian-Argentines or Asian-Argentinians refers to Argentines of Asian ancestry who are citizens or residents of Argentina. Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people. Asian Caribbeans are people who live in the Caribbean, but were born in Asia, or are descended from people who were born in Asia.

The Assemblies of Yahweh is a nonprofit religious organization with its international headquarters in Bethel, Pennsylvania, United States. Assisted suicide is suicide committed with the aid of another person, sometimes a physician. In approximately BCE, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked the fortified cities of Judah, laying siege on Jerusalem, but failed to capture it it is the only city mentioned as being besieged on Sennacherib's Stele, of which the capture is not mentioned.

Astruc Remoch sometimes spelled Raimuch was a Jewish convert to Catholicism who made his mark in history by attempting the conversion of other Jews during the 14th century. Atenism, or the "Amarna heresy", refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten.

Athalie is a play, the final tragedy of Jean Racine, and has been described as the masterpiece of "one of the greatest literary artists known" and the "ripest work" of Racine's genius. Some movements or sects within traditionally monotheistic or polytheistic religions recognize that it is possible to practice religious faith, spirituality and adherence to tenets without a belief in deities. Atil İtil; cf. A-de Shui , literally meaning "Big River", was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century.

Attachment parenting AP is a parenting philosophy that proposes methods which aim to promote the attachment of parent and infant not only by maximal parental empathy and responsiveness but also by continuous bodily closeness and touch. Attalens Atalin or Talin is a municipality in the district of Veveyse in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. Au is a municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Rheintal in the canton of St.

The Audians or Anthropomorphites were a sect of Christians in the fourth century in Syria and Scythia, named after their founder Audius or Audaeus , who took literally the text of Genesis, i, 27, that God created mankind in his own image. August Belmont Sr. December 8, November 24, was a German Jewish-American politician, financier, foreign diplomat, and party chairman of the Democratic National Committee during the s, and later a horse-breeder and racehorse owner.

An aureola or aureole diminutive of Latin aurea, "golden" is the radiance of luminous cloud which, in paintings of sacred personages, surrounds the whole figure. Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. Australian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Australian descent or Australian-born people who reside in Canada.

Australian Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Australian Jewish communities, who now reside within the State of Israel. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of and came into existence on 30 March Austrian Argentines are Argentine citizens of Austrian descent or Austrian-born people who emigrated to Argentina. Austrian Australians are Australian citizen of Austrian national origin or ancestry, or a permanent residents of Australia who have migrated from Austria.

Austrian Canadians are Canadian citizens who are of Austrian ancestry or Austrian-born people who reside in Canada. Austrians in the United Kingdom include citizens or non-citizen immigrants of the United Kingdom who originate from Austria. An automaton plural: automata or automatons is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.

An autopsy post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes. Avraham Gileadi born is a Hebrew scholar and literary analyst specializing in the Book of Isaiah. Abraham Abele Gombiner c.

Avram Steuerman-Rodion, born Adolf Steuerman or Steuermann and often referred to as just Rodion November 30, — September 19, , was a Romanian poet, anthologist, physician and socialist journalist. Axial Age also Axis Age, from Achsenzeit is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE. Ayushita Widyartoeti Nugraha, known as Ayushita born June 9, , is an Indonesian singer, actress, and dancer.

The Azerbaijan State Museum of History and Religion is located in Baku, Azerbaijan, which highlights religious views of primitive people who lived in ancient times. District de Rarogne oriental is an administrative district in the canton of Valais, Switzerland.

William Joseph "B. A baal keriah Hebrew:, "master of the reading" , colloquially called the baal korei Hebrew:, "master who reads" , is a member of a Jewish congregation who reads from the Sefer Torah during the service. The Baal Teshuva movement is a description of the return of secular Jews to religious Judaism. Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created by writer and producer J. Bad Ragaz is a municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Sarganserland in the canton of St.

Baghdadi Jews, also known as Indo-Iraqi Jews, is the traditional name given to the communities of Jewish migrants and their descendants from Baghdad and elsewhere in the Middle East, who settled primarily along the trade routes of ports around the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. Bagnes is a municipality in the district of Entremont in the canton of Valais in Switzerland.

Balak — Hebrew for "Balak," a name, the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah is the 40th weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the seventh in the Book of Numbers. Balgach is a municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Rheintal in the canton of St.

Ballaigues is a municipality in the district of Jura-Nord Vaudois in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Baltic people in the United Kingdom are those born or raised in the UK, or residents, who are of Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian origin. Bangladesh-United States relations are the current and historical relations between Bangladesh and the United States. Barbara "Willy" Mendes born January 30, is an American cartoonist and fine artist.

Barbara Joan Pariente born December 24, is an attorney and jurist from Florida. The Barghawatas also Barghwata or Berghouata were a group of Berber tribes on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy.

Barlaam of Seminara Bernardo Massari, as a layman , c. Baruj Benacerraf October 29, — August 2, was a Venezuelan-American immunologist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the "discovery of the major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface protein molecules important for the immune system's distinction between self and non-self.

The Basilidians or Basilideans were a Gnostic sect founded by Basilides of Alexandria in the 2nd century. Bassins is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Becherbach bei Kirn is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Bechukotai, Bechukosai, or B'hukkothai — Hebrew for "by my decrees," the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah is the 33rd weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the 10th and last in the Book of Leviticus. Bedesbach is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Bee Season is a American drama film adaptation of the novel of the same name by Myla Goldberg.

There are two biblical figures named 'Beeri. Begnins is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Behaalotecha, Beha'alotecha, Beha'alothekha, or Behaaloscha — Hebrew for "when you step up," the 11th word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah is the 36th weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the third in the Book of Numbers.

Behar, BeHar, Be-har, or B'har — Hebrew for "on the mount," the fifth word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah is the 32nd weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the ninth in the Book of Leviticus. Note: "Beit Warszawa" is ambiguous, and refers to 3 different Beit Warszawa organizations operating in Poland.

Beit Warszawa Synagogue is a liberal Jewish synagogue officially opened in in Warsaw. Belarusian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Belarusian descent or Belarusian-born people residing in Canada. Beliefnet is a lifestyle website providing feature editorial content around the topics of inspiration, spirituality, health, wellness, love and family, news and entertainment.

Bellach is a municipality in the district of Lebern in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. Bellevue Hill is an eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, located 5 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district, in the Municipality of Woollahra. Belmont-sur-Lausanne is a municipality in the district of Lavaux-Oron in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

Belp is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Belu-Simion Fainaru born is an Israeli sculptor who was born in Bucharest, Romania and immigrated to Israel in Bemidbar, BeMidbar, or B'midbar — Hebrew for "in the desert of", the fifth overall and first distinctive word in the parashah , often called Bamidbar or Bamidbor — Hebrew for "in the desert" , is the 34th weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the first in the Book of Numbers.

Ben Burns August 25, — January 29, was a pioneering editor of black publications including the Chicago Daily Defender, Ebony, Jet and Negro Digest and a public relations executive in Chicago. Ben Selling or April 29, — was a businessman, philanthropist, civil rights advocate, and politician in Portland, Oregon, United States. Ben Tobin — June 7, was an American real estate developer, philanthropist, and investor in Broadway shows. Benjamin A. Weinman born August 8, is an American musician, most notable for being the lead guitarist for the band the Dillinger Escape Plan.

Benedict Thomas Viviano, O. A Khazar ruler probably the bek , mentioned in the Schechter Text and the Khazar Correspondence, Benjamin was the son of the Khazar ruler Menahem and probably reigned in the late ninth and early tenth centuries CE. Benjamin Altman July 12, — October 7, was a New York City department store owner and art collector who is best known today for his large art collection, which he donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Benjamin Gompertz 5 March — 14 July was a British self-educated mathematician and actuary, who became a Fellow of the Royal Society. Benjamin Millepied born 10 June is a French dancer and choreographer, who has lived and worked in the United States after joining the New York City Ballet in , where he became a soloist in and a principal in Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu born 21 October is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since , previously holding the position from to Benjamin Urrutia born January 24, in Guayaquil, Ecuador is an author and scholar.

Benno or Beno Straucher August 11, — November 5, was a Bukovina-born Austro-Hungarian lawyer, politician and Jewish community representative, who spent the final part of his career in Romania. Benveniste, is the surname, byname see below - the origin of the name of an old, noble, rich, and scholarly Jewish family of Narbonne, France and northern Spain from the 11th century. Berber Canadians are Canadian citizens of Berber descent or persons of Berber descent residing in Canada.

Berber Jews are the Jewish communities of the Atlas mountains in Morocco, and previously in Algeria, which historically spoke Berber languages. Bereavement in Judaism is a combination of minhag and mitzvah derived from Judaism's classical Torah and rabbinic texts.

Berel Wein born March 25, is an American-born Orthodox rabbi, lecturer and writer. Bereshit, Bereishit, Bereishis, B'reshith, Beresheet, or Bereishees — Hebrew for "in the beginning," the first word in the parashah is the first weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. Berg is a municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Rorschach in the canton of St. Berg is a municipality in the district of Weinfelden in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Bernard Mannes Baruch August 19, — June 20, was an American financier, stock investor, philanthropist, statesman, and political consultant. Bernard Cherrick — was a British-Israeli rabbi and academic administrator. Bernard Goldsmith November 20, — July 22, was a Bavarian-American businessman and politician. Bernard N. Bernard Rose born 4 August is an English filmmaker and screenwriter best known for his direction of the horror film Candyman and the historical romance film Immortal Beloved. Bernard S.

Bernard Weinraub born December 19, is an American journalist and playwright. Berthold Oppenheim — was the rabbi of Olomouc,Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography. Bertram Lawrence "Bert" Podell December 27, — August 17, was an American politician who served in the New York State Assembly for six terms and part of a seventh, and was a member of the United States House of Representatives from New York for part of one term and three full terms.

Beshalach, Beshallach, or Beshalah — Hebrew for "when let go," the second word and first distinctive word in the parashah is the sixteenth weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the fourth in the Book of Exodus. It is one of a number of national and international Jewish communities of "LGBT affirming congregations" that specifically welcome and "embrace" the LGBT Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender community, along with all others who "wish to participate in an inclusive, egalitarian, and mutually supportive community.

Beth Ann Wilkinson is a Washington, D. Betty Friedan February 4, — February 4, was an American writer, activist, and feminist. Biasca is a town of the district of Riviera in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland. Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement were used primarily by ancient Israelites and appear frequently within the Hebrew Bible as well as in later Judaic scripture, such as the Mishnah and Talmud. Biblical inerrancy, as formulated in the "Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy", is the doctrine that the Protestant Bible "is without error or fault in all its teaching"; or, at least, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact".

Biblical literalism or biblicism is a term used differently by different authors concerning biblical interpretation. Biblical Sabbath is a weekly day of rest or time of worship given in the Bible as the seventh day. Big Brother 8 was the eighth season of the American reality television series Big Brother. A bilingual dictionary or translation dictionary is a specialized dictionary used to translate words or phrases from one language to another.

William Morse "Bill" Davidson, J. December 5, — March 13, was an American businessman. Willis David Gradison Jr. Bill Ritter born February 26, is an American television news anchor and journalist. Binningen is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Birkenfeld is a town and the district seat of the Birkenfeld district in southwest Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,,, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution.

Bischofszell is a municipality in Weinfelden District in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, its three volumes first published in , , and respectively, is a scholarly work by Martin Bernal. The Black Death persecutions and massacres were a series of violent attacks on Jewish communities blamed for an outbreak of the Black Death in Europe from to Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.

Bleienbach is a municipality in the Oberaargau administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. The Holy Marriage Blessing Ceremony is a large-scale wedding or marriage rededication ceremony sponsored by the Unification Church. Blessing of animals can be either of the animal or of the human-animal relationship, and can apply to pets and other companion animals, or to agricultural animals and working and other animals which humans depend on or interact with.

Blonay is a municipality in the district of Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

Blu Greenberg born January 21, , in Seattle, with the name Bluma Genauer, later legally changing her first name to Blu is an American writer specializing in modern Judaism and women's issues. Many languages do not distinguish between what in English are described as "blue" and "green" and instead use a cover term spanning both. Bo — in Hebrew, the command form of "go," or "come," and the first significant word in the parashah, in is the fifteenth weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the third in the Book of Exodus.

Board of Trustees of Scarsdale v. McCreary,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which an evenly split Court upheld per curiam a lower court's decision that the display of a privately sponsored nativity scene on public property does not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Robert J. Blumenfield born September 13, is an American elected official in Southern California. Robert Earl Filner born September 4, is a former American politician who was the 35th Mayor of San Diego from December through August , when he resigned amid multiple allegations of sexual harassment. Representative from California. Robert Paul Fisher born 3 August is an English retired professional football right back, best remembered for his 9 years in the Football League with Orient, for whom he made appearances and was captain.

Bodo c. Bogis-Bossey is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Bolligen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district of the canton of Bern, Switzerland. Boncourt is a municipality in the district of Porrentruy in the canton of Jura in Switzerland. Bondi is an eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, seven kilometres east of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of Waverley Council.

The Bonnier family is a Swedish family of Jewish origin, who since the beginning of the 19th century has been active in the book industry and later also in the mass media industry. A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.

The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, which adherents believe contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from approximately BC to AD The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible. The Book of Obadiah is an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel.

Bookbinder's soup is a type of soup pioneered in the United States of America in when Samuel Bookbinder created Old Original Bookbinder's restaurant in Philadelphia. Lawrence "Larry" J. Simon June 28, — September 1, , better known by the ring name, Boris Malenko pron , was an American professional wrestler and professional wrestling trainer.

Boris Yelensky was a Russian anarchist propagandist from the early 20th century. The Borough of Colchester is a local government district and borough in Essex, England, named after its main town, Colchester. Boscov's Inc. Bosenbach is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Bosnia is one of two main regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to the latest official population census made in Bosnia and Herzegovina, most of the people identified with Bosniak, Croat or Serb nationality.

Some people identified with "Bosnian" nationality, however these are listed under the category "Others" along with all the other options such as Jews, Romas etc. According to the latest population census , there were around 2. According to some, a Bosnian can be anyone who holds citizenship of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and thus is largely synonymous with the all-encompassing national demonym Bosnians and Herzegovinians.

This includes, but is not limited to, members of the constituent ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Those who reside in the smaller geographical region of Herzegovina usually prefer to identify as Herzegovinians. CIA factbook, used in this article as a source for numbers, does not mention a sole "Bosnian" nationality.

Instead it mentions "Bosnian s , Herzegovinian s " thereby emphasizing the regional significance and equity between the terms. Ethnic minorities in this territory, such as Jews, Roma, Albanians, Montenegrins and others, may consider Bosnian as an adjective modifying their ethnicity e. Bosnian Roma to indicate place of residence. Other times they use with equal rights the term Herzegovinians.

In addition, a sizable population in Bosnia and Herzegovina believe that the term "Bosnians" defines a people who constitute a distinct collective cultural identity or ethnic group. According to the latest census however, this population does not rise above 2. The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou , was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch it was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea.

Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston Expressionism was a school of painting that originated in Boston, Massachusetts, in the s and flourished through the s. The Boy Scouts of America BSA , one of the largest private youth organizations in the United States, has policies which prohibit those who are not willing to subscribe to the BSA's Declaration of Religious Principle, which is usually interpreted as banning atheists, and, until January , prohibited all "known or avowed homosexuals," from membership in its Scouting program.

Brazilian Americans brasilo-americanos, norte-americanos de origem brasileira or estadunidenses de origem brasileira are Americans who are of full or partial Brazilian ancestry. The Brazilian diaspora comprises Brazilians who have migrated to other countries, a fairly recent phenomenon that has been driven mainly by economic problems that afflicted Brazil from the ending of the military dictatorship in the s to the early s decade. Brazilians in Germany consists of mainly of immigrants and expatriates from Brazil as well as their locally born descendants.

Bread has a significance beyond mere nutrition in many cultures in the West and Near and Middle East because of its history and contemporary importance. Bremgarten bei Bern is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Brenzikofen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Bretzenheim is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Brian Dannelly is an American film director and screenwriter best known for his work on the film Saved!. Brianne Nadeau born is a Democratic politician in Washington, D. Brighton is a dissolved municipality and current neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, United States, and is located in the northwestern corner of the city.

Bristol is a city and county in South West England with a population of , Brit Rechitzah covenant of washing is an alternative ceremony to Brit milah performed by progressive Jews who are opposed to circumcision as a blood ritual. It is intended to replace the traditional brit milah, and is promoted by groups such as Beyond the Bris and Jews Against Circumcision. The term is generally not used for girls, since their naming ceremony does not involve circumcision.

Brit shalom is recognized by organizations affiliated with Humanistic Judaism like the Society for Humanistic Judaism, The Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations, and the International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism, but officially it is not by any of the major denominations in Judaism. The reform movement rabbis welcome these families in their community, but do not advertise this in public.

The British diaspora in Africa is a population group broadly defined as English-speaking white Africans of mainly but not only British descent who live in or come from Sub-Saharan Africa. British Iraqis are people whose heritage is originated from Iraq who were born in or who reside in the United Kingdom. Bronschhofen is a former municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Wil in the canton of St.

Brooke Burke-Charvet born September 8, , better known by her maiden name, Brooke Burke, is an American actress, dancer, model, and television personality. Broxtowe Estate is a council estate in the City of Nottingham which is part of the Aspley ward.

Bruce Chilton born is an American scholar of early Christianity and Judaism. Bruno Bauer 6 September April was a German philosopher and historian. Secretary of State John Kerry. Bubendorf is a municipality in the district of Liestal in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Buchillon is a municipality in the Swiss canton of Vaud, located in the district of Morges. Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union. Buddhism is a legally recognized religion in Austria and it is followed by more than 10, Austrians.

Although there was regular contact between practising Buddhists and Europeans in antiquity the former had little direct impact. Buddhism is the fourth largest religion in France, after Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Buddhism in the United Kingdom has a small but growing number of supporters which, according to a Buddhist organisation, is mainly because of the result of conversion.

Buddhism, once thought of as a mysterious religion from the East, has now become very popular in the West, and is one of the largest religions in the United States. Buddhist studies, also known as Buddhology although the latter term is sometimes reserved for the study of Buddhas rather than that of Buddhism as a whole , is the academic study of Buddhism. James David Caldwell Sr.

Bugby Chapel is an 18th-century former chapel in the centre of Epsom, a suburban town in Surrey, England. The Builders of the Adytum B. The Bukovina Germans are a German ethnic group who had a noteworthy demographic presence spanning from to in the historic Central European region of Bukovina, which is nowadays divided between northeastern Romania and western Ukraine.

The Bulanids were the ruling dynasty of the Khazar Khaganate during the 9th century and 10th century CE. Bulgarian-American relations, first formally established in , have moved from missionary activity and American support for Bulgarian independence in the late 19th century to the growth of trade and commerce in the early 20th century, to reluctant hostility during World War I and open war and bombardment in World War II, to ideological confrontation during the Cold War, to partnership with the United States in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO and growing political, military and economic ties in the beginning of the 21st century.

Bulgarian Jews in Israel are Jewish immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Bulgarian Jewish communities, who now reside within the state of Israel. Bullay is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Burgdorf Berthoud is the largest city in the Emmental in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. The burning bush is an object described by the Book of Exodus as being located on Mount Horeb.

Bursinel is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Bursins is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. A bus stop is a designated place where buses stop for passengers to board or alight from a bus. Buus is a municipality in the district of Sissach in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland.

Cadillac Records is a biographical musical drama film written and directed by Darnell Martin. Caelus or Coelus was a primal god of the sky in Roman myth and theology, iconography, and literature compare caelum, the Latin word for "sky" or "the heavens", hence English "celestial". Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

The Cairo Genizah, alternatively spelled Geniza, is a collection of some , Jewish manuscript fragments that were found in the genizah or storeroom of the Ben Ezra Synagogue in Fustat or Old Cairo, Egypt. Department of Commerce. Camille Gutt 14 November — 7 June , born Camille Guttenstein, was a Belgian economist, politician, and industrialist. Camp or Unit or Facility was an Israel Defense Forces prison camp in northern Israel for "high-risk" prisoners.

Alma Dale Campbell Brown born June 14, is the head of global news partnerships at Facebook and a former American television news reporter and anchorwoman. CampusJ Jewish Collegiate News was a website covering Jewish news on college and university campuses with a network of student journalists. Can Can stylized as Can!! Can is an American punk rock band from Atlanta, Georgia. Canaanism was a cultural and ideological movement founded in that reached its peak in the s among the Jews of Palestine.

British—Canadian relations are the relations between Canada and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, being bilateral relations between their governments and wider relations between the two societies. Relations between Canada and the United States of America historically have been extensive, given a shared border and ever-increasing close cultural, economical ties and similarities.

Canadian Australians refers to Australians who identify as being of Canadian descent. Canadians in France are people born in Canada who emigrated to France, especially from French Canada. Canary Islanders, or Canarians canarios , are an ethnic group living in the archipelago of the Canary Islands an autonomous community of Spain , near the coast of Western Africa.

A candelabrum plural candelabrums, candelabra, candelabras , sometimes called a candle tree, is a candle holder with multiple arms. Candice Cohen-Ahnine c. In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of periods of fixed prayer at regular intervals. Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter upper-case letter and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean and the surrounding coasts. A Caribbean person is a native or inhabitant of the Caribbean region or a person of Caribbean descent living outside the Caribbean. Carl Milton Levin born June 28, is an American attorney and retired politician who served as a United States Senator from Michigan from - Borchardt was born to a Jewish family in Berlin.

His father, Moritz, was a respected merchant, and his mother was Emma Heilborn. In he began teaching at the University of Berlin. He did research in the area of arithmetic-geometric mean, continuing work by Gauss and Lagrange. He generalised the results of Kummer diagonalising symmetric matrices, using determinants and Sturm functions. Carol A. Newsom born July 4, is an American biblical scholar, historian of ancient Judaism, and literary critic.

Shorenstein is an American theatrical producer. Carrie Bowman Bohrmann - was an American Broadway stage actress, active from to Castration also known as gonadectomy is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.

Yusuf Islam born Steven Demetre Georgiou , commonly known by his former stage name Cat Stevens, is a British singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist. Caterina Tarongi i Tarongi , Palma, May 6, , ibid. Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. Due to the multiple benefits from cattle, there are varying beliefs about cattle in societies and religions.

Cecil Abraham Alexander, Jr. The English coastal city of Brighton and Hove, made up of the formerly separate Boroughs of Brighton and Hove in East Sussex, has a wide range of cemeteries throughout its urban area. Censorship was a fundamental element of Portuguese national culture throughout the country's history up until the Carnation Revolution in The Central Synagogue of Bondi Junction, Sydney, is the largest synagogue in the Southern hemisphere and has the largest Jewish congregation in Australasia.

Central Association of German Citizens of Jewish Faith was founded by German Jewish intellectuals on 26 March in Berlin, with the intention of opposing the rise of antisemitism in the German Empire. Get my own profile Cited by View all All Since Citations h-index 96 50 iindex Christian Freiburghaus Verified email at sbl.

Tobias Fischer University of Wroclaw Verified email at uwr. View all. Articles Cited by Co-authors. Title Sort Sort by citations Sort by year Sort by title. The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 2 , , The Astrophysical Journal Letters 2 , L , The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 1 , , Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 3 , , Articles 1—20 Show more.

Help Privacy Terms. Accreting white dwarf models of Type I supernovae. Physics reports 4 , , Physical review letters 86 16 , , Physical Review Letters 96 14 , , Physical Review D 63 10 , ,

BETTING ON HORSE RACING FOR DUMMIES UKULELE

In some Occult and similar writings, an archdemon also spelled archdaemon is a spiritual entity, prominent in the infernal hierarchy as a leader of demons. Arconciel is a municipality in the district of Sarine in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae.

Argenschwang is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Argentine Canadians are Canadian citizens of Argentine descent or an Argentina-born person who resides in Canada.

Argentine Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Argentine Jewish communities, who now reside within the state of Israel and are the largest Latin American Jewish group in the country. Argentines in Chile consists of mainly of immigrants and expatriates from Argentina as well as their locally born descendants. Argentines in France form one of the largest immigrant groups from Hispanic America. To make an argument from silence Latin: argumentum ex silentio is to express a conclusion that is based on the absence of statements in historical documents, rather than their presence.

Ariana B. Kelly is an American politician from Maryland and a member of the Democratic Party. Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God i.

God the Son. Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of Arlesheim is a statistic town and a municipality in the district of Arlesheim in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Arlesheim District is one of the five districts of the largely German-speaking canton of Basel-Country, Switzerland.

Arnex-sur-Nyon is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Arnold Spencer Leese — was a British fascist politician and veterinary surgeon. The first season of the television comedy series Arrested Development aired between November 2, and June 6, , on Fox in the United States.

Saint Arsenius Arsenios of Corfu, also known as Arsenius of Kerkyra, died or perhaps is one of the principal patron saints of Corfu along with Saint Spyridon. Birmingham has a distinctive culture of art and design that emerged in the s, driven by the historic importance of the applied arts to the city's manufacturing economy. Arth is a village, a statistic town, and a municipality in Schwyz District in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland.

Arthur Allen Cohen June 25, — September 30, was an American Jewish scholar, art critic, theologian, publisher, and author. Christian Heinrich Arthur Drews November 1, — July 19, was a German writer, historian, philosopher, and important representative of German monist thought. Arthur Hertzberg June 9, — April 17, was a Conservative rabbi and prominent Jewish-American scholar and activist. Arthur Kurzweil born is an American author, educator, editor, writer, publisher, and illusionist.

Arthur Seligman June 14, — September 25, was an American businessman and politician. Arthur Ocean Waskow born Arthur I. Waskow; is an American author, political activist, and rabbi associated with the Jewish Renewal movement. Arthur Young — was an English clergyman of the Church of England and religious writer.

ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. Arye Oded born is a retired Israeli diplomat, scholar, and author of books and research articles about Africa - Israel relations, Islam, and Judaism in Africa.

Asa was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the third king of the Kingdom of Judah and the fifth king of the House of David. Asadollah Asgaroladi is a business magnate in Iran with business interests in exports, banking, real estate and healthcare.

Aschbach is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is traditionally recited after engaging in an act of excretion, but is also included in many Jewish prayer books as a part of daily prayer prior to birkot hashachar.

The purpose of this blessing is to thank God for good health. It expresses thanks for having the ability to excrete, for without it existence would be impossible. Though recited normally by observant Jews each time excretory functions are used, hence giving it the name the "bathroom blessing", it is also recited during the Shacharit service due to its spiritual significance to Jews, humans are made in God's image, so it is an expression of awe toward God's creations.

Khasidei Ashkenaz; "German Pietists" were a Jewish mystical, ascetic movement in the German Rhineland during the 12th and 13th centuries. Ashkenazi Jews in Israel refers to immigrants and descendants of Ashkenazi Jews, who now reside within the state of Israel, in the modern sense also referring to Israeli Jewish adherents of the Ashkenazi Jewish tradition.

Ashley Michelle Tisdale born July 2, is an American actress, singer, and producer. Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. Asian-Argentines or Asian-Argentinians refers to Argentines of Asian ancestry who are citizens or residents of Argentina. Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people.

Asian Caribbeans are people who live in the Caribbean, but were born in Asia, or are descended from people who were born in Asia. The Assemblies of Yahweh is a nonprofit religious organization with its international headquarters in Bethel, Pennsylvania, United States. Assisted suicide is suicide committed with the aid of another person, sometimes a physician.

In approximately BCE, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked the fortified cities of Judah, laying siege on Jerusalem, but failed to capture it it is the only city mentioned as being besieged on Sennacherib's Stele, of which the capture is not mentioned. Astruc Remoch sometimes spelled Raimuch was a Jewish convert to Catholicism who made his mark in history by attempting the conversion of other Jews during the 14th century.

Atenism, or the "Amarna heresy", refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten. Athalie is a play, the final tragedy of Jean Racine, and has been described as the masterpiece of "one of the greatest literary artists known" and the "ripest work" of Racine's genius. Some movements or sects within traditionally monotheistic or polytheistic religions recognize that it is possible to practice religious faith, spirituality and adherence to tenets without a belief in deities.

Atil İtil; cf. A-de Shui , literally meaning "Big River", was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century. Attachment parenting AP is a parenting philosophy that proposes methods which aim to promote the attachment of parent and infant not only by maximal parental empathy and responsiveness but also by continuous bodily closeness and touch.

Attalens Atalin or Talin is a municipality in the district of Veveyse in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. Au is a municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Rheintal in the canton of St. The Audians or Anthropomorphites were a sect of Christians in the fourth century in Syria and Scythia, named after their founder Audius or Audaeus , who took literally the text of Genesis, i, 27, that God created mankind in his own image.

August Belmont Sr. December 8, November 24, was a German Jewish-American politician, financier, foreign diplomat, and party chairman of the Democratic National Committee during the s, and later a horse-breeder and racehorse owner. An aureola or aureole diminutive of Latin aurea, "golden" is the radiance of luminous cloud which, in paintings of sacred personages, surrounds the whole figure.

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. Australian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Australian descent or Australian-born people who reside in Canada. Australian Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Australian Jewish communities, who now reside within the State of Israel.

The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of and came into existence on 30 March Austrian Argentines are Argentine citizens of Austrian descent or Austrian-born people who emigrated to Argentina. Austrian Australians are Australian citizen of Austrian national origin or ancestry, or a permanent residents of Australia who have migrated from Austria. Austrian Canadians are Canadian citizens who are of Austrian ancestry or Austrian-born people who reside in Canada.

Austrians in the United Kingdom include citizens or non-citizen immigrants of the United Kingdom who originate from Austria. An automaton plural: automata or automatons is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions. An autopsy post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

Avraham Gileadi born is a Hebrew scholar and literary analyst specializing in the Book of Isaiah. Abraham Abele Gombiner c. Avram Steuerman-Rodion, born Adolf Steuerman or Steuermann and often referred to as just Rodion November 30, — September 19, , was a Romanian poet, anthologist, physician and socialist journalist.

Axial Age also Axis Age, from Achsenzeit is a term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers in the sense of a "pivotal age" characterizing the period of ancient history from about the 8th to the 3rd century BCE. Ayushita Widyartoeti Nugraha, known as Ayushita born June 9, , is an Indonesian singer, actress, and dancer. The Azerbaijan State Museum of History and Religion is located in Baku, Azerbaijan, which highlights religious views of primitive people who lived in ancient times.

District de Rarogne oriental is an administrative district in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. William Joseph "B. A baal keriah Hebrew:, "master of the reading" , colloquially called the baal korei Hebrew:, "master who reads" , is a member of a Jewish congregation who reads from the Sefer Torah during the service. The Baal Teshuva movement is a description of the return of secular Jews to religious Judaism. Babylon 5 is an American science fiction television series created by writer and producer J.

Bad Ragaz is a municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Sarganserland in the canton of St. Baghdadi Jews, also known as Indo-Iraqi Jews, is the traditional name given to the communities of Jewish migrants and their descendants from Baghdad and elsewhere in the Middle East, who settled primarily along the trade routes of ports around the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.

Bagnes is a municipality in the district of Entremont in the canton of Valais in Switzerland. Balak — Hebrew for "Balak," a name, the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah is the 40th weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the seventh in the Book of Numbers. Balgach is a municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Rheintal in the canton of St. Ballaigues is a municipality in the district of Jura-Nord Vaudois in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

Baltic people in the United Kingdom are those born or raised in the UK, or residents, who are of Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian origin. Bangladesh-United States relations are the current and historical relations between Bangladesh and the United States. Barbara "Willy" Mendes born January 30, is an American cartoonist and fine artist. Barbara Joan Pariente born December 24, is an attorney and jurist from Florida.

The Barghawatas also Barghwata or Berghouata were a group of Berber tribes on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy. Barlaam of Seminara Bernardo Massari, as a layman , c. Baruj Benacerraf October 29, — August 2, was a Venezuelan-American immunologist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the "discovery of the major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface protein molecules important for the immune system's distinction between self and non-self.

The Basilidians or Basilideans were a Gnostic sect founded by Basilides of Alexandria in the 2nd century. Bassins is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Becherbach bei Kirn is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Bechukotai, Bechukosai, or B'hukkothai — Hebrew for "by my decrees," the second word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah is the 33rd weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the 10th and last in the Book of Leviticus. Bedesbach is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Bee Season is a American drama film adaptation of the novel of the same name by Myla Goldberg. There are two biblical figures named 'Beeri. Begnins is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Behaalotecha, Beha'alotecha, Beha'alothekha, or Behaaloscha — Hebrew for "when you step up," the 11th word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah is the 36th weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the third in the Book of Numbers.

Behar, BeHar, Be-har, or B'har — Hebrew for "on the mount," the fifth word, and the first distinctive word, in the parashah is the 32nd weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the ninth in the Book of Leviticus. Note: "Beit Warszawa" is ambiguous, and refers to 3 different Beit Warszawa organizations operating in Poland.

Beit Warszawa Synagogue is a liberal Jewish synagogue officially opened in in Warsaw. Belarusian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Belarusian descent or Belarusian-born people residing in Canada. Beliefnet is a lifestyle website providing feature editorial content around the topics of inspiration, spirituality, health, wellness, love and family, news and entertainment. Bellach is a municipality in the district of Lebern in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland.

Bellevue Hill is an eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, located 5 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district, in the Municipality of Woollahra. Belmont-sur-Lausanne is a municipality in the district of Lavaux-Oron in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Belp is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Belu-Simion Fainaru born is an Israeli sculptor who was born in Bucharest, Romania and immigrated to Israel in Bemidbar, BeMidbar, or B'midbar — Hebrew for "in the desert of", the fifth overall and first distinctive word in the parashah , often called Bamidbar or Bamidbor — Hebrew for "in the desert" , is the 34th weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the first in the Book of Numbers.

Ben Burns August 25, — January 29, was a pioneering editor of black publications including the Chicago Daily Defender, Ebony, Jet and Negro Digest and a public relations executive in Chicago. Ben Selling or April 29, — was a businessman, philanthropist, civil rights advocate, and politician in Portland, Oregon, United States. Ben Tobin — June 7, was an American real estate developer, philanthropist, and investor in Broadway shows. Benjamin A.

Weinman born August 8, is an American musician, most notable for being the lead guitarist for the band the Dillinger Escape Plan. Benedict Thomas Viviano, O. A Khazar ruler probably the bek , mentioned in the Schechter Text and the Khazar Correspondence, Benjamin was the son of the Khazar ruler Menahem and probably reigned in the late ninth and early tenth centuries CE.

Benjamin Altman July 12, — October 7, was a New York City department store owner and art collector who is best known today for his large art collection, which he donated to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Benjamin Gompertz 5 March — 14 July was a British self-educated mathematician and actuary, who became a Fellow of the Royal Society. Benjamin Millepied born 10 June is a French dancer and choreographer, who has lived and worked in the United States after joining the New York City Ballet in , where he became a soloist in and a principal in Benjamin "Bibi" Netanyahu born 21 October is an Israeli politician serving as the 9th and current Prime Minister of Israel since , previously holding the position from to Benjamin Urrutia born January 24, in Guayaquil, Ecuador is an author and scholar.

Benno or Beno Straucher August 11, — November 5, was a Bukovina-born Austro-Hungarian lawyer, politician and Jewish community representative, who spent the final part of his career in Romania. Benveniste, is the surname, byname see below - the origin of the name of an old, noble, rich, and scholarly Jewish family of Narbonne, France and northern Spain from the 11th century. Berber Canadians are Canadian citizens of Berber descent or persons of Berber descent residing in Canada.

Berber Jews are the Jewish communities of the Atlas mountains in Morocco, and previously in Algeria, which historically spoke Berber languages. Bereavement in Judaism is a combination of minhag and mitzvah derived from Judaism's classical Torah and rabbinic texts. Berel Wein born March 25, is an American-born Orthodox rabbi, lecturer and writer. Bereshit, Bereishit, Bereishis, B'reshith, Beresheet, or Bereishees — Hebrew for "in the beginning," the first word in the parashah is the first weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading.

Berg is a municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Rorschach in the canton of St. Berg is a municipality in the district of Weinfelden in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland. Bernard Mannes Baruch August 19, — June 20, was an American financier, stock investor, philanthropist, statesman, and political consultant.

Bernard Cherrick — was a British-Israeli rabbi and academic administrator. Bernard Goldsmith November 20, — July 22, was a Bavarian-American businessman and politician. Bernard N. Bernard Rose born 4 August is an English filmmaker and screenwriter best known for his direction of the horror film Candyman and the historical romance film Immortal Beloved. Bernard S. Bernard Weinraub born December 19, is an American journalist and playwright. Berthold Oppenheim — was the rabbi of Olomouc,Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography.

Bertram Lawrence "Bert" Podell December 27, — August 17, was an American politician who served in the New York State Assembly for six terms and part of a seventh, and was a member of the United States House of Representatives from New York for part of one term and three full terms. Beshalach, Beshallach, or Beshalah — Hebrew for "when let go," the second word and first distinctive word in the parashah is the sixteenth weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the fourth in the Book of Exodus.

It is one of a number of national and international Jewish communities of "LGBT affirming congregations" that specifically welcome and "embrace" the LGBT Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender community, along with all others who "wish to participate in an inclusive, egalitarian, and mutually supportive community. Beth Ann Wilkinson is a Washington, D. Betty Friedan February 4, — February 4, was an American writer, activist, and feminist. Biasca is a town of the district of Riviera in the canton of Ticino in Switzerland.

Biblical and Talmudic units of measurement were used primarily by ancient Israelites and appear frequently within the Hebrew Bible as well as in later Judaic scripture, such as the Mishnah and Talmud. Biblical inerrancy, as formulated in the "Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy", is the doctrine that the Protestant Bible "is without error or fault in all its teaching"; or, at least, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact".

Biblical literalism or biblicism is a term used differently by different authors concerning biblical interpretation. Biblical Sabbath is a weekly day of rest or time of worship given in the Bible as the seventh day. Big Brother 8 was the eighth season of the American reality television series Big Brother. A bilingual dictionary or translation dictionary is a specialized dictionary used to translate words or phrases from one language to another. William Morse "Bill" Davidson, J.

December 5, — March 13, was an American businessman. Willis David Gradison Jr. Bill Ritter born February 26, is an American television news anchor and journalist. Binningen is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Birkenfeld is a town and the district seat of the Birkenfeld district in southwest Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,,, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

A birthday is the anniversary of the birth of a person, or figuratively of an institution. Bischofszell is a municipality in Weinfelden District in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland. Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, its three volumes first published in , , and respectively, is a scholarly work by Martin Bernal. The Black Death persecutions and massacres were a series of violent attacks on Jewish communities blamed for an outbreak of the Black Death in Europe from to Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.

Bleienbach is a municipality in the Oberaargau administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. The Holy Marriage Blessing Ceremony is a large-scale wedding or marriage rededication ceremony sponsored by the Unification Church. Blessing of animals can be either of the animal or of the human-animal relationship, and can apply to pets and other companion animals, or to agricultural animals and working and other animals which humans depend on or interact with.

Blonay is a municipality in the district of Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. Blu Greenberg born January 21, , in Seattle, with the name Bluma Genauer, later legally changing her first name to Blu is an American writer specializing in modern Judaism and women's issues.

Many languages do not distinguish between what in English are described as "blue" and "green" and instead use a cover term spanning both. Bo — in Hebrew, the command form of "go," or "come," and the first significant word in the parashah, in is the fifteenth weekly Torah portion parashah in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the third in the Book of Exodus.

Board of Trustees of Scarsdale v. McCreary,, was a United States Supreme Court case in which an evenly split Court upheld per curiam a lower court's decision that the display of a privately sponsored nativity scene on public property does not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

Robert J. Blumenfield born September 13, is an American elected official in Southern California. Robert Earl Filner born September 4, is a former American politician who was the 35th Mayor of San Diego from December through August , when he resigned amid multiple allegations of sexual harassment.

Representative from California. Robert Paul Fisher born 3 August is an English retired professional football right back, best remembered for his 9 years in the Football League with Orient, for whom he made appearances and was captain. Bodo c. Bogis-Bossey is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Bolligen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district of the canton of Bern, Switzerland.

Boncourt is a municipality in the district of Porrentruy in the canton of Jura in Switzerland. Bondi is an eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, seven kilometres east of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of Waverley Council. The Bonnier family is a Swedish family of Jewish origin, who since the beginning of the 19th century has been active in the book industry and later also in the mass media industry. A book is a series of pages assembled for easy portability and reading, as well as the composition contained in it.

The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, which adherents believe contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from approximately BC to AD The Book of Nahum is the seventh book of the 12 minor prophets of the Hebrew Bible. The Book of Obadiah is an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel. Bookbinder's soup is a type of soup pioneered in the United States of America in when Samuel Bookbinder created Old Original Bookbinder's restaurant in Philadelphia.

Lawrence "Larry" J. Simon June 28, — September 1, , better known by the ring name, Boris Malenko pron , was an American professional wrestler and professional wrestling trainer. Boris Yelensky was a Russian anarchist propagandist from the early 20th century.

The Borough of Colchester is a local government district and borough in Essex, England, named after its main town, Colchester. Boscov's Inc. Bosenbach is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Bosnia is one of two main regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

According to the latest official population census made in Bosnia and Herzegovina, most of the people identified with Bosniak, Croat or Serb nationality. Some people identified with "Bosnian" nationality, however these are listed under the category "Others" along with all the other options such as Jews, Romas etc.

According to the latest population census , there were around 2. According to some, a Bosnian can be anyone who holds citizenship of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and thus is largely synonymous with the all-encompassing national demonym Bosnians and Herzegovinians. This includes, but is not limited to, members of the constituent ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Those who reside in the smaller geographical region of Herzegovina usually prefer to identify as Herzegovinians.

CIA factbook, used in this article as a source for numbers, does not mention a sole "Bosnian" nationality. Instead it mentions "Bosnian s , Herzegovinian s " thereby emphasizing the regional significance and equity between the terms. Ethnic minorities in this territory, such as Jews, Roma, Albanians, Montenegrins and others, may consider Bosnian as an adjective modifying their ethnicity e.

Bosnian Roma to indicate place of residence. Other times they use with equal rights the term Herzegovinians. In addition, a sizable population in Bosnia and Herzegovina believe that the term "Bosnians" defines a people who constitute a distinct collective cultural identity or ethnic group.

According to the latest census however, this population does not rise above 2. The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou , was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch it was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea.

Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. Boston Expressionism was a school of painting that originated in Boston, Massachusetts, in the s and flourished through the s. The Boy Scouts of America BSA , one of the largest private youth organizations in the United States, has policies which prohibit those who are not willing to subscribe to the BSA's Declaration of Religious Principle, which is usually interpreted as banning atheists, and, until January , prohibited all "known or avowed homosexuals," from membership in its Scouting program.

Brazilian Americans brasilo-americanos, norte-americanos de origem brasileira or estadunidenses de origem brasileira are Americans who are of full or partial Brazilian ancestry. The Brazilian diaspora comprises Brazilians who have migrated to other countries, a fairly recent phenomenon that has been driven mainly by economic problems that afflicted Brazil from the ending of the military dictatorship in the s to the early s decade. Brazilians in Germany consists of mainly of immigrants and expatriates from Brazil as well as their locally born descendants.

Bread has a significance beyond mere nutrition in many cultures in the West and Near and Middle East because of its history and contemporary importance. Bremgarten bei Bern is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Brenzikofen is a municipality in the Bern-Mittelland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Bretzenheim is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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It is intended to replace the traditional brit milah, and is promoted by groups such as Beyond the Bris and Jews Against Circumcision. The term is generally not used for girls, since their naming ceremony does not involve circumcision. Brit shalom is recognized by organizations affiliated with Humanistic Judaism like the Society for Humanistic Judaism, The Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations, and the International Institute for Secular Humanistic Judaism, but officially it is not by any of the major denominations in Judaism.

The reform movement rabbis welcome these families in their community, but do not advertise this in public. The British diaspora in Africa is a population group broadly defined as English-speaking white Africans of mainly but not only British descent who live in or come from Sub-Saharan Africa. British Iraqis are people whose heritage is originated from Iraq who were born in or who reside in the United Kingdom. Bronschhofen is a former municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of Wil in the canton of St.

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Bulgarian-American relations, first formally established in , have moved from missionary activity and American support for Bulgarian independence in the late 19th century to the growth of trade and commerce in the early 20th century, to reluctant hostility during World War I and open war and bombardment in World War II, to ideological confrontation during the Cold War, to partnership with the United States in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO and growing political, military and economic ties in the beginning of the 21st century.

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Buus is a municipality in the district of Sissach in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. Cadillac Records is a biographical musical drama film written and directed by Darnell Martin. Caelus or Coelus was a primal god of the sky in Roman myth and theology, iconography, and literature compare caelum, the Latin word for "sky" or "the heavens", hence English "celestial". Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

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Candice Cohen-Ahnine c. In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of periods of fixed prayer at regular intervals. Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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A Caribbean person is a native or inhabitant of the Caribbean region or a person of Caribbean descent living outside the Caribbean. Carl Milton Levin born June 28, is an American attorney and retired politician who served as a United States Senator from Michigan from - Borchardt was born to a Jewish family in Berlin.

His father, Moritz, was a respected merchant, and his mother was Emma Heilborn. In he began teaching at the University of Berlin. He did research in the area of arithmetic-geometric mean, continuing work by Gauss and Lagrange. He generalised the results of Kummer diagonalising symmetric matrices, using determinants and Sturm functions.

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San Pablo dice: Si todava agradara a los hombres, no sera siervo de Cristo. Con demasiada frecuencia pesamos muy cuidadosamente lo que hemos de decir para no decir lo que pensamos. De esta manera evadimos las contradicciones y las dejamos para que otros las resuelvan. De muchas cosas se ha acusado a la iglesia de hoy, pero difcilmente podemos culparla de ser demasiado franca o de tomar una postura demasiado firme.

La teologa, por su parte, suele refugiarse en la discusin de temas tan rebuscados que. Daniel , sobre los tres hombres en el horno de fuego, nos dice que tambin haba un cuarto cuyo aspecto era semejante a hijo de los dioses. Vase tambin Daniel Glatas Juan y Pero, cules son pues esos fundamentos? La respuesta que dio Lutero fue que hemos de promover a Cristo; es decir, Cristo debe ser el centro de toda nuestra enseanza y predicacin. En teologa eso nos conducir al estudio de las races de la Cristologa, o sea al estudio de las profecas mesinicas.

En la prctica, el evangelio no es ms que quin es Cristo y qu ha hecho l por nosotros. Aun el Apocalipsis de Juan nos recuerda que el testimonio de Jess es el espritu de la profeca. El rbol recibe sustento de sus races. Lo mantienen firmemente anclado en medio de la tormenta. Entre ms profundamente penetren en el suelo, mejores posibilidades tiene el rbol de resistir los vientos.

Seguramente podremos realizar nuestro propio salto de Nasn juntos, aun cuando requiera de algo de esfuerzo de nuestra parte. El Apstol Pablo, en su carta a los Colosenses, habla de Cristo, en quien estn escondidos todos los tesoros de la sabidura y del conocimiento.

Por esta razn nos exhorta adems con las palabras: De la manera que habis recibido al Seor Jesucristo, andad en l; arraigados y sobreedificados en l, y confirmados en la fe. Los cristianos lo ven como asunto de cumplimiento de profecas, mientras los judos intentan anular la interpretacin mesinica de la iglesia.

Siendo as, por lo menos debemos intentar escucharnos unos a otros, para dialogar sobre las races comunes a nuestras respectivas tradiciones. De hecho, semejante dilogo ya ha sido celebrado. En octubre de representantes de las iglesias evanglicas y de las sinagogas se reunieron en Berln para un dilogo, del cual surgi una declaracin pblica oficial. Esto ha motivado a los cristianos a dar a conocer a los judos los fundamentos de su fe, y viceversa.

Se consideraba que esta clase de intercambio poda promover el entendimiento mutuo. Sin embargo, al comentar estas cosas no estamos hablando en un vaco: tras de nosotros tenemos una historia de casi dos mil aos de controversia. El cisma entre las religiones madre e hija cre un conflicto de proporciones trgicas que an contina. Con todo, una comparacin de los orgenes judos y cristianos mostrar a ambas partes el camino hacia un mejor entendimiento de las races de sus respectivas persuasiones.

En el otoo de cierto Dr. John Pawlikowski de Chicago estuvo en Israel y dio una conferencia a un auditorio judo, negando esta teologa del cumplimiento, y ofreciendo en su lugar la idea de una revelacin en continua evolucin. El papel mesinico de Jess, segn sostena l, se basaba principalmente sobre su propia conciencia de su vocacin. En mi remota tierra natal de Finlandia un artculo tpico en una revista religiosa afirmaba que este asunto Bblico es una llaga que supura en el corazn de la iglesia madre.

El autor consideraba que el problema era especficamente las profecas mesinicas, que juegan un papel central en el Nuevo Testamento, porque los escritores del Nuevo Testamento ven el Antiguo Testamento como un libro que constantemente haca referencia a la salvacin que se experimenta en Cristo. Sin embargo, no se necesita ser un gran exegeta para ver que tales puentes entre un testamento y otro son, sin excepcin, artificiales y que no convencen a aquellos que piensan de manera racional.

Estos y otros pensamientos similares han resonado en muchos tratados teolgicos. Sostienen que estos asuntos han sido aclarados en los ltimos doscientos aos, y que son propiedad comn de investigaciones perma- nentes e internacionalmente aprobadas. Uno de estos eruditos cristaliza su argumento diciendo que: Ningn estudioso del Antiguo Testamento afirma, ni podra afirmar sobre ninguna base, que Isaas captulos 9 y 53 y el Salmo 22 se refieren a Jess. Los judos, generaliza l, no aceptan a Jess como Mesas.

Ellos ven en el sufrido Siervo del Seor, primariamente a la nacin de Israel. Pero, ser cierto? Obvio es que nadie puede exigir que aparezca el nombre de Jess en las profecas del Antiguo Testamento antes de que puedan ser aplicadas a l. Entendemos perfectamente lo que quiso decir 8. El Dr. Timo Veijola en Pappisliiton Jsenlehti. Risto Lauha. Jess cuando afirm que Moiss habl de l. An despus de la resurreccin se reporta que habl acerca de Moiss y de todos los profetas, explicando lo que estaba escrito de l en todas las Escrituras.

Jess se conduca de una manera que era entendida por sus contemporneos, y toda la exgesis juda desde el tiempo de Jess hasta la Edad Media, incluso hasta la actualidad, se basa en el mismo mtodo. Precisamente debido a este hecho, de que los fundamentos de la teologa del cumplimiento empiezan a desaparecer, intentaremos en lo que sigue hablar de las races de nuestra fe.

Al recorrer las bibliotecas judas, slo espordicamente aparecer un delgado tomo sobre la esperanza Mesinica entre la vasta literatura sobre la Torah, la ley juda. La interpretacin Halakha10 ha ocupado completamente la posicin de guardin de la vida religiosa del judo y la Torah ha venido a ser un substituto para la idea bblica de salvacin.

Franz Delitzsch, quiz el ms profundo experto sobre judasmo de su poca, asever que los judos ya no crean en el Mesas. En su lugar existe una expectativa general de que, para ellos, la liberacin se efectuar sin una figura Mesinica. Junto con este estrechamiento nacionalista el judasmo tambin ha perdido su carcter universal. Sobresale entre stas la obra de Rab David Qimh. La palabra Halakha significa decisin, norma, precepto legal sistematizado. Es una palabra rabnica que se deriva de halakh, caminar.

Es parte del Mishna, la interpretacin de la ley. Franz De litz sch , Me ssianisc he Weissagunge n in ge schic htliche r Folge, Leipzig , p 11, En la literatura rabnica los nombres de los sabios se escriben con estas formas abreviadas, i. Rab David Qimh. En su libro Ordenanzas de los Reyes, comprime todo lo que tiene que decir acerca del Mesas en seis pginas: El Mesas Rey ser ante todo un maestro de la Torah; reinstalar los severos castigos de la ley de Moiss y elabo- rar sus propias leyes, que el pueblo luego se ver obligado a observar; primero iniciar el milh.

RaMBaM afirma en su folleto que: Jess el Nazareno, quien pareca ser el Mesas, fue muerto por rdenes de la Gran Sinagoga, y que: las enseanzas de Jess el Nazareno y de ese ismaelita Mahoma que vino despus de l intentaban enderezar el camino para el Mesas Rey y restaurar a todo el mundo para que unido sirviera a Dios. Esta referencia favorable hace recordar la palabra utilizada por Josef Klausner en su libro Jess de Nazaret.

Para l Jess era como un pionero del Reino de Dios. La secta Karaim, que el judasmo oficial no acepta, basa su exgesis exclusivamente sobre el AT y no sobre la tradicin juda. Los libros mencionados estn en hebreo. Klausner, Jesus von Nazareth, Jerusaln , p El desastre militar subsecuente los alej completamente del pensamiento Mesinico y condujo a un judasmo halakha simplificado en el cual los estatutos hebreos se volvieron axiomticos.

No obstante, veremos que las fuentes ms tempranas de la Sinagoga an hablaban mucho acerca del Mesas, refirindose a un conjunto de informtica an ms extenso que la iglesia cristiana. En realidad no fue sino hasta fines del siglo pasado que empez a crecer el inters en el Mesas. Desde all en adelante el tema ha sido estudiado por los escritores judos conocidos: Leo Baeck, C.

Esto dio origen a muchas obras sobresalientes que iluminaron el trasfondo judo del concepto Mesinico, los ms famosos de las cuales son las obras de Hugo Gressmann, Moritz Zobel, S. Mowinckel, Eugen Hhn y L. Estas obras y los estudios correspondientes que establecieron los cimientos para los libros de Joseph Klausner, intentan explicar histrico-crticamente la expectativa Mesinica, mientras ignora su naturaleza explcitamente religiosa.

Hengstenberg, y en nuestra propia poca por Gsta Lindeskog, por ejemplo. La presentacin general de las profecas Mesinicas por el renombrado Franz Delitzsch, antes mencionado, tampoco tiene rival. Dignos de mencin entre los apologistas cristianos cuyo objetivo era defender su fe y que utilizaron la literatura rabnica estn: Alexander McCaul, A.

Lukyn Williams y Bernhard Pick. McCaul compar las doctrinas del Talmud con las del Nuevo Testamento. Sus libros han aparecido en ingls, alemn e incluso en el manuscrito hebreo RaSHI. Lukyn Williams respondi a la controvertida obra de Troki Strengthening of the Faith El Fortalecimiento de la Fe , en una obra que llevaba un prefacio por Strack. La investigacin histrico-crtica intenta socavar la naturaleza Mesinica especfica de la Biblia porque una expectativa similar de salvacin ha sido encontrada entre otros pueblos; escritores judos, como resultado de su propia desilusin, tienden a negar un Mesas personal - y la mayor parte de los eruditos de la actualidad tienden a limitar la Esperanza Mesinica a lo que son, segn la opinin de ellos, las escasas profecas bblicas en las que se pudiera fundamentar.

En las oraciones diarias llamadas en hebreo Sidr, existe un largo segmento de hermosas oraciones matutinas. Manuscrito RaSHI. Incluye Trece principios de la fe, que se han de repetir cada da. All leemos lo siguiente: clusula 6: Creo con perfecta fe que todas las palabras de los profetas son ciertas. Se parecen a las palabras de Lucas y de Hechos , segn las cules el proceder de los cristianos se basaba en las profecas encontradas en la Ley de Moiss, los profetas y los Salmos.

Esta interpretacin Mesinica no es un puente artificial. Todo esto nos obliga a preguntarnos qu otras fuentes deben ser utilizadas para derramar luz sobre las races de nuestra Cristologa. Desde el punto de vista cientfico debe ser posible aprobar como justificadores de una interpretacin Mesinica, aquellos pasajes del Antiguo Testamento para los cuales los comentarios judos sobre el Antiguo Testamento, preceptivos y generalmente aceptados, han visto el concepto Mesinico, y aquellas interpretaciones que el Nuevo Testamento ha entendido como Mesinicas.

Entre ms antigua la tradicin de la interpretacin, mayor el peso relativo que se le puede asignar a la fuente como exponente original del concepto Mesinico. Por supuesto que se debe tener presente que el Nuevo Testamento habla del misterio de Cristo. Stern, New York Esto se vuelve aparente particularmente en las fuentes judas antiguas.

Quiz sea imposible estudiar fenmenos espirituales o los que pertenecen a la historia de las ideas, mediante una metodologa puramente histrico-crtica. Se dice que cuando la manzana cay sobre la cabeza de Isaac Newton, ste descubri la ley de la gravedad. Si desmenuzramos esta manzana no encontraramos la ley en la manzanatampoco es probable que un cirujano la hubiera encontrado en la cabeza de Newton: se encontraba en alguna parte entre la manzana y la cabeza.

Los fenmenos espirituales no se pueden disecar; han de ser asimilados. Esto es aplicable tambin al misterio Mesinico. Si estudiamos cuidadosamente la Biblia y la literatura rabnica no podremos dejar de asombrarnos de la abundancia de interpretacin Mesinica en las obras ms antiguas que conocemos.

Un antiguo proverbio hebreo dice: No busqu, por tanto no encontrluego busqu, y encontr! Otro dice: Cuando mostramos la palma de la mano, otras dos palmas an permanecen ocultasen otras palabras, cuando investigamos un asunto, detrs de l existen dos retos nuevos que no hubiramos podido ver sin analizar el primero. Y el Talmud afirma inequvocamente: Todos los profetas profeti- zaron nicamente para los das del Mesas. Cmo podremos encontrar la misma voz, la ipsissima vox, que explique la Biblia en el espritu de la Biblia?

Formalmente, espera- mos que la verdadera erudicin observe ciertos mtodos predeter- minados. Cierto es que muchas de las llamadas profecas Mesinicas a las cuales se refiere el NT pueden ser interpretadas en el contexto de las etapas primitivas de la historia de Israel. Y, cien- tficamente hablando, este trasfondo histrico es el nico modelo de interpretacin legtimo y correcto que tenga algo que ver con el asunto. No obstante, los escritores del NT entendieron los textos profticamente y les dieron una interpretacin Cristolgica.

Esto significa que no procedieron histrico-crticamente ni estricta- mente cientficamente, como quisieran los telogos modernos que lo hubieran hecho: para los crticos de hoy tales formas de inter- pretacin son artificiales. Por tanto debemos preguntarnos: La perspectiva suprahistrica del NT refleja las caractersticas centrales de la interpretacin Mesinica tal como se presentaba en la antigedad? Y si es as, el crtico moderno deber encontrar mto- dos que pongan de manifiesto, tan obviamente como en el tiempo de su origen, todas las implicaciones y la congruencia interna de la materia que est estudiando.

Si hasta el momento no se ha tenido xito en este rengln, existen buenas razones para buscar un mto- do que sea ms adecuado para la materia. Podramos definir la diferencia entre la homiltica y la investigacin teolgica, diciendo que la teologa se esfuerza por explicar lo que cada palabra de la Biblia significaba en el tiempo en que fue escrita, mientras que la homiltica busca primariamente lo que el hombre de hoy puede sacar de provecho.

Podra decirse que los estudios histrico-crticos han sido incapaces o indispuestos a entender la Cristologa del NT y sus bases. Por eso es necesario encontrar herramientas que nos permitan cavar ms profundamente en las races de la idea Mesinica. Difcilmente hemos de encontrar una piedra filosofal que resuelva Necesitamos determinar qu formas de pensamiento y de presentacin dominaban entre el Antiguo y Nuevo Testamento, el crisol en que fue formado el cristianismo.

De igual modo, debe resolverse el problema de cmo una disciplina no considerada entre las ciencias exactas puede encontrar la integridad interna de su materia sin violentar las verdaderas intenciones de las personas estudiadas. Adems, en la eleccin de un mtodo de estudio debemos siempre determinar cules fuentes son ms capaces de derramar luz sobre las maneras de pensar que prevalecan en la poca en estudio.

Los detalles luego se acomodaban para integrar unidades ms amplias y se imponan a estructuras preformadas. Por otra parte, el pensamiento hebreo procede de los detalles a los principios, de las observaciones concretas a los ideales. De modo que la Biblia no conoce ni de dogma ni de sistema como tal. Ms bien muestra dos objetivos bsicos tpicos: narracin y una ley que sirva como gua para la vida. El Pentateuco, los Salmos y los Profetas relatan vez tras vez las grandes obras de Dios.

As, los hechos histricos se conservan sin alteracin, aun cuando su interpretacin reciba un nuevo matiz segn los requerimientos de cada poca. Tampoco la ley sagrada, tal como se revela en los mandamientos, cambia con las modas variables. En lugar de la fascinacin griega con sistematizacin, la Biblia manifiesta un razonamiento asociativo en el que cada. Este mismo principio asociativo se encuentra en toda la literatura rabnica incluso hasta nuestros tiempos.

Recientemente el NT tambin ha sido estudiado como especie de Midrash; como una creacin similar a la predicacin exegtica de la sinagoga, observando las leyes judas de interpretacin bblica. Uno de los fundamentos de este mtodo es el axioma que establece que cada detalle de la revelacin de Dios, la Torah, debe exponerse y explicarse, tanto en relacin con el tema bajo consideracin y como entidad independiente, porque la palabra de Dios nunca pierde su sentido literal.

Adems, cada argumento ha de ser respaldado con una palabra de la Escritura porque las opiniones de los hombres carecen de valor por s mismas. El Midrash repite con frecuencia el dicho arameo: H b-h tal, Esto depende de esto, formando puentes internos dentro del mensaje de la misma Biblia. Una y otra vez se nos dice que tal o cual sabio ha dicho en el nombre de este o aquel otro sabio, como est escrito, va-gomer En seguida se dan slo las primeras palabras de la cita bblica y el lector, conociendo de memoria las Escrituras, recita lo dems en silencio para s mismo.

Este uso del AT proporciona cierta comprensibilidad a toda la presentacin y evita el filosofar en forma demasiado subjetiva. Aun un Midrash corto pudiera contener cientos de citas del AT y los nombres de cientos de rabinos. De tal suerte que la totalidad de la presentacin est anclada en la historia y en la tradicin de la sinagoga. Podemos ver este mismo principio operando en el NT que, segn el registro griego de Nestl, contiene referencias individuales al AT. Adems del principio asociativo la Sinagoga Antigua usaba diver- sas expresiones que, fuera de su propia literatura, aparecen nica- mente en el NT.

Los llamados middth o medidasmaneras de interpretar, de las cuales existen 7, 13, 32 o hasta 70ayudan en la revisin de las conexiones internas del texto, tomando en cuenta el sentido literal, Peshat; la insinuacin o cita, Remez; la homiltica o mensaje espiritual, Drashah; y el misterio, Sd. Estas cuatro palabras hebreas forman la mnemotecnia PaRDeS o paraso, con el que suele compararse la Biblia.

Tanto en la enseanza de Jess como en la de Pablo encontramos aqu y all ciertos artificios estilsticos como al tiqr, no se lea as, sino as; tartei mashma, la palabra tiene otro sentido; muqdam umeuhar, observe lo anterior y posterior; el cambio de races de palabras, y diversas formas de expresin ejemplificadas en la literatura Midrash.

Ningn estudio serio del NT ni del AT se puede llevar a cabo si se ignora la naturaleza especial del pensamiento hebreo y el suelo en el que tuvieron su origen el NT y el AT. El estudio de la religin, la tica y la esttica frecuentemente tienen que contentarse con interpretacin narrativa y hermenutica. El estudio del mtodo distingue entre lo nomottico o la bsqueda de leyes generales griego nomos y lo ideogrfico, es decir, disciplinas que se ocupan de ideas y hechos individuales.

Vase e. Seeligmann, Voraussetzungen der Midraschexegese ; cf Bibliografa. Werke, Band 7. Slo desde una base de comparacin temticacasi podra decirse topogrficams amplia podr apreciarse la importancia del cuadro completo. La teologa es una de estas disciplinas ideogrficas que se han de estudiar a la luz de sus propias leyes especiales. Si se pasa por alto esta autonoma teolgica, se violar todo el objeto de los estudios.

Con el fin de que entendamos cuan fundamental es el asunto bajo consideracin, vale la pena considerar la evaluacin que Yeh. No es posible, por ejemplo, pensar en la religin de Israel como procedente del culto cananeo que Israel destruy, porque en aquellas reas donde ese culto permaneci, no se desarroll ninguna correspondiente religin de revelacin. El profesor Koifman recalca que: Los estudios bblicos en nuestra poca enfrentan una situacin algo extraa: est atada por el mtodo dominante a pesar de que nadie sabe exactamente por qu este mtodo domina la investigacin.

En las humanidades a veces sucede que alguna tesis o principio que en su origen estaba fundado sobre axiomas definidos de aceptacin general, sostiene una existencia artificial an despus de que esos axiomas han sido desacreditados. En nuestros tiempos esta ha sucedido tambin con estudios sobre la Biblia Las pruebas crticas de Wellhausen y otros liberales han desaparecido tiempo atrs En el nterin esos axiomas han sido retractados y se han desintegrado Citaremos el nombre en su forma hebrea y seguiremos la caracterizacin de la introduccin a su obra hebrea.

Pero an se niegan a retractarse de sus conclusiones, especialmente de las que tienen que ver con la crtica literaria. El profesor Kaufmann sostiene que la verdad histrica se encuentra cristalizada en el mensaje bblico en un grado mucho mayor que el reconocido por la escuela Wellhausen. Sobre el Pentateuco dice que: En la actualidad se puede demostrar que aun cuando hubiera sido ordenado y compilado despus del tiempo de Moiss, sus fuentes son muy antiguas, no slo en parte o en su tono general, sino en su totalidad, en su contenido, su lenguaje e incluso en sus mismas letras.

Por esta razn el investigador debe aplicar su actitud crtica tambin al estudio de la crtica. La tradicin juda contiene muchas ancdotas acerca de los Sabios Jvenes de Jerusaln. Alguna vez alguien pregunt a uno de ellos por el camino a cierta aldea.

El joven contest: Quiere el camino corto largo o el camino largo corto? Un atajo pudiera tener obstculos que slo se cruzan o se rodean a expensas de mucho tiempo. De modo que un camino que a primera vista parece largo, pudiera resultar el ms corto. As, la introduccin anterior con informacin respecto al mtodo ha servido como la clave de lo que sigue. En nuestro intento por encontrar las races de nuestra fe cristiana ser importante, al tratar con el AT y el NT, seleccionar fuentes que definan lo ms tempranamente posible un entendimiento de la Biblia y la mentalidad del pueblo que estaremos estudiando.

La eleccin de fuentes de informacin apropiadas siempre formar parte de la investigacin. Aun cuando el concepto Mesinico en el judasmo hoy ha sufrido cierta medida de maltrato, al principio de nuestra era an gozaba de una importancia central. La obra mayor de la legislacin. El mundo no fue creado para otra cosa sino para el Mesas. Durante los aos de su formacin el Talmud fue sometido a su propia censura interna. Sus eruditos conscientemente evitaban toda mencin de la fe cristiana y de ciertas profecas Mesinicas que se consideraban temas delicados.

Adems de esto, el catolicismo en la Edad Media presion a los judos para que quitaran del Talmud ciertos pasajes que desde una perspectiva cristiana se consideraban ofensivasincluso fueron conservados en un folleto separado, el cual obra en mi poder. Este gran silencio, como a veces lo describen los eruditos, y la doble censura han producido como resultado que la iglesia cristiana pocas veces ha recibido ayuda de parte de los judos en la investigacin de sus propias races.

En la parte principal del libro comentaremos sobre las fechas y la importancia de las diversas obras que han servido como fuentes. Sin embargo, aun en esta etapa, conviene que sealemos dos fuentes primariasel Midrash y el Targumque no han sufrido la misma censura estricta que ha acaecido al Talmud. El MIDRASH o exposicin, la literatura homiltica de la sina- goga, que se apega a cierta forma, con frecuencia estrictamente definida, data en sus seis secciones Midrash ms antiguas, desde el siglo II d.

En ellas no se observa la censura carac- terstica de la sinagoga, y su tradicin frecuentemente se puede rastrear hasta antes de los tiempos de Cristo. Adems, existen otras treinta o ms obras de Midrash ms tardas que tambin espordica- mente derraman alguna luz sobre el concepto Mesinico. Tal como son, tambin brindan apoyo a los expositores judos de 6. Berakoth Tomo El Talmud declara que: La Torah en su totalidad est en hebreo, pero ciertas cosas del Targum tambin le pertenecen.

Contiene material expositivo sobre la totalidad del Pentateuco y data desde el s. Los Targumes que llevan el nombre de Jonathan Ben U. El Targum de Jonatn tambin contiene material que segn algunos data hasta del s. Tal como sucede en la literatura Midrash, la mano del censor no es obvia en los Targumes.

Esto lo demuestra adicionalmente el hecho de que, segn algunas cuentas, 72 pasajes del AT se explican en los Targumes como aplicables al Mesas. Ms que en otros Targumes, la tradicin asociada con el nombre de Jonatn resalta el concepto Mesinico, y por esta razn lo describiremos a la luz del Talmud. Jonatn fue el ms clebre alumno del anciano Hillel antes de la destruccin del Templo.

Un relato tradicional refiere que Hillel tena 80 alumnos: Cuarenta de ellos merecieron que el Espritu Santo descendiera sobre ellos, lo mismo que Moiss; treinta, que el sol se detuviera sobre ellos, como en los das de Josu, hijo de Nun; veinte eran regulares; pero el mayor de ellos era Jonatn Ben U.

Su trabajo, por supuesto, despert oposicin por parte de los eruditos de su poca, porque ellos sentan que de esta manera sera olvidado el original hebreo. Pero, en sus propias palabras, Jonatn prosigui para que las discusiones doctrinales 8. Masechet Sopherim 1. Pgina en la obra de consulta en hebreo de Mordechai Margalioth sobre los sabios del Talmud. Es admirable que la sinagoga haya aceptado la obra de Onquelos a pesar de que era proslito. El nfasis especficamente Mesinico de Jonatn era una de las razones por las que su traduccin no fue aceptada.

La expectativa Mesinica primitiva entre los judos tambin se refleja por la literatura conocida como Zohar luminosidad o brillantez , que generalmente se asocia con el nombre de Shimeon Ben Joh. Esta obra esotrica en arameo, que consta de miles de pginas, se basa en el Pentateuco y se ocupa con el ser de Dios.

Alcanz aprobacin general, junto con el Talmud, tanto en las academias de oriente como de occidente. Contiene, por ejemplo, descripciones del Mesas Sufrido, de la Trinidad, y del Mesas como Hijo de Dios, los orgenes de los cuales son difciles de identificar. El Zohar tambin se puede considerar como parte de las fuentes judas normativas.

En cuanto a nuestras propias fuentes, conviene tambin que haga- mos referencia a la exposicin bblica juda medieval, ya que ciertos rabinos como el ms famoso exegeta del judasmo, RaSHI Shalomon Jarchi, m. Del mismo modo, los Rollos del Mar Muerto y la antigua literatura juda de sabidura pudiera proporcionar cierto apoyo secundario al comentar nuestro material.

En la actualidad se da cada vez ms importancia al hecho de que, tanto en estudios del AT como del NT, estas fuentes son indispensables. Esto lo confirman eruditos recientes como John Bowker, S. Levey, David Daube y W. Davies, adems de los menos recientes H.

Strack y B. An Introduction to Jewish Interpretation of Scripture. Cambridge ; S. Strack, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, 1st ed. Berlin ; B. Pick, Old Testament. No obstante, vamos por el camino correcto. Si alguno quisiera familiarizarse con la mentalidad china, hara bien en hacer un viaje al lejano oriente. En ocasiones casi se requiere la habilidad de un agente secreto para llegar al corazn del problema.

Sin embargo, por el camino haremos muchas observaciones emocionantes y extremadamente cautivadoras que slo pueden servir para fortalecer las bases de nuestra fe. Uno de los mejores ejemplos para ilustrar la bsqueda de las races de uno mismo se encuentra en mi librero.

En cierta ocasin tuve la oportunidad de comprar en Israel, de las propiedades de un judo cristiano, un libro publicado en Helmstadt en El autor, un erudito judo de nombre Christianum Gerson, relata que l compr por ocho chelines, de una pobre ancianita cristiana, un Nuevo Testamento en la traduccin de Lutero. Junto con sus dos cuados lo empez a estudiar para descubrir cmo fue posible que este grave error conquistara cientos de miles de corazones. El mensaje del evangelio lo conmovi de tal manera que tuvo que seguir leyndolo a solas, en secreto.

Compar su mensaje con la del AT y con sus propias fuentes judas y de esta manera, segn su prefacio, por medio de esta palabra escrita lleg a una fe personal en Jess. Al principio su familia y sus amistades lo rechazaron. Para describir esto toma las palabras del Salmo Porque aunque mi padre y mi madre me hayan abandonado, el SEOR me recoger. Sin embargo, muy pronto su esposa y sus hijos siguieron los pasos de su padre. Para demostrar a sus amigos las bases de su decisin escribi este tratado de pginas sobre la fe cristiana, en la que compara la enseanza del NT y la del Talmud entre s.

Aun cuando Gerson compara las races del cristianismo principalmente con el AT, cientos de citas del Talmud y docenas de referencias al Midrash comunican la sensacin de encontrarse en las races mismas de la fe cristiana. En su poca Lutero dijo que: Christus universae scripturae scopus est, que libremente traducido significa: Cristo es la verdadera All vemos todo como debi haber sido en el principioel mundo, la humanidad, los diversos pueblos, la tribu hebrea, el caos ocasionado por la Cada, y las primeras evidencias de la salvacin que Dios prometi a la humanidad.

Todo se encuentra an en estado naciente, as que no podemos esperar encontrar all el concepto del Mesas plenamente desarrollado. No obstante, la antigua literatura juda, aun en el relato de la creacin, encuentra el tema Mesinico. Aun en esta descripcin los sabios del Talmud olfateaban los inicios del plan de salvacin para la humanidad: La tradicin de Elas ensea que el mundo ha de existir por seis mil aos; En los primeros dos mil habra desolacin; en los dos mil siguientes prosperar la Torah y los siguientes dos mil son los das del Mesas, pero a causa de nuestros pecados, que fueron grandes, salieron las cosas como salieron.

En la misma exposicin de largo alcance de la que procede la cita anterior, encontramos como explicacin, que:. El sptimo milenio ser de guerra, y al final del milenio vendr el Hijo de David. En el comentario que sigue a esto se hace mencin de: la guerra de Gog y Magog, y el periodo restante ser la era Mesinica, en la que el Santo, bendito sea, restaurar su mundo slo cuando haya terminado el sptimo milenio.

Cuando hayan pasado seis milenios seguir, segn algunos, un sbado, shabaton, de mil aos. Esta pudiera ser la era Mesinica despus de la cual el mundo sera renovado. El ao de nuestra era corresponde al ao en el calendario judo, lo cual significa que el Mesas ya debi haber venido.

Algo parece haber salido mal con este plan de salvacin. La oracin matutina oficial de la sinagoga trae esto a la memoria continua- mente con las palabras: Debido a nuestros pecados el Templo ha sido destruido y se han suspendido los sacrificios perpetuos, ni tampoco tenemos un sacerdote consagrado.

Es necesario sealar que los rabinos no son unnimes en su doctrina sobre los tiempos Mesinicos, pero el plan de salvacin para ellos, s inicia en la misma creacin. Cuando la Biblia hace mencin de que el Espritu de Dios se mova sobre la superficie de las aguas, ellos ven una referencia al Mesas. El Midrash Rabbah dice en este contexto, que este era el espritu del Mesas, como est escrito en Isaas , Y reposar sobre l el Espritu del Seor. Las primeras palabras de Dios en la Biblia son: Sea la luz!

Y hubo luz. Y vio Dios que la luz era buena. Sanhedrin 97b. Pesikhta Rabbati 33 y Yalqut. Cuando estudiamos detenidamente el relato de la creacin observamos que no fue sino hasta el cuarto da que Dios cre las dos grandes lumbreras, el sol y la luna. Los sabios vean en esto tam- bin una alusin al Mesas, de tal suerte que el Midrash conocido como Pesikhta Rabbah, que se lea del siglo IX en delante en relacin con los das de fiesta, pregunta: De Quin es esta luz que cae sobre la congregacin del Seor?

Y contesta: Es la luz del Mesas. Adems, con el apoyo de las profecas de Isaas y , el Mesas es visto como la luz de los gentiles. No anunci Jess que l mismo era la luz del mundo, y que el que me sigue no andar en tinieblas?

Este es el Mesas Rey, pues escrito est: Levntate, resplandece; porque ha venido tu luz Isaas Por lo anterior podemos ver que el mtodo asociativo judo descubre alusiones Mesinicas en lugares donde los cristianos no los han discernido. El apstol Pablo dice que este misterio de Cristo haba estado oculto desde los siglos y edades Colosenses Ser posible que con estas palabras Pablo se estuviera refiriendo a la tradicin juda?

No es improbable, ya que encontramos expresiones similares en los rollos del Mar Muerto. Gnesis , frecuentemente llamado el proto evangelio, se encuentra acompaada de una explica- cin cristiana slo desde el tiempo de Irineo en el siglo II. El NT no se refiere a este pasaje directamente e incluso algunos eruditos han aseverado que no contiene ningn asomo de Mesianismo. No obstante, la tradicin del Targum arameo encuentra una profe- ca Mesinica clave aun aqu.

El pasaje habla primeramente de la enemistado lo que sera una mejor traduccin del hebreo odioque se introdujo en el mundo como consecuencia del pecado. Fue rota la comunin con Dios, y el hombre empez a huir para tratar de esconderse de la presencia de Dios. Las consecuencias de la Cada fueron: pecado, enfermedad y muerte.

La Biblia habla de la personificacin del mal en el diablo, y Sabidura de Salomn, un libro apcrifo del segundo siglo a. Dado que el estilo de la exposicin del Midrash es, como lo hemos visto, tratar de dilucidar todos y cada uno de los detalles de la Torah, vale la pena analizar el mensaje completo del proto evangelio usando ms o menos el mismo mtodo.

Segn los rabinos el Mesas llevar a cabo una reparacin, tiqun ha-O. Los telogos de hoy han empezado a comentar sobre el concepto de rehabilitacin. Cuando Cristo expi nuestros pecados, llev nuestras enfermedades, y conquist la muerte, rectific las consecuencias de la Cada. Daniel describe esta encomienda Mesinica ms breve y claramente 8. De esta manera la simiente de la mujer ha de aplastar la cabeza de la serpiente.

Estos aspectos del proto evan- gelio se manejan en forma figurada, tanto en la exgesis juda como en la cristiana. El Targum de Jonatn Ben U. El Targum hace un juego con las palabras a. El Targum de Jerusaln seala los ltimos tiempos al interpretar el versculo as: Harn la paz al final, al cierre de los das postreros, en los das del Mesas Rey.

La palabra aramea para hacer la paz, shefiyuta, se parece a la palabra hebrea para aplastar, yeshufchah, y algunos eruditos del arameo aceptaran la traduccin: Finalmente, en los das del Mesas Rey, l ser herido en el calcaar. Esto concuerda con el versculo 16 el Salmo 22, que segn la exgesis cristiana se entiende como tipo del Mesas. En muchos idiomas este versculo se ha traducido, segn la interpretacin ms probable del original: Me horadaron las manos y los pies.

De manera semejante Zacaras en el hebreo dice: Qu son esas heridas entre tus manos? Y l responder: Con ellas fui herido en casa de mis amigos. La interpretacin ms comn de este versculo entre los rabinos se ilustra por la llamada interpretacin de Jonatn: Sanarn de la mordida de la serpiente significa que recibirn un antdoto; Hacer paz significa paz y seguridad; y l ser su sanador en el futuro, en los das del Mesas, que habr paz y descanso. Durante su pere Explicacin que los rabinos dan de Jonatn.

Esta interpretacin tambin corresponde a lo que entiende S. II Reyes refiere cmo Ezequas destruy este talismn que se haba convertido en substituto de la verdadera religin: Hizo pedazos la serpiente de bronce que haba hecho Moiss, porque hasta entonces le quemaban incienso los hijos de Israel; y la llam Neh.

Tal es la naturaleza humana que un objeto inanimado puede llegar a ser objeto de un culto falso. Recuerdo una agradable conversacin que sostuve en un negocio llamado Neh. Le coment al distinguido caballero que estaba tras del mostrador: Tienen ustedes un buen nombre Bblico. El hombre me conoca y saba hacia donde iba. Le pregunt medio en serio si l saba a qu se refera el nombre de la tienda.

Salomn Ben Yitshak dice acerca de eso? Promet investigarlo y le lanc otro reto a cambio. Sabe usted cmo interpreta Neh. Quien se volva hacia aquella seal, se salvaba, no en virtud de la seal misma que vea, sino gracias a ti, salvador de todos T nos bajas al reino de la muerte, y nos sacas de l. Esto no es ms que una serpiente de bronce!

Bien pudiera ser que el piadoso comerciante tambin estuviera consciente de esto. Segn nuestra fe cristiana, Sabidura de Salomn y Jess descendi al Hades y resucit, quitando la enemistad y trayendo la paz. Los Targumes recalcan que el Mesas vendr en los tiempos del fin. El trmino arameo en el fin, be-I. El Talmud contiene un extenso comentario sobre estas huellas Mesinicas, seales de los tiempos del fin, a las cuales volveremos en la seccin sobre el NT.

Para los rabinos todo lo que tenga algo que ver con los Tiempos del Fin tiene un sabor Mesinico. Pero, quin es esta simiente de la mujer? Por qu se usa el pronombre personal h, l, para referirse a la simiente? Simiente ha de considerarse sustantivo singular o colectivo? El Targum definitivamente asocia l con el Mesas Rey. Pero, el concepto de simiente tendr implicaciones Mesinicas en otros contextos tambin? Efectivamente lo tiene: los rabinos comentan ampliamente este mismo asunto. Rab Tanh. Y, quin es?

Es el Mesas Rey. Midrash Rabbah comenta el tema ampliamente y declara que en los das del Mesas, Israel ser compa No dice: Y a las simientes, como si hablase de muchos, sino como de uno: Y a tu simiente, la cual es Cristo. Aqu Pablo usa la frmula al tiqra tpica del Midrash, No se lea as, sino asuna promesa dada en singular se toma como referencia a Cristo el Mesas.

Podramos agregar que aun Midrash Ruth asocia la simiente con el concepto del Mesas cuando habla del pariente redentor en Ruth El Midrash resalta a Fares, conocido por la genealoga en Mateo y el relato de Gnesis captulo La frase otra simiente de otro lugar se usa de nuevo, aqu refirindose a Fares.

Precisamente en relacin con Fares se hace la observacin de que el Mesas corregir los estragos ocasionados por la Cada. El Midrash mismo menciona esto como un ejemplo de entendimiento profundo. El Midrash Rabbah describe de la siguiente manera la fase nueva que inici con Fares: Esta es la historia de Fares y tiene una importancia profunda.

Cuando el Santo cre su mundo an no haba ngel de Muerte. Pero cuando Adn y Eva cayeron en pecado, todas las generaciones se contaminaron. Con el nacimiento de Fares la historia empez a cumplirse por l, porque de l saldra el Mesas, y en sus das el Santo hara que la muerte fuera consumida, como est escrito: Destruir a la muerte para siempre Isaas En Romanos leemos: Por tanto, como el pecado entr en el mundo por un hombre, y por el.

Bamidbar Rabbah 2. Shemoth Rabbah I Corintios aade: Porque as como en Adn todos mueren, tambin en Cristo todos sern vivificados. Las races de este misterio de la historia de la salvacin se remontan hasta el relato de la cada de la humanidad.

El profesor Gottlieb Klein escribi a principios de este siglo que por medio del mtodo conocido como notarikon, un aspecto del cual consideraba a cada letra de una palabra como la letra inicial de otra palabra, las tres letras hebreas de la palabra Adn se interpretaban como referencias a Adn, David y el Mesas.

Posiblemente todo esto sean meras tonteras fantasiosas, pero se desprende de la expectativa Mesinica de creyentes que vivieron en la antigedad. La prominencia concedida por los Targumes al Mesas Reyque l traer la paz en lugar de la enemistad de proto evangeliose refleja en la carta de Pablo a los Efesios, aunque es altamente improbable que existe conexin intrnseca alguna. En el captulo leemos: Porque l es nuestra PAZ, que. Y vino y anunci las buenas nuevas de PAZ.

Aun cuando el NT no cita directamente el proto evangelio, se puede apreciar alguna huella de ella en el saludo de Romanos Y el Dios de paz aplastar en breve a Satans bajo vuestros pies. La gracia de nuestro Seor Jesucristo sea con vosotros. El pescador de perlas primeramente saca una gran canti-. El observador ve nicamente estas cubiertas externas hasta que las conchas se abren.

En ese momento algunas pudieran revelar una preciosa perla oculta en su interior. La lectura de la antigua literatura juda puede ser muy desesperante porque en su mayor parte se ocupa con la exposicin de la ley religiosa ritual, que realmente tiene inters slo para el judo ortodoxo. Las dimensiones espiri- tuales y psicolgicas tan caractersticas de los profetas del AT brillan por su ausencia casi total. Sin embargo, con cierta frecuencia, la concha fuertemente cerrada pudiera soltar una rara perla.

Aunque los rabinos encuentran misterios en el AT en mayor abundancia de la que est acostumbrada la iglesia cristiana, an as recalcan con frecuencia las palabras de Deuteronomio Las cosas secretas pertenecen al SEOR nuestro Dios, mas las cosas re- veladas nos pertenecen a nosotros y a nuestros hijos para siempre. Los conceptos mentales y espirituales, por su misma naturaleza, tienen que describirse en forma figurada. No podemos, por ejemplo, explicar precisamente qu es fe, esperanza, o amor.

De igual modo, el misterio Mesinico ha creado, por as decir, su propia clave secreta que ha de ser descifrada antes de que se pueda entender. Una de las claves ms difciles es Gnesis sobre el hijo de Jud y Tamar: Qu brecha te has abierto! Y llam su nombre Fares. Ya hemos visto los comentarios relacionados con el nombre de Fares, referentes al Mesas como conquistador de la muerte.

Ben Parets, hijo de Fares realmente es uno de los apelativos Mesinicos velados mejor conocidos. Mateo Por tanto Jess fue, en cierto sentido, hijo de Fares. El Sello de los Midrashim, R. Primero observa, medio en broma, que: Jud se afanaba buscando mujer, mientras el Santo, bendito sea, estaba creando la luz del Mesas. Miqueas Es importante tomar nota de los pasajes Bblicos ya mencionados. Ilustran el mtodo mediante el cual las profecas Mesinicas de fundamento dbil se colocan en un contexto ms amplio.

Vemos adems que los Targumes y los Midrashim generalmente hablan del Mesas Rey, y no tanto de algn nebuloso concepto Mesinico. RaMBaN R. Moiss Ben Nah. Por eso dice: As has roto el cerco para salir de all. Fares fue el primognito, El primognito por el poder del Altsimo, como est escrito, Yo le dar un hijo primognito. Esto fue escrito acerca de la persona santa que ha de venir, David, el Rey de Israelsiempre viva.

Los que. Histricamente esto bien describe lo que sucedi cuando el cristianismo se escap del molde judaico, como podemos ver por lo siguiente: Los rabinos hablan con frecuencia acerca del cerco de la Ley. Glatas dice que Jess naci bajo la ley y redimi a los que estaban bajo la ley, a fin de que recibisemos la adopcin de hijos. Pablo contina: Es para libertad que Cristo nos ha hecho libres. Estad, pues, firmes en la libertad con que Cristo nos hizo libres, y no estis otra vez sujetos al yugo de esclavitud Si sois guiados por el Espritu, no estis bajo la ley Despus de ser un don, la Ley en el judasmo puede convertirse en un yugo esclavizante.

En el judasmo de hoy existen oficialmente mandamientos y prohibiciones. Parecera que la transformacin en una religin de ley ocurri en una etapa muy temprana. El profeta Isaas escribi cerca de aos antes de Cristo, que en lugar de una palabra de reposo, la religin se haba convertido en una exigencia: Mandamiento tras mandamiento, mandato sobre mandato, rengln tras rengln, lnea sobre lnea, un poquito all, otro poquito all hasta que vayan y caigan de espaldas, y sean quebrantados, enlazados y presos , y que el temor de Dios no era ms que mandamientos de hombres Adems de estos mandamientos de hars y no hars haba un grupo adicional de mandamientos auxiliares que constituan el vallado alrededor de la Ley.

Dentro de la proteccin de este redil tena que vivir el judo devoto. En su enseanza, Jess se vio obligado a hablar de este mismo error de aplicacin. Refirindose a las palabras de Isaas anteriormente citadas, l agreg que: En vano me honran, enseando como doctrinas, mandamientos de hombres. Entonces acercndose sus discpulos, le dijeron: Sabes que los fariseos se ofendieron Mikraoth Gedoloth, seccin correspondiente.

Dejadlos Mateo De esta manera Jess realmente abri brecha en el cerco de la Ley. Moiss, al instituir los mandamientos, dijo al pueblo: Oh Israel, oye los estatutos y decretos que yo os enseo No aadiris a la palabra que yo os mando, ni disminuiris de ella! Precisamente estos halakha o preceptos tradicionales son uno de los problemas internos ms serios de Israel moderno. Lo nico que podemos entender por pared intermedia y ley de los mandamientos expresados en ordenanzas es el vallado alrededor de la ley.

Cristo, mediante el sacrificio de su muerte, lo ha derribado. Y los que son sabios entendern, afirma RaMBaN. Isaas , que el Talmud interpreta como una referencia al Mesas, Hijo de David,23 describe este misma penetracin rela- cionada con la ilustracin de Fares: l ser por santuario; pero a las dos casas de Israel, por piedra para tropezar, y por tropezadero para caer, y por lazo y por red al morador de Jerusaln. Todos estos rasgos bien se pueden aplicar a Jess: l fue el primo- gnito por el poder del Altsimo, involuntariamente cre una brecha entre la religin madre y la hija, y l lleg a ser la piedra Vase Deuteronomio , Proverbios y Josu Midrash Rabbah relaciona la ilustracin del Mesas Ben Fares con la profeca de Miqueas El que abre brecha subir delante de ellos La referencia de Miqueas al concepto de uno que abrir el camino es natural considerando que la palabra hebrea para esto, porets, se deriva de la misma raz que Fares.

Sin duda el cristiano entender bien esta referencia constante en mucha de la literatura hebrea al heraldo del Mesas que preparara el camino para l. El Metsudat David, una popular exposicin juda del siglo XVII sobre los libros profticos e histricos, explica que la profeca de Miqueas se refiere a que: Elas vendr antes del tiempo de la salvacin para volver los corazones de Israel hacia su Padre Celestial, con el fin de ser un heraldo de salvacin para ellos.

Sin embargo, con mucha frecuencia, estas perlas se encuentran sepultadas en lo profundo del ocano de la tradicin, ocultas dentro de una capa protectora. El primero de estos es la bendicin de Jacob. La exgesis cristiana se conforma aqu con la afirmacin general en el sentido de que el Mesas es de la raz de la tribu de Jud. La antigua interpretacin juda ve una referencia Mesinica en las primeras palabras de esa bendicin, que hablan acerca de el fin de los das.

Como ya lo hemos visto bajo el nombre de Rab Qimh. La expresin: el fin de los das aparece por primera vez en la Biblia en la bendicin de Jacob, en Gnesis Entonces Jacob llam a sus hijos y les dijo: Reunos, y os declarar lo que os ha de acontecer en los das postreros. La bendicin que recibi Jud habla del Mesas como gobernante de las naciones. Todas las obras expositivas de los rabinos, comenzando con los Targumes y los Midrashim, ven aqu una clara profeca Mesinica.

Los diversos matices de expectativa Mesinica se deja ver en sus interpretaciones, casi como si se reflejara en un prisma. Los versculos 10 y 11 dicen: El cetro no ser quitado de Jud, ni la vara de autoridad de entre sus pies, hasta que venga Siloh; y le obedecern los pueblos. Atando a la vid su borriquillo y a la cepa la cra de su asna, lava en vino su vestidura y en sangre de uvas su manto. En la teologa cristiana y en el judasmo, se ha intentado negar por completo la doctrina de los postreros tiempos.

Martn Buber, un catedrtico judo considerado como erudito en dilogo religioso, me relat en cierta ocasin en una conversacin privada, una antigua ancdota referente a la bendicin de Jacob: El Espritu Santo se apart de Jacob, segn se cuenta, cuando mencion los postreros das. Personalmente, explic Buber, yo rechazo totalmente la escatologa [la doctrina de los postreros tiempos]. La escatologa no es historia, ni la historia es escatologa.

Los profetas no eran adivinos; ellos deseaban revelar Bien puedo comprender la actitud de Buber. Me recuerda las palabras que se encuentran en los Rollos del Mar Muerto, que los profetas registraban de las visiones que reciban, nicamente aquello que es necesario para la Humanidad. Ser posible que realmente tuvo su origen en tiempos de Jacob, o es posterior?

Los relatos patriarcales son meros cuentos, como algunos exegetas modernos a veces afirman abiertamente? Qu reportan los Targumes, Midrash y la literatura rabnica acerca de su naturaleza Mesinica? El arquelogo W. Albright ha hecho algunas observaciones interesantes sobre la bendicin de Jacob. Igualmente la frase, sangre de uvas imita una antigua expresin Ugartica sangre de rbol que se aplicaba al vino.

Siendo as, la bendicin de Jacob se basa en una tradicin muy antigua. Si tomamos en cuenta el hecho de que el rey Hammurabi de Babilonia conquist y destruy la ciudad de Mari en a. El muy conocido orientalista E. Hengstenberg menciona los poetas arbigos Lebid y Hareth, el Masechet Megilah 14a. Midrash Bereshith Rabbah par Malamat, Mari and the Bible.

A Collection of Studies, Jerusalem artculos en hebreo y en ingls. Con el incremento en la capacidad de la humanidad para leer y escribir, se ha presentado una correspondiente disminucin en la capacidad para la memorizacin. La bendicin de Jacob no se presta para ser disecada por los mtodos modernos de crtica.

El entendimiento judo Mesinico de este texto se basa en material ms antiguo. Targum Onquelos dice sobre el cetro de Jud, que no se apartar hasta que venga el Mesas, el que tiene poder para reinar. Targum Jonatn asegura que el ver- sculo se refiere a la poca del Mesas-Rey, el Rey que vendr como el menor de sus hijos. Targum Yerushalmi habla del tiem- po cuando vendr el Mesas-Rey. La literatura Midrash asigna a la bendicin rasgos adicionales basados en la naturaleza del idioma hebreo.

Midrash Rabbath afirma que: El cetro no se apartar de Jud En relacin con esto, los Sabios comentan asuntos como la genealoga del clebre Rab Hillel, y declaran que, Se encontr una tabla genealgica en Jerusaln que deca que l descenda de David. Luego sigue una observacin aterradora: Rab H. Si esto es as, para qu vendr el Mesas-Rey? Har volver a Israel de su dispersin y les dar 30 preceptos [nuevos].

Los 30 preceptos son ordenanzas que las naciones del mundo debern observar. Al mismo tiempo se contempla la posibilidad de que los rabinos pudieran haberse equivocado. Generalmente se sostiene estrictamente que aun las palabras de los discpulos de un rabino son dadas por el Espritu Santo y que el temor de un rabino es lo mismo que el temor de Dios.

Esto se concatena psicolgicamente con la relacin del hijo con los padres: As como se le ordena al hombre que respete y tema a su padre, as debe respetar y temer a su rabino ms que a su padre. De esta manera se invalidaba la Palabra de Dios por las tradiciones de los hombres.

El Midrash llega hasta el extremo de aseverar que Porque todo Israel sera llamado judos por ti; y no slo por esa razn, sino tambin porque el Mesas ser tu descendiente, el que salvar a Israel; como est escrito: Un retoo brotar del tronco de Isa Is. Midrash Bereshith Rabbah par. Matanoth Kehuna, seccin correspondiente. Hilchot Talmud Torah Midrash Qoheleth Rabbati 1. Midrash Tanh. El Midrash Rabbah sobre Lamentaciones, uno de los seis Midrash ms antiguos, habla de Israel como una virgen, la hija de Jud.

Adjunta a esto un largo comentario, que tambin aparece en el Talmud, sobre el nombre del Mesas y termina con la palabra Siloh de la bendicin de Jacob. Lamentaciones dice: Como lagar ha hollado el Seor a la virgen hija de Jud. Por esta causa lloro Se alej de m el consolador Sion extendi sus manos; no tiene quien la consuele. El Midrash ampla sobre estas palabras como sigue: Mis ojos rebosan con lgrimas, pues no hay quien me consuele, nadie que restaure mi espritu, as se le llama a Israel ojo del Santo El consolador que restaurar mi espritu est lejos de m; y cul es el nombre del MesasRey?

Es decir, que brote 35 El nombre del Mesas, sostienen los rabinos, es una de las siete. Si no tomamos en cuenta la mentalidad Bblica detrs de estos conceptos, bien pudiramos concluir, como cierto crtico, que son enigmticos o medio-humorstico. Pero, qu significa la frase hasta que venga Siloh? Los eruditos judos encuentran significados para la palabra hebrea Siloh que son desconocidas para la teologa cristiana. Algunos ven en ella la raz shlv que significa pacfico, y de esa se puede derivar shlva, paz.

En otras palabras el Mesas es el Prncipe de Paz. Algunos eruditos sostienen que siloh en su forma original era moshl, su gobernante, haciendo del Mesas el Gobernante de Naciones. As entendi el asunto Onquelos. El Midrash lo explica con las palabras shai loh, regalos para l, porque el Salmo dice: Traigan ofrendas al Temible. Gallen , St. Gallen Wahlkreis , St. George's Oratory, Padua , St.

Margrethen , St. Wolens , Steven Grossman politician , Steven L. Haas Jr. Oxtoby , Willi Rosenstein , William A. Bidelman , William S. Lind , William Salcer , William W. A Home on the Range: The Jewish Chicken Ranchers of Petaluma is a documentary by Bonnie Burt and Judith Montell about a group of Jews who fled from pogroms in Eastern Europe and prejudice in America to organized a socialist society in rural Northern California, where they relied on raising chickens to support themselves.

A Jewish Girl in Shanghai is a Chinese animated family film written by Wu Lin and based on his graphic novel of the same name. A Warning to the Hindus is a booklet by intellectual and mystic Savitri Devi. Gordon, was a Zionist ideologue and the spiritual force behind practical Zionism and Labor Zionism. Aaron is a prophet, high priest, and the brother of Moses in the Abrahamic religions elder brother in the case of Judaism. Aaron Freeman born June 8, is an American journalist, stand-up comedian, author, cartoonist, and blogger.

Aaron Margalita or Margalitha c. Aaron Parry is an American synagogue rabbi, counter-missionary expert, and author of several beginners books on Judaism. Aaron Russo February 14, — August 24, was an American entertainment businessman, film producer and director, and political activist. Aaron Samuel ben Moses Shalom of Kremnitz was the Jewish author of "Nishmat Adam," Hanau, , which contains dissertations on the nature of the soul, purpose of man's existence, the future world, and rewards and punishments.

Aaron Selig ben Moses of Zolkiev was a Polish Jewish author who flourished in the seventeenth century. Aarwangen is a village and a municipality in the Oberaargau administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Abba b. Bizna was a Jewish Amora scholar of the fourth century, who is occasionally mentioned as a haggadist, and as having handed down certain halakic opinions.

Abba bar Hiyya b. Abba was a Jewish Amora scholar , who flourished at the beginning of the fourth century CE. Abba Judan or Judah was a philanthropist who lived in Antioch in the early part of the second century. Abba Cohen of Bardela, most commonly Abba Kohen Bardela, was a Jewish scholar of the last tannaitic generation about the beginning of the third century. Abba of Carthage was a Jewish amora scholar , who flourished at the end of the third century CE.

Abba Yossi appears in a Leviticus Rabba one of the Midrashim of Judaism around the fourth century, in both Hebrew and Aramaic and in several sources. An Abbasid—Carolingian alliance was attempted and partially formed during the 8th to 9th century through a series of embassies, rapprochements and combined military operations between the Frankish Carolingian Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate and pro-Abbasid rulers in Al Andalus Islamic Spain and Portugal. Abbey of the Dormition is an abbey and the name of a Benedictine community in Jerusalem on Mt.

Zion just outside the walls of the Old City near the Zion Gate. Abraham "Abe" Aronovitz — 11 July was an American lawyer and politician who served one term as mayor of Miami, Florida, from until Supreme Court Associate Justice from to Abijam was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the fourth king of the House of David and the second of the Kingdom of Judah.

He was the son of Rehoboam and the grandson of Solomon. The Chronicler refers to him as Abijah. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. Edinburgh: University Press. Abraham Asscher 19 September — 2 May was a Dutch Jewish businessman from Amsterdam, a politician, and a leader of his community who attained notoriety for his role during the German occupation of the Netherlands — Abraham Joshua Heschel January 11, — December 23, was a Polish-born American rabbi and one of the leading Jewish theologians and Jewish philosophers of the 20th century.

Abraham Miguel Cardozo also Cardoso; c. Abraham Rhinewine was a Polish-born, Canadian-Jewish editor, publisher and author, among the most prominent Jewish journalists in Canada during his time. Abraham the Monk was a monk who lived in a monastery on Mount Sinai in the Sinai desert. The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as Abrahamism, are a group of Semitic-originated religious communities of faith that claim descent from the practices of the ancient Israelites and the worship of the God of Abraham.

Abram Isaac Elkus August 6, — October 15, , was an American ambassador, judge and public official. Pritzker, was an American businessman and member of the Pritzker family. Abramelin oil, also called Oil of Abramelin, is a ceremonial magic oil blended from aromatic plant materials.

In the myth and folklore of the Near East and Europe, Abyzou is the name of a female demon. Acceptance in human psychology is a person's assent to the reality of a situation, recognizing a process or condition often a negative or uncomfortable situation without attempting to change it or protest it. Although biological evolution has been vocally opposed by some religious groups, many other groups accept the scientific position, sometimes with additions to allow for theological considerations.

Achille Fould 17 November October was a French financier and politician. AD 51 LI was a common year starting on Friday link will display the full calendar of the Julian calendar. Adah Isaacs Menken June 15, August 10, , was an American actress, painter and poet, and was the highest earning actress of her time. Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman. Adam Brodsky is a locally popular anti-folk singer from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Adam Mitchel Lambert born January 29, is an American singer, songwriter and stage actor. Adam Richard Sandler born September 9, is an American actor, comedian, screenwriter, film producer, and musician. Adelboden is a mountain village and a municipality in Switzerland, located in the Frutigen-Niedersimmental administrative district in the Bernese Highlands.

Adele H. Cohen born July 19, is an American lawyer and former politician. Adele Reinhartz, is a Canadian academic and a specialist in the history and literature of Christianity and Judaism in the Greco-Roman period, the Gospel of John, early Jewish-Christian relations, literary criticism including feminist literary criticism, feminist exegesis, and the impact of the Bible on popular cinema and television. Adolf Kraus February 26, — October 22, was a lawyer and Jewish leader.

Adolph Heinrich Joseph Sutro April 29, — August 8, was a German-American engineer, politician and philanthropist who served as the 24th mayor of San Francisco from until Adolphe-Abraham Samuel 11 July — 11 September was a Belgian music critic, conductor and composer. Adultery from Latin adulterium is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.

Aeschi bei Spiez is a municipality in the Frutigen-Niedersimmental administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. The Afghan Geniza is a collection of thousands of Jewish manuscript fragments found in caves in Afghanistan. Afghans in Germany are the largest Afghan community in Europe and part of the Afghan diaspora.

African Americans and Jewish Americans have interacted throughout much of the history of the United States. African Americans also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. African-American culture, also known as Black-American culture, refers to the contributions of African Americans to the culture of the United States, either as part of or distinct from mainstream American culture.

Afro-Caribbean, a term not used by West Indians themselves but first coined by Americans in the late s, describes Caribbean people who trace at least some of their ancestry to West Africa in the period since Christopher Columbus' arrival in the region in Afrocentrism also Afrocentricity is an approach to the study of world history that focuses on the history of people of recent African descent.

Afterlife also referred to as life after death or the hereafter is the belief that an essential part of an individual's identity or the stream of consciousness continues to manifest after the death of the physical body. The Holocaust had a deep effect on society in both Europe and the rest of the world. The age of majority is the threshold of adulthood as recognized or declared in law. Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat. Aigle French for "eagle" is a historic town and a municipality and the capital of the district of Aigle in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

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Alan Wilson Watts 6 January — 16 November was a British philosopher, writer, and speaker, best known as an interpreter and populariser of Eastern philosophy for a Western audience. Alania was a medieval kingdom of the Iranian Alans proto-Ossetians that flourished in the Northern Caucasus, roughly in the location of latter-day Circassia and modern North Ossetia—Alania, from its independence from the Khazars in the late 9th century until its destruction by the Mongol invasion in Albania — United Kingdom relations refer to the current and historical relations of Albania and United Kingdom.

Albert Eichhorn Karl Albert August Ludwig Eichhorn, 1 October — 3 August , the author of Das Abendmahl im Neuen Testament, was one of the founders of the history of religions school, an approach that sought to understand all religions, including Christianity and Judaism, as socio-cultural phenomena that developed in comparable ways. Richard Albert Mohler Jr. Albessen is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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Alfred Oppenheim 3 November in Berlin — 14 May at the same place was a German chemist and gas mantle manufacturer. Algerian Canadians are Canadian citizens of Algerian ancestry or Algeria-born people residing in Canada, as well as people from the state of Algeria who are ethno-linguistic and religious minorities. Ali Akbar Rashad born is an Iranian philosopher and Islamic scholar who pioneered the Ibtina Theory, a theory for explaining the process and mechanism of "religious knowledge" formation.

Ali Sina is an Iranian-born Canadian activist and critic of Islam, who refers to himself as an ex-Muslim. Ali'yah is the second studio album by American rapper D. Black, released on September 15, through Sportn' Life Records. Alice Ann Bailey June 16, — December 15, was a writer of more than twenty-four books on theosophical subjects, and was one of the first writers to use the term New Age. Alice Miller, born as Alicija Englard 12 January — 14 April , was a Swiss psychologist, psychoanalyst and philosopher of Polish-Jewish origin, who is noted for her books on parental child abuse, translated into several languages.

Alice Salomon 19 April , Berlin — 30 August , New York was a German social reformer and pioneer of social work as an academic discipline. The claim that Allah the name of God in Islam historically originates as a moon god worshipped in pre-Islamic Arabia is a fringe theory with origins in early 20th-century scholarship, but most prominently advocated by American evangelicals since the s. Alle Alle is a municipality in the district of Porrentruy of the canton of Jura in Switzerland.

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Allston is an officially recognized neighborhood of the City of Boston, Massachusetts. Allyson Young Schwartz born October 3, is a former member of the United States House of Representatives for, serving from — Alms or almsgiving involves giving to others as an act of virtue, either materially or in the sense of providing capabilities e. Alodia, also referred to as Alwa or Aloa, was a medieval Nubian kingdom in what is now central and southern Sudan.

An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican churches. In many Christian churches there is an altar lamp, also known as a chancel lamp, which is found in the chancel sanctuary , either hanging or fixed. Altenbamberg is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Altendorf is a municipality in March District in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. Altenglan is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Altruism is the principle and moral practice of concern for happiness of other human beings, resulting in a quality of life both material and spiritual.

Gall in Switzerland. It is located with some secure distance of about west from the Alpine Rhine in the flat and wide St. Gall Rhine Valley, which also designates the border with Austria. It further gives access to the higher situated Appenzell to the west. Alvin J. Reines — was an American Reform rabbi, philosopher and theologian.

Alzenau until 31 December officially Alzenau i. Ambrosiaster is the name given to the writer of a commentary on St Paul's epistles, "brief in words but weighty in matter," and valuable for the criticism of the Latin text of the New Testament. Amden is a municipality in the Wahlkreis constituency of See-Gaster, in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland.

American Canadians are Canadian citizens of American descent, or Canadians who identify to some extent with American society. United States citizens have emigrated to the Republic of Honduras for many reasons including agriculture, mining endeavours, business, military service and missionary work.

American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality. American New Zealanders are New Zealand citizens who are of American descent including immigrants or American-born citizens and residents. During its Second Red Scare a distinct set of domestic policies and traditional social mores came to dominate popular culture and interpersonal relations in the United States of America.

The American upper class is a social group consisting of the people who have the highest social rank and who are usually rich. Americans in France consists of immigrants and expatriates from the United States as well as French people of American ancestry. American Haitians comprise the descendants of free blacks from the United States to Haiti in the early 19th century as well as recent immigrants and expatriates as well as their locally born descendants.

Americans in the United Kingdom or American Britons includes emigrants from the United States who gain British citizenship, people from the United States who are or have become residents or citizens of the United Kingdom. Amnon of Mainz or Amnon of Mayence is the subject of a medieval legend that became very popular. Amos Luzzatto born 3 June , in Rome is an Italian writer and essayist of Jewish descent, born in a family of ancient tradition.

Amriswil is a town and a municipality in Arbon District in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland near the Lake Constance. An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.

Amy Alkon born March 8, , also known as the Advice Goddess, writes a weekly advice column, Ask the Advice Goddess, which is published in over newspapers within North America. Amy Gutmann born November 19, is the eighth president of the University of Pennsylvania, an award-winning political theorist, the author of 16 books, and a university professor.

Ana Rodrigues died , was a Brazilian settler, one of the first victims of the Portuguese Inquisition. Anan Ben David c. This article describes some views of notable Orthodox Jewish figures who supported anarchism, as well as various themes within the scope of the Orthodox Jewish tradition or among the practicing Orthodox Jews that are generally considered important from the anarchist worldview. Anatoly Yitzhak Rubin was a survivor of the Holocaust and later of the Gulags.

This is a part of Hebrew literature The earliest known inscription in Hebrew is the Khirbet Qeiyafa Inscription 11th — 10th century BCE , if it can indeed be considered Hebrew at that early a stage. Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.

The ancient history of Yemen South Arabia is especially important because Yemen is one of the oldest centers of civilization in the Near East. Ancient Israelite cuisine refers to the food eaten by the ancient Israelites during a period of over a thousand years, from the beginning of the Israelite presence in the Land of Israel at the beginning of the Iron Age until the Roman period.

Ancient Judaism Das antike Judentum , is a book written by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist, in early the 20th century. Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa BC and AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.

Andreas or Andrew was the Archbishop of Bari from to at least , and probably somewhat longer. Andrew R. Heinze born 19 January is an American playwright, non-fiction author, and scholar of American history.

Andrew L. Andy Warhol born Andrew Warhola; August 6, — February 22, was an American artist, director and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. Anger in Judaism is treated as a negative trait to be avoided whenever possible. The Anguiped is a kind of divinity that is often found on magical amulets from the Greco-Roman period, and is characterized by having serpents for legs. Aniconism is the absence of material representations of the natural and supernatural world in various cultures, particularly in the monotheistic Abrahamic religions.

Aniconism is a proscription in Islam against the creation of images of sentient beings. Animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal usually as part of a religious ritual or to appease or maintain favour with a deity.

Animal slaughter is the killing of animals, usually referring to killing domestic livestock. Animal worship or zoolatry refers to rituals involving animals, such as the glorification of animal deities or animal sacrifice. In Islam, God has a relationship with animals: according to the Qur'an, they praise Him, even if this praise is not expressed in human language. Anna Bikont born 17 July is a Polish psychologist and writer associated with the Gazeta Wyborcza newspaper, based in Warsaw since its founding in Anne Meara September 20, — May 23, was an American actress and comedian.

Annie Dillard born April 30, is an American author, best known for her narrative prose in both fiction and non-fiction. Anointing of the sick, known also by other names, is a form of religious anointing or "unction" an older term with the same meaning for the benefit of a sick person. Anthony Lewis March 27, — March 25, was an American public intellectual and journalist.

He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as, by various epithets of his own:,, and For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church.

The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness about , which seems to have contributed to his renown.

Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire. The Catholic Church has been criticised in fiction, such as literature, film and television.

The anti-cult movement abbreviated ACM; sometimes called the countercult movement is a social group which opposes any new religious movement NRM that they characterize as a cult. Anti-Judaism is the "total or partial opposition to Judaism—and to Jews as adherents of it—by persons who accept a competing system of beliefs and practices and consider certain genuine Judaic beliefs and practices as inferior.

Anti-Judaism in Early Christianity is a description of anti-Judaic sentiment in the first three centuries of Christianity; the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd centuries. The Department of Antioquia is one of the 32 departments of Colombia, located in the central northwestern part of Colombia with a narrow section that borders the Caribbean Sea. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. A native of Idumaea, southeast of Judea between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, which during the time of the Hebrew Bible had been known as the land of Edom, Antipater became a powerful official under the later Hasmonean kings and subsequently became a client of the Roman general Pompey the Great when Pompey conquered Judea in the name of Roman Republic.

When Julius Caesar defeated Pompey, Antipater rescued Caesar in Alexandria, and was made chief minister of Judea, with the right to collect taxes. Antipater eventually made his sons Phasaelus and Herod the Governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively.

The pro-Roman politics of Antipater led to his increasing unpopularity among the devout, non-Hellenized Jews. He died by poison. The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater, as well as his insinuation into the Hasmonean court, paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who used this position to marry the Hasmonean princess Mariamne, endear himself to Rome and become king of Judea under Roman influence.

Antisemitic canards are unfounded rumors or false allegations which are defamatory towards Judaism as a religion, or defamatory towards Jews as an ethnic or religious group. Antisemitism also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. The idea that the New Testament is anti-Semitic is a controversy that has emerged with force in the aftermath of the Holocaust.

Antisemitism in Chili started in early Chilean history during Spanish colonization and settlement. Aphrahat c. The Apocalypse of Zephaniah or Apocalypse of Sophonias is an 1st-century pseudepigraphic Jewish text attributed to the Biblical Zephaniah and so associated with the Old Testament, but not regarded as scripture by Jews or any Christian group.

Apocalyptic literature is a genre of prophetical writing that developed in post-Exilic Jewish culture and was popular among millennialist early Christians. In Judaism, apostasy refers to the rejection of Judaism and possible defection to another religion by a Jew. In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve , were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally regarded as the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Great Commission of the Apostles by the risen Jesus in Jerusalem around 33 AD until the death of the last Apostle, believed to be John the Apostle in Anatolia c. Appenzell District is a district of the canton of Appenzell Innerrhoden in Switzerland. Apples is a municipality in the district of Morges in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland.

Aquila "Ponticus" fl. Arab Australians refers to Australian citizens or residents with ancestry from the Middle East and North Africa regardless of their ethnic orgins, the majority are not ethnically Arab but numerous people who include Arabs, Kurds, Copts, Druze, Maronites, Assyrians, Berbers, Turkmen and others, the majority are Christian by Faith with minorties being Muslim, Druze, Yazidi and other Faiths.

Arab Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of Arab ethnic, cultural, linguistic heritage and identity. Arab identity is the objective or subjective state of perceiving oneself as an Arab and as relating to being Arab.

The Arab—Khazar wars were a series of conflicts fought between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate as well as its Abbasid successor and their respective vassals. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula.

Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.

Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy.

As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries.

Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities Hull and Ruffino. Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.

Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as million speakers native and non-native in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world.

Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arbon is a historic and statistic town and a municipality and district capital of the district of Arbon in the canton of Thurgau in Switzerland.

Arch is a municipality in the Seeland administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. In some Occult and similar writings, an archdemon also spelled archdaemon is a spiritual entity, prominent in the infernal hierarchy as a leader of demons.

Arconciel is a municipality in the district of Sarine in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland. The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae. Argenschwang is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Argentine Canadians are Canadian citizens of Argentine descent or an Argentina-born person who resides in Canada. Argentine Jews in Israel are immigrants and descendants of the immigrants of the Argentine Jewish communities, who now reside within the state of Israel and are the largest Latin American Jewish group in the country.

Argentines in Chile consists of mainly of immigrants and expatriates from Argentina as well as their locally born descendants. Argentines in France form one of the largest immigrant groups from Hispanic America. To make an argument from silence Latin: argumentum ex silentio is to express a conclusion that is based on the absence of statements in historical documents, rather than their presence. Ariana B. Kelly is an American politician from Maryland and a member of the Democratic Party.

Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God i. God the Son. Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of Arlesheim is a statistic town and a municipality in the district of Arlesheim in the canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland.

Arlesheim District is one of the five districts of the largely German-speaking canton of Basel-Country, Switzerland. Arnex-sur-Nyon is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. Arnold Spencer Leese — was a British fascist politician and veterinary surgeon. The first season of the television comedy series Arrested Development aired between November 2, and June 6, , on Fox in the United States.

Saint Arsenius Arsenios of Corfu, also known as Arsenius of Kerkyra, died or perhaps is one of the principal patron saints of Corfu along with Saint Spyridon. Birmingham has a distinctive culture of art and design that emerged in the s, driven by the historic importance of the applied arts to the city's manufacturing economy. Arth is a village, a statistic town, and a municipality in Schwyz District in the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland.

Arthur Allen Cohen June 25, — September 30, was an American Jewish scholar, art critic, theologian, publisher, and author. Christian Heinrich Arthur Drews November 1, — July 19, was a German writer, historian, philosopher, and important representative of German monist thought. Arthur Hertzberg June 9, — April 17, was a Conservative rabbi and prominent Jewish-American scholar and activist.

Arthur Kurzweil born is an American author, educator, editor, writer, publisher, and illusionist. Arthur Seligman June 14, — September 25, was an American businessman and politician. Arthur Ocean Waskow born Arthur I. Waskow; is an American author, political activist, and rabbi associated with the Jewish Renewal movement.

Arthur Young — was an English clergyman of the Church of England and religious writer. ArtScroll is an imprint of translations, books and commentaries from an Orthodox Jewish perspective published by Mesorah Publications, Ltd. Arye Oded born is a retired Israeli diplomat, scholar, and author of books and research articles about Africa - Israel relations, Islam, and Judaism in Africa.

Asa was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the third king of the Kingdom of Judah and the fifth king of the House of David. Asadollah Asgaroladi is a business magnate in Iran with business interests in exports, banking, real estate and healthcare. Aschbach is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

It is traditionally recited after engaging in an act of excretion, but is also included in many Jewish prayer books as a part of daily prayer prior to birkot hashachar. The purpose of this blessing is to thank God for good health. It expresses thanks for having the ability to excrete, for without it existence would be impossible. Though recited normally by observant Jews each time excretory functions are used, hence giving it the name the "bathroom blessing", it is also recited during the Shacharit service due to its spiritual significance to Jews, humans are made in God's image, so it is an expression of awe toward God's creations.

Khasidei Ashkenaz; "German Pietists" were a Jewish mystical, ascetic movement in the German Rhineland during the 12th and 13th centuries. Ashkenazi Jews in Israel refers to immigrants and descendants of Ashkenazi Jews, who now reside within the state of Israel, in the modern sense also referring to Israeli Jewish adherents of the Ashkenazi Jewish tradition. Ashley Michelle Tisdale born July 2, is an American actress, singer, and producer.

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. Asian-Argentines or Asian-Argentinians refers to Argentines of Asian ancestry who are citizens or residents of Argentina. Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people.

Asian Caribbeans are people who live in the Caribbean, but were born in Asia, or are descended from people who were born in Asia. The Assemblies of Yahweh is a nonprofit religious organization with its international headquarters in Bethel, Pennsylvania, United States. Assisted suicide is suicide committed with the aid of another person, sometimes a physician.

In approximately BCE, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked the fortified cities of Judah, laying siege on Jerusalem, but failed to capture it it is the only city mentioned as being besieged on Sennacherib's Stele, of which the capture is not mentioned.

Astruc Remoch sometimes spelled Raimuch was a Jewish convert to Catholicism who made his mark in history by attempting the conversion of other Jews during the 14th century. Atenism, or the "Amarna heresy", refers to the religious changes associated with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under his adopted name, Akhenaten.

Athalie is a play, the final tragedy of Jean Racine, and has been described as the masterpiece of "one of the greatest literary artists known" and the "ripest work" of Racine's genius. Some movements or sects within traditionally monotheistic or polytheistic religions recognize that it is possible to practice religious faith, spirituality and adherence to tenets without a belief in deities.

Atil İtil; cf. A-de Shui , literally meaning "Big River", was the capital of Khazaria from the middle of the 8th century until the end of the 10th century. Attachment parenting AP is a parenting philosophy that proposes methods which aim to promote the attachment of parent and infant not only by maximal parental empathy and responsiveness but also by continuous bodily closeness and touch.

Attalens Atalin or Talin is a municipality in the district of Veveyse in the canton of Fribourg in Switzerland.