This i' the flr. West Bengal and Assam have been follnd rn'mising in late planting. Cnlckpea and linseed ill esulted in total productivity of 2, kg,lhll in the Ct:n tra I Uttar Pradesh. ThIS system reduced incidence of gram pod-borer. Among biopeslicides. DI- and Ht have been qujte elfecllve li' c lnlrolling pod borer. Tbese products ere at a par with Elldo ulfan. Inter ropping with lin eed, coriander. A chickpea emlpl.
III accession fpc has been found tolerant to Meloidogyne javanica. M 3, identified for Mabarashrra, Madhya Pradesh and Guprat is a medium lot ilnely. Undt:T multiple pest-disease lua I 10 nllr ery, thi. The nematode causes stunting, uneven growth and heavy Yield loss.
Inset White female of cyst nematode recovered from field. Tamil Nadu. Kerela and Karn:llaka. PBM 2 identilled for khan cultivation 1O ea tern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam is a high-yielding, short-duration 60 days variety resistt to yellow mosaic virus and anthracnose.
Its average yield is kg1l Pusa J has been identified for summer in Madhya Pradesh. Mabarashua and Gujarat and for spling in eastern Uttar Pradesh. West Bengal and Assam. This variety matures in days in spring and days in summer. Cercuspora leaf- pot and anthracnose diseases. Oxydemeron methyl Metasyslox G- 0. Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Kerala and Karnataka. This is an early-maturing variety 69 days , resistant to yellow mosaic virus YMV and is moderately resistanl to powdery mildew, with average yield of t tonnefha.
West Bengal and Assam and MaJlaraslma. In lathyrus. Oil' R 2:'. Tall fieldpea lpf "27 and lpf 17 perfoidled well in eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar. TIus is early maturing days and 1 0 has higher fodder yield. This matures in days. This has bold seeds and matures days. COT 7. COT Aollwoon-tnlerant genotypes possessed lesser protein and ugar in square ban susceptibles. Removal or K resulled in long-km1 decline in seed-cotlon Yield.
One irrigation Q. The per and Southern bioi analyses confirmed stable Integration of gene in plants. The disease incidence of Colton Leaf Curl Yirus in norlb lonc could be effectively brought down by llmely removal or alternale weed hosts. Ga,-l-lDreliln in endemic areas.
Prochlora7 l g ailba and Proplconazolc 0. Optimum temperature for nematode infecll Ill their mcan cane Yields of go. S 1 tonnes,ha and The minimum net benelit would be Rs 6. This consists of 0 5 HP single-phase 1, rpm motor. Three high carbon steel blades are bolted 10 blade holder housing and the unit is mounted on the shaft of the motor. The blade unil Is encased in acrylic transparent box to avoid loss of chopped cane pieces, It has a mm diameter hole in the centre of the box.
Sample cane-stalk is fed through hole against rotating blades. Top, during operation: bottom, after operation. Using the same protocol. Protocol for callus induction from leaf and rhizome explants of A. Crop Production Sunnh,hnp provided maximum crop residues of 9. Vanous weed-management practices, viz. Application of Fluchloralin J. This weed management was superior to prevalent famlers' method. Crop Protection Eleven accessions of Hibiscus subdarijfa and 4 of Ii.
CcJIIlllli7fnlls were found promising against foot-rot and stem-roi, caused by Phyfoplllhora pllrasirica. Flue-cured tobacco line V with a yield potential of 2. A light- cast flue-cured tobacco line V possessing high yield potential 2. Parental IIr e of maize hybrid Paras nicked well during rahi at Dholi. Male-parent BK of pearl mj! For soybean and grollndntlt.
Carboxin and Carbandezim proved effective J r c 'nlrolling loose smut through seed treatment. These may be upgraded to meet gemlination standards by specilic gravfty separator. Anolher eitective mealybug predator Brllmaides suturali. AlyzlIs persh;ae and Corcyra cephalonica. Development time was significantly lower and longevity and feclmdity higher in field-collected Scymnlls coccivora than laboratory reared: stressing importance or rejuvenating culture with field-collected predators.
Spodoplera lilura is highly susceptible to S. Spodoplera exigua NPY has been found a multiple embedded virus with polyhedral inclusion bodies. J micron in diameter. The BlPM practice for suppression of H. Umru by soi l assay method. It revealed that ineffective juveniles of Sieinernema spp. Maximum progeny production of H.
Maharashu'a in The schedule consisted of release of egg pjiasitolds Tric! Basrnllti Rice Ille PM modllie in basmati rice resulted in a mean yield of 4. Nesokia indica and MilS booduga were trapped for the first time from the irrigated crop fields in western Rajasthan. Tn fields also. The fruit set vaned from 3. Kalisena SO for seed application and Kalisena SL for soil application control 6 destructive soil-borne pathogens of wide host range.
The agreement provides Rs 1 million, besides 2. On per frame basb. Maximum bei! Sa, iog the Hone Bees from Pesticidal Halards 10 save pri me pollillator honey bee. A phytoseild predator 1mblyseills sp.. The higher p pulation f2 m! Or Phosalone 3 mltliu't: or N, K.
At Coimbatore. These acaricie! O kg ai ane! I': Idu,,". On tomato.. Propineb 2. Studies based on transmission, ELISA and polymerase chain reaction per have revealed for the first time the association of rice lungro spherical RTSY and bacilliform RTBY viruses in north-west India where rice-wheat cropping system 15 bell1g extensively practised.
Jrowmg menace of ro ennged pal1lkeet on ugarcane was observed lor the first tim In Punjab. COJ 85 Damage was more III vanelie. J he lure ;TOP sunno" er was ej'fl;ct;ve in protecting main crop maize and ulkd In higher yield 1, Root-knot nematodes infecting pigeonpea in Maharashtra could be effectively controlled by Carbofuran fu 0. This treatment reduced root-knot index by Oilseeds Groundnut in Saurashtra region Gujarat alld Rohailkhand region of Uttar Pradesh suffers damage dut: lo rool-irnut nematodes.
Fh e litres of UCtlffi oi I emulsified with 0. Fruits In Gujaral. However, they got worried when Increase in the number of Badami Gallthl resulted In stunted. Successful demonstrations on nematode control were conducted in farmers fields showing that nematode control could cure disease ahd improve crop performance.
Use of nematode free seedlings and applioation of 1. The fungus suppre ed population of H. With a primer OPB 15, a band of approximately bp size, lis fo und only in nematode-susceptible cultivar, Pusa Ruby, and not in resistant t. Rejuvenation technology has been developed at tht: CISH.
New molecules. Several non-linear models were developed to forecast major pests of mango. Its flesh is linu and pink. This is suitable for both table and processing purposes. Two bybrids. More days were taken for sprollting in the control. III general. A dose of ROO g N. Baclerial canker in acid lime wa effeclively controlled by pnming, followed by. Pruning or discaseu anu leaf Hliller infested foliage abo re5ulted Ul an effective control of canker-scab complex at Ludhiana.
Hybrid Surya having mcdiulll-sized frllils g. Solo papaya recorded good gl til and hjgher accuillulation. The opt. P and K respectively. Four difft! BB and triploid BBB genomes were noted with unique characters. Plant pacmg of 1. Planting 3 Slicker at a spacing of 1. TI U CUltured plants perfom1ed better with higher yield wilh redured crop duration lnd u1llformity in fruits. CRAPE or the : rootstocks tested m the econd year of cropping. The safe waiting period for Benomyl 0.
Grapes harvested from vines treated with hydrogen cynamide in October pruning did not have detectable residues and were safe for human consumption. Spraying of Monocrotophos 0. Male fruit flies were trapped effectively using eugenol traps 6 trapslha with 0. Since the soils of this region lire rich in P content, application of P was not significant. Boradi Ziziphus mallriliana var. Budding of ber cultivars on boradi rootstock gave Aonla mst, a serious problem throughout the country, can be controlled effectively by applying Chlorothalonil 0.
Four sprays at 10 days intervals starting from initiation of disease symptoms doubled fruit yield at farmers' field. Seedling raising of tomato hybrid in polyethylene bags I Oem " 6cm or in raised beds with polyethylene layer has been recommended for tarai region Pantnagar of Uttar Pradesh. The fertilizer requirements for different vegetable crops has been recommended see box on page lop.
Application of CbLorothalonil 0. It reduced leaf-spot and fruitrot in Idence up to and 6. Four sprays of Mancozeb 0. Leaf blight on onion is effectively managed by 4 sprays of Mancozeb 0. Three sprays of Mancozeb 0. The treatment reduced The IT almedi recorded lowest disease incidence Kufri Chipsona 1, Kufri Chipsona 2.
Kufri Glr raj and Kufn Anand - were released and notified for commercial cultivation. A data-base for fmgerprint infonnation of all rei d pot:!. This data-base can now be used for 1. Bangalore, 6 promising vegetable varieties were multiplied. A late-bolting coriander variety and breeding tines of cauliflower with compact heads and tolerance to high temperature have also been Identified. The CPR! In north-western plains, gtoulldnut-polato-onlon and blackgram-potato-raclish cropping systems were remunerative over tbe traditional rice-palata-sunflower S em.
In the central plains. In nor1h-westcrn high bills, garlic-potato lntercropping was good. The garlic intercropping helped potato crop in escaping late blight and also reduced the rotting of tubers in the field with increase rn dry-matter content in tubers, Under the AICPIP. The aphid-forecasting model developed at Modipuram revealed that the fin appearance of aphid ,li lziis I"'rsime was mainly related to prevailing temperature in the previous years, wltile attainment of critical level ",as controlled by relative humidity and JainfaU as llldependent variable.
All tbe 3 variables were responsible for peak population builj-up of aphids. In cassava. Seven supenor triploids with good cooking quality were identified for advanced yield trial. From the open-pollinated progenies of D. I J superior clones haying dcsirable character were Isolated for further evaluation. A tlllal of 5. Roth under water-stress and! Cas ava H J howed Ie reduction ill tuber yield under Ir s, condition.
Higher yields were obtained ""hen NPK were kg along with farmyard llliluure u I:! Application of ZUS0 4 I lw 5 ha was beneficial. In morphopbahus. For commercial producllnn bolh idt rm as well as mother corm are equally effective. Sweet potato ree Ah Jr.. The Ie hn 1 g,quid eliminate the need for costly imported lllllylolyli, enzymes for e ftctmg the conversion.
The cassava ensiling lechnojogy wa popularized aillong lhe rannel.. Scale insect is a major po. Two lop cross hybrids of cassava and 2 clones of sweel potato have been identified for release A European patent has been awarded to the cassava starch based biodegradable plastic A technique for converting sweet potata starch into maltose has been standardized The development of cassava starchbased biodegradable plastic was the significant achievement.
The technology has been transferred to its users in India. An European Patent was also awarded for the technology. Of thel1l 4 were new additions. Pareot strains of whire butlon musbroom AgariclI. They are fully characterized as donor for the breeding programme. Scores of single spore isolates were developed from these parents. Different byproducts other than cereal straws were tried for compost preparation for Agaricus. Sugarcane bagas e was best material for composting. Preparing phase-l compost indoors in a bunker was encouraging.
Efforts are on to develop phase-l indoor chamber for pollution-free phase-ll composting. Alternative casing materials - coconut dust and activated charcoal - were evaluated as a casing medium in addition to farmyard manure and spent compost. The growing parameters for cultivation of A. Shiitake mushroom. Spraying of Veradix 0. Effect of growth hormones on quality of mushrooms did not show any advantage on increase in wlliteness, bul some treatments showed promise for improved shelf-life of mushrooms.
Effect of EDTA and sodium citrate as postharvest washing on quality and sbelflife of mushrooms was studied. Some of the treatments showed promise in improving the quality and shelf-life of mushrooms An application of biofertilizers Phosphotika and Azotobacter increased the yield of A. Supply of quality spawn of edible cultivated mushrooms was continued to meet the increasing demands of small and marginal growers from Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Jammu and Kashmir.
The NRC for Mushroom. Solan, is conducting 4 training programmes for entrepreneurs, small farmers, subject-matter specialists and foreign entrepreneurs regularly. Three additional training programmes were conducted for subject-matter specialists of the Department of Horticulture, Haryana, nominees of the NABARD and off-campus training for fanners of Rajasthan at Jodhpur. Pal, Blue Delight.
Anurag, Ashirwad. The cut flowers of Happiness harvested at tight bud stage, treated with a pulsing. Cellophan' paper wa. For clredive comrol of black leaf-spot disease. JJybnds Arnal ano Tamhn performed well at ellanikkara. Gladiolus Snow White. Punjab Me rnm Jesler, Aldnon, Golden. Maximum number of micro-shoot.. The hase solution. The postharvest life of Friendship improved when its spikes were treated with a puis.! A desirable natural mutunt was isolated and multiplied in ilirua and a.
Hybrid No, Sunil, Indira. Tara, 'election - and Shyamal for loose flowers were suitable for commercial flower production. TIHR Sel. Cut tlowers of Regal Times packed in polythene sheets Ditbane M 0. Flower stalks of gerbera yed I and YCD 2 recorded longest vase-life of The pot medium with loamy soil. Nodal explant cultured on one-fourth MS medium supplemented with sucrose 1. It is suitable for garland making and religious offering.
Seedlings raised in polybags with a potting mixture of red earth: sand : cdwdung in a I; 1: 1 ralio showed high vigour and better recovery than the conventional Held nursery. The cost of production for seedlings ranged from Rs in conventional to Rs 1, in polybag v. With reduced field transplanting shock, early flowering and oul-bearing capacity, rai ing of seedlings in polybags with potting mixture has been encouraged over conventional nursery technique.
The response of graded levels of fenili7er application in coconut-based high densjty multistoned cropping system revealed that coconul yield decreased gradually with Iedllction in fertillzer level below two-thirds dose of tbe recommended fertilizers. The yield increased gradually with increase in fertilizer dose. The highest yield was recorded with two-thirds dose of fertilizers.
The yields of the component crops clove buds. Therefore, for sustainable production of coconut as well as component crops. The,"ced plant. Clerod,:ndroll in! Mixing plants in the CO" dnng pit ill-situ. Of them. Papua New Guinea gave h. Boron deficiency manifested in the fom of hook leaves, rounded frond tip, blind lea Icanet shatter, bristle tip.
If necessary, another dose of g! A non-ibr mini boiler with plantation wastes a fuel i. U ed for, leanl generation. A mechanical bulich stripper to en the fruit from the sterilized bunches bas been developed which take about " mloutes to strip the Iruits from kg of sterili7ed bunches. Hydraulic press of 30 tonne' capacity is u 'et! Cia I ler, a vertical cylindrical vessel of 2. The free fatty acid content i les lhan. A total of 42 germplasm accessions have been collected and planted at dtlfcrcnt centres of AlCRP on Cashew.
Valpoi 5, A onda 3, Agonda 5, Sarvan 3 and Sarvan 4 - were identified in Goa for their medium to bold nuts g , big applc g and Iligher nut yield 1. Of tbe 27 vanctlcs, 7 had loose tesla and 9 medium le La adherence. The remaining II had ugh! The pollen-grain from male flowers had better germination c'lpaclly compared to hermaphrodite flowers. NRCC Sel-l was rated as the best for ilc colour, texture, taste and acceptability.
Wilh a cumulative yield of Flowering 10 the tissue cultured plants planted in U1e field bas been ob erved and the. One collection of black pepper. Alleppey finger turmeric Acc. A1 aod C I bad higb bark oleoresin II 0. Among Byndagi paprika collections, the colour y"lue ranged from to A TA units.
K, K HM 2. Black pepper. Culture MYTIstica falua var. Its etliciency could be effectively increased by locubating WIth tarmyard manure by which P application could be reduced to half the present recommended dose. Use of "Dosi Fiber" Or similar automated unit for extracting crude fibre in ginger gave rapid. A technology to prepare salted ginger has been standardized. Of the ginger accessions, Acc.
Two crystalline compound with nematicidal activity were Isolated from PIper cnlubril7ufil leaves. Five Phytophthora tolerant black pepper lines were identified. B I, J-glucnnase was identified as a marker associated with tolerance to P. For successful fennel crop at Hissar.
The best time for sowing fenugreek at Coimbatore is first week of October at a closer spacing of 15cm 10cm. Crop Protection Spraying potassium phosphate gave bener inhibitory effect on foliar infection of P. Seed treatment with fungicide Ridomll and soil application of Trichoderma her::ianllnl reduced rhizome rot of ginger siglllficantly. O 80 ;' "Illes infe'ted compared to ummer In;,.
Application of Pboratc ev. However, irrigation I 1. The fanllyard lllanure or oil cakl! Application of Trichoderma inoculatep oil cake at quarterly totervals was highly eft'l"tive In mi. Minimum relative humidity and r. Maximum relative humidity had only positi,e effect. Application of Carbofuran alone was best. Dlcot'ol 0. Wettable sulphur 0. In this repository. For a largescale multiplication of the blocontrol agent Trichoderma. Average dry root and seed yield in local check JA were and kg'hn respectively.
These two cultures were also identified as resistant to leaf blight InJer natural field conditions. However, maximum alkaloid 0. A newly-developed line Mandsaur Isabgol M! I BN 2 were Id ntlfied at Anand. At Mandsaur. MeB MCT- nd MeT were identified as high tuber yielders, with 0. Geraniol content was inversely related to plant height, Medium heigh! Clone RH 35 was promising with There was no competition for nutrients. Use of Azotobactor and Azospirillum considerably saved N application.
At Odakkali, lemongrass aeces ions OD 23, aoo OD were signficantly superior to the control variety OD 19 for leaf and oil yield as well as citral content. Opium line MOP was resistant to downy mildew at Mandsaur. Soil application of Trichoderma ha::iclllllm and dipping of cuttings in CarbendaZllll 0. Maximum dry rool yield was obtained in this treatment. Tbese fungicides also improved sprouting of tubers in storage even when applied at lower dose 0.
The llhr fnlit grader was modified for sweet orange. A tent type, foldable solar dryer bas been standardized. The temperatllfe inside this tent was C in summer and C in winter. The lh:"hness of vegetable amaranth and carrot could be retained up to oays respectively in cool chamber. It is mainly due to less moisture loss and low electrolyte leakage. These vegetables retained better I -carotene and vitamin C when packed in ventilated polythene bags.
A simple technology for achieving higb storage life 40 days for banana Dwarf Cavendish has heen standardized. The steam blanched aonla fruits retained better vitamin C compared to unblanched fmils. The ppm proved better preservative compared to sodium benzoate. Further, use of invert sugar over ordinary sugar was found equally good for osmotic dehydration of aonla. A recipe has been standardized for mixed fruit juices of mango, pincapple.
Lime-aonla RTS beverage was best compared to other combination between fruit juices. Techniques have been tandardized for the preparation of powder from lomato and l1lango for instant chutney mix powders. Pulp of kurukkan mango contains very high ascorbic acid content The vegetables had also better texture and colollr than conventionally processed vegetables.
Dehydrated guava slices. Among the two varieties, Allahabad Safeda and Sardar yielded higber pulp yield Pre-storage hot water treatment of mangoes at 55 C for 5 minutes did not help in preventing the spoilage during post storage ripening. However, post-storage treatment with hot water helped in reducing the spoilage during ripening. Out of these. I to Rajasthan.
The soils belong to 4 orders. Soil survey and mapping of soil! SO,OOO through mission-oriented national project. A climatic database was undertaken to document the rainfall and climatic water balance of agromet stations and 1, rain gauge tations. The long-term data of these stations from different sources were collected and using the generalized AWe value of soil map. Soils of Chomu, Shakhi, Thar and Chirai series arc moderately sodic.
Using this information on soil propertie and crop requirement criteria. A separate document on soil sedes was also brought OtlL Total Id litllied soil series have been described ror tjleir soil-site cbaracteristic, pbysicu i1en ieal properties and interpretative groupll1gs. The tlribuie database of soil-site characteristics for dom. The growing duranon of the crop and crop waler balance parameter of thl: oybean, sorghum and cotlon crops were evaluated.
The highest residual 10 'Ii molsture is Qvai lahle for sorghum 'J mm followed hy I bo. Hydrologic implications of second rotation were more drastic than those of the first rotation. Afforestation and Conservation Measures on Deep Ravine Lands The ocio-economic aspects of afforestation and conservation measures were analysed on ha-degraded ravined land along the right bank of Mahi River at Sarnal, Kheda district in Gujarat.
The financial analysis showed that the investment could be repaid in l4 years with an equal annual payout of Rs Il, It was maximum in surface soils of hot semi-arid regions covering agro-ecoj"eglons AERs 4, 5. On the other hand. The hunlid ecosystem laers 9, II, 12 and 13 collstitutl.! J 9 Pg respectively. Thus the share of India in overall SOC stock of the worlel is not substantial although it covers Government of India. It was observed that fertilizer application based on oil test realized high profits by saving on cost of ferull zers.
BiofertlLizer formulations based on these strains ha ' ' perfomled successfuuy in famlers' fields. These were treated with nitrosoguanidine for inducing mutations for NHtreleasing ability duri. At Pantnagar centre, several salt-tolerant strains of Azotobacter were isolated lrom tami soils. Several other strains tolerant to acidity ph were also 1. Most of tbe strains were effective against the plant pathogen FlIsarium onwporulil. Such rhizobia would have a competitive advantage of survival in of low P statu.
Newer strains of pbosphate-solubilizing bacteria of Bacillus were isolated at C0illlbalUn:. In a moderately acid ph 6. Crop-residue RecycJjng --year study in Altisol ph 5. At all the levels of fertilizer N, maize grain yield was higher in residue incorporated than nnn-incorporated plots. When no fertilizer N was used, residue Incorporation showed maxi. Gmin yield ot the follov. In another study after flrst plucking of greengram.
Nltrogen-entiched phosphocompost contained N 1. The supply of P througb N-enricbed phosphocompost to crops like wheat.. Thus Parthenillm weed can be used as green manure to substitute FYM requiremenl. Addition of different rates of I rtilizer P or manure alone resulted in relallvely lower Uldex than therr combined IIpolh;ation in both the crops. This bipha ic relea e is ch:u cteristic of a djffi.
The rapid release continued for hr 1 he non-exchangeable NH, release from the soils was almo t complete after 96 u fllicuhation in NaTPB. FfHCJ digestion. Margins of chlorotic leaves turned necrotic, d vcloped purple tinges. Leaves became brittle, small in size and bent downward and had hurt internodes.
Both B- and S-deficiellt plants showed reduced number and sire of leaves, delayed flowering and prematurity, "hich resulted in low seed yield. Pol r symptoms of B deficiency were more aggravated by low S supply. These svmptoms were les evere at low 8 supply followed by combined deficiency of B and which caused a significant reduction in growtb, biomass production and yield.
Th 'retore, balanced nutrition is extremely essential to ensure high productivity of Oilseed in 8- and S-deficiem soils. The treatment significal1tly enhanced the growth, fruiting alld seed yield of oilseed and pulse crops.
Application of kg Blha adversely affected the growth and fruiting, which caused deleterious effect on crop yields. Zinc-use Efficiency of Enriched Manure to Rice Blt:nding of zinc sulphate with organic wastes and incubating the same for 30 ua. The foliar application of manganese to wheat showed significant response.
The yield in control plots was kgfha. There was a significant response to three foliar sprays of 1. The grain yield of wheat with Mn application was times more in durum wheat and times more in bread wheat compared with control trea01lent.
Haplustalf, and Ustorthent. Thus the occurrence of Cd toxicity will be less in Eutrochrept soil than in the Haplustalf and Ustorthent soils. The latter soils are more vulnerable to Cd toxicity and even a small contamination of Cd will pose problem of Cd pollution and its toxicity to the plants. Such difference in Cd sorption capacity was related to differences in soil physico-cbernical properties. MJnimizing Toxic Effect of Lead and Cadmium on Soil Microbhll Growth Use of sewage and sludge and city wastes for crop production results in entry and accumulation of pollutant metals Pb and Cd in soil.
Application of 35 ppm Cd and ppm Pb reduced soil microbial biomass carbon and soil respiration substantially. However, application of 0. Thus, microbial growth and population in Cd- and Pb-contaminated sick soils can be improved by addition of straw or organic matter.
Ni Toxicity to SpinaCh Plants Higher levels of mg Nifkg soil caused chlorosis resembling to irondeficiency symptoms on leaves of spinach. Measurement of Water-extractable Fluoride from Soil Acetate, a common organic anion in soil extracts, is known to interfere with the determination of fluoride F through ion-chromatography. Using advanced column. Solution of sodium tetraborate na 1 B 4 0 " 5. Tt holds promise for furrow. Similarly, at KOla Rajasthan , the optimum yield of French bean was obtained with 2 irrigations 10 cm each at branching and pod-development stage.
At Parbhlllu, maximulll yield of 1. Soil and Environmental Characterization in West Bengal In the red and laterite soils and In coastal zone of West Bengal, dependable 90"0 and surplus rainfall of about mm was observed between 27th and 37th tandard Meteorological Week SMW. In hill and larai zone the probability of dcpl! Excess rainwater can be protitably harvested for subsequent use during winter deficit period for supplemental irngation. Highest growing degree-days were observed during monsoon SI.
Irrigation schedules developed to improve productivity of rice, wheat, pigeonpea, Frenchbean, mustard and sunflower Mechanism responsible for the poor germination under salinity found out Yield of crops improved over traditional practices in Sunderbans due to Institute-Village Linkage Programme Enhancing Productivity of Waterlogged Lands in Coastal Orissa Reclamation of waterlogged area through construction of pond and raising of surrounding fields as a model witi1 diversified agriculture cereals, vegetables, hul1i ;ulture and fish was tried in 10wlying coastal belt of Kumarpada Village in 'imepara Block of Puri district whicb resulted in higher productivity of kharif and ruin crops and fish in the pond.
Several methods have been devised to reclaim waterlogged coastal areas In Orissa. Even in lined brick canals. Mapping and Characterization of Salt-affected Soils Salt-affected soils of different physiography showed stages of pedological developments by way of soil structure.
The salt content in these soils varies with availability of subterranean flow of water due to its connectivity with Oxbows and left-oul channels, whicb at present looks like a lake. Map showing influence of sub-terrain flow of water from lakes into development of salt-affected soils In surrounding areas in Etah district. An index to assess the severity of waterlogging or the drainage need was developed.
Thus drainage effluents can be used for irrigating sorghum fodder crop during the summer sea on under tbese conditions without any aggravation in salinity hazards. Ellect of Salinity on Germination of rndian Mustard In Indian mustard physiological non-availability of calcium in seeds and growing seedling was the major factor responsible for the salt sensitivity of the germination process.
Yield Potential of Irrigated Wheat in Vertisols In Pipalia village of Bharuch district, additional irrigation signrt1cantly improved wbeat yield over one pre-sowing irrigation. Five irrigations with a total depth of 32 cm were essential to optimize the grain yield of wheat in tbe Bara tract area of Gujarat. However, application of more than five irrigations increased the post-harvest salinity.
Phosphorus in Reclamation of Alkali Soils A long-term study on rice-wheat system showed that the yield of both was SIgnificantly affected by the amount of P applied during reclamation. Wheat removed more P than rice. Performance of MPTS in Alkali Soils A 4-year field experiment on 10 tree species in a highly alkali soil at hivn farm indicated that except ror Prosopi!
Casuarina equisetijolia. Pithecellobiuni dulce. I'ia siamea. Pongamia pinnata. PI'osopis alba. Regular N fertilizer is also necessary for higher yield of crop. Application of fertilizers led to the most encouraging results. Demonstrations on other technologies like po t- owing irrigation. The Dorouv when coupled with l sprinkler or drip system were found 0 yielu sufficient water to irrigate 3 11a of field crops or ha of plantation crops.
At Kota Rajasthan , the results of consumptive usc ralc in weighing-type I. The wateri. The ET ratio was 1. Gangawati Kamataka. Hisar Haryana and Mathura Uttar Pradesh. Acacia nilotica. MeJia azedarach. PlthecelJoblum dulce, Tamarix articulata. Irrigation support for initial 3 years seems essential to establish good plantations under the arid and semi-arid clirnates.
P l' ID rtce-w. At ModlpuralIl.. The economic evaluation of the programme revealed that the adoption of improved and tested technologies gave additional yield of cereals. The average grain yield in tbe oils along the slope indicates that deep tillage with fertilizer application can substantially increase grain yield in the poor 1.
The yields obtained by the farmers have amply convinced the fanners in adoption of improved varieties. JS soybean. Integrated Nutrient Management In shallow Alfisols in Anantapur districi of Andhra Pradesh result of J 8-year study on integrated nutrient management for groundnut. The average pod Yield mcrcased fmm 2. The yield of rainfed cowpea CO I was 0.
Gliocladium virens and neem oi l 5 u I kill water hyacinth within 10 days of spray. Seed treatment with ecofi! FlucbJoralin 1. Similarly, in rainy-season pulses greengram. Alachlor 1. Butachlor 2. Continuous use of Anilophos in rice and Isoproturol1 in wheat under ricewheat system resulted in heavy build up of Cyperlls iria in rice and Anagallis arvensis, Medicago denflcuiata and MellJollis spp.
Ln wheat, problem weeds, VIZ. Phalaris minor and Avella 'lidoviciana, were controlled effectively by fenoxaprop-p-etbyl at giha. Sulfosulfuron at 25 glha also proved effective. After the e tahh hment of vegetative cover. Greengram WaS found most profitable crop in normal agricultural year in Jodhpur ornpo I from Mustard Straw Compost prepared from musrard straw contains 0.
The year J :, II complete drought year when the minimum loss was ohserved in pearll11i1lel, Indl t1l1g Its suitability for subslstance farming in the region. It involves administering guminducing ethephon solution into the tree through a smail size hole which is then plugged with cleaned clay paste.
No further injury or cuts to the plants are required. The gum exudation from different points of the plant generally starts within days after administration of the solution. The average yield of gum! There are vast natural stands of Acacia senegal In the arid 20ne like that In Lohawat and nearby areas.
Adoption of this technology, would not only improve the economic condition of the farmers of this region but India can even export gum arable, after meeting national needs. Induced gum on Acacia senegal iflermis, is cultivated on a commercial scale in Rajasthan parucularly ill tbe Pall district.
Planting of henna with lower number of plants per unit area 0. It increases the cropping intensity and provides more income to the farmer. The other combinations that can be successfully tried III rhis region are capsicum-radish"late cauliflower, tomato-radish-late cauliflower. At Thrissuf in Kerala, sowing of bitter gourd around mid-october resulted in optimum yields due to favourable environmental conditions, leading to highest number of female flowers and highest fruit setting.
The adequate moisture availability during vegetable phase and dry period during flowering stage enabled the Octobersown crop to record higher fruit yields. However, Ihe crop sown during February July often encountered high rainfall at reproductive stage, leading to nower drop ttlus affecting the fruit yields.
FingermiUet Agrol11et centre al Bangalore analysed long-term weather data in relation to performance of fingermillet. The studies enabled developlllg a multiple regress between grain yield of fingermillel with cumulative water Ilse, growing degree-days and water-requirement satisfaction index. The analysis utilizing long-period data revealed that the three models in general predicted phenological events within 2 days deviation.
Yield prediction did not respond appropnately to impact of delayed sowing where actual YIelds declined sharply Attempts to improve the model predlctivity to such an aberrant condition was found to p. This forecast is being passed on l l the tate Department of Agriculture for crop-yield assessment. Ullum temperature, but was negatively correlated with relative bumidity. A gres IOn These models are being used for disease forecasting in Agromet Advisories issued to the fanners in the region.
Palllown;a [orlllnei an important agroforestry tree species in China bas been. Hisar were evaluated through progeny testing. A ficld trial on shrub species fbr Ih'e-fencing initiated at the 0. Blight forecasting model based on humid thermal ratio Perfomlance of Acada mangium after 2 years under Dharwad developed at Agromet Centre, Ludhiana conditions indicated highest plant height in Kerala SOUTce 5.
Out of 20 air-layered branches, rooting was observed iii two branches in ppm concentration during spnng season. For stem cuttings, treatments of ppm lba for 24 hr and for air layering ppm were found optimal and economically effective. Of the 32 plus tree progenies of Dalbergia sissoo collected from Bundelkhand region, 13 progenies were found superior to the check for standillg wood volwlle.
Superiority over check for wood volume was Among these prom. The return from this system was about Rs 29,Iha, whereas from sole crop it was Rs 2R. At Ludhiana. PBW and Fill varieties of wheat were found suitable for late sowing in poplar-based agroforestry system. At Hisar. RD 4. Adoption of this system will augment farmers' income. At Dhanvad, chi lli aud groundnul yields were higher in m-spaced teak rows than i. At Jhansi, anjan Hardwickia binafa -based agrisilvicultural system revealed that tree component even up to treeiha did not affect the economic yield of blackgram and mliblard signilicantly Lip Lo six years.
The bark e1'. Out of the amount of NPK removed from tree system II kg of P and and 2. The grain yield of blackgram and wheat unol! The reductiou. Acacia manglum. At Parbhanl. The study at Jhansi on four varieties of aonla Chakaiya, ranchall. Krishna, NA 7 as fruit trees. Besides fruit yield of ;tonia, kglha grain yield was obtained from blackgrarn. The gram 'ield of blackgram was At jhansi. Silvipasture At Fatehpur-Sh. Last post: Apr 17, , pm Re: Wann ist die beste T Last post: Oct 19, , pm Re: Brokers.
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