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There would also be a cost in getting rail transit to and from a new crossing. Since unlike the other routes discussed in this post a North Shore rapid transit link remains a live, if remote, possibility, the study is still worth a read.

You can find a copy at the downtown library. My extremely crude cost estimate for the Hastings extension is based on the per-kilometre price of the mostly elevated Millennium Line, built in Three years after the opening of the Millennium Line, TransLink officials were putting an optimistic spin on ridership figures that were well below projections. Since Slate Star Codex had limited itself to American data, I wondered whether Canadian rapid transit projects might be suffering from the same ailment.

But looking at projects in Toronto and Vancouver, I found a noticeable upward tick since the s, suggesting the presence of cost disease in Canada. To emphasize, these are per-kilometre, inflation-adjusted prices that appear to be rising. If we want that to continue being true in the future, we need to smarten up the way we plan our rapid transit network. In the big cities where rapid transit gets built, land values have been rising at a rate far exceeding inflation, leading to higher property acquisition costs.

The accumulation of buildings, pipes, and wires — what I called infrastructure clutter — around potential rapid transit corridors makes construction ever more complicated. Population growth means there are ever more residents and business owners to object to the inconvenience of construction, the noise of passing trains, lowlife transit riders invading their fancy neighbourhoods, and other blights of public transportation.

The internet has made it cheaper and easier for obstructionists to organize and demand pricey compromises. Related to point 6, for political reasons earlier city planners prioritized easy- and therefore cheap -to-build projects, leaving the most challenging and pricey pieces of the network to be dealt with by future generations — i.

Look at Toronto, which has spent the last half-century pushing its subway ever further into the lightly-built suburbs, ignoring the pressing need for a new line downtown. Related to points 6 and 7, modern planners may be more choosy than their predecessors about where to place their routes. Thirty years later, many Kingsway commuters continue to take the bus. Compare the current plan to extend the Millennium Line, which disregards the out-of-service rail line a few blocks to the north for a brand-new tunnel directly under Broadway.

Not coincidentally, the per-kilometre cost of the Millennium tunnel is expected to be over five times higher than the Expo Line. Millennium Line extension 6 stations, 5. We could conceivably save money by skimping on factors 3 and 4 — by building more recklessly, noisily, and uglily. As an example, Surrey mayor Doug McCallum has suggested that the proposed Langley extension of the Expo Line could be built more cheaply if crews worked round-the-clock.

And by thinking about why costs go up, we can predict which routes will be most expensive to build in the future and should therefore be prioritized, and which can be affordably postponed. Extending existing lines is cheaper than building new ones. Building all in one go is cheaper than building in fits and starts.

Coordinating with other infrastructure projects lowers costs. But I think they might give points 5 and 6 a little more weight:. Every project will stir up opposition. But well-off residents, because they rely on transit less, and because they tend to own their homes, have less to gain and more to lose from transit expansion.

Their money, education, and well-groomed spokespeople make them more effective obstructionists. Therefore, try to put rapid transit into a neighbourhood before it fills up with yuppies. When the city, after acquiring it last year from CP Rail after much haggling, tried to convert it to a paved bike path, nearby residents protested the despoliation of what they viewed as their private rambling grounds. I can just see the outcry in the future when the city attempts to pursue its vision of running a streetcar down the line ….

The corridor is already densely built-up: infrastructure clutter is therefore unlikely to worsen. If the Millennium Line can be extended all the way to UBC in a single go, then it absolutely should: it would be far more cost-effective. The UBC extension can affordably be postponed.

Would it make sense to move the Arbutus streetcar plan forward, while there are still a few students and working class people living along its route who might benefit from it? The Arbutus corridor is wide enough that property acquisition costs for future streetcar stops should be minimal.

But have they figured out yet how to bridge the 2-kilometre distance between the end of the corridor and Marine Drive station on the Canada Line? That could be an expensive gap to fill. I hope to have more to say about the latter corridor in a follow-up post. You might as well make a bigger up-front investment in a tunnel or elevated tracks and enjoy the benefits of higher speed and driverless operation. Instead, the city elected to fancy up the corridor with walking paths and flowerbeds from one end to the other, guaranteeing an infestation of sign-waving old ladies in sunhats whenever they attempt to alter it.

I voted Yes, as the proposal would have benefited me personally: I take transit regularly, and spend very little, so I would have enjoyed the improved service while barely feeling the pain of higher taxes. Since voting ended, the federal government has announced a substantial new fund to support large transit infrastructure projects, and both Surrey and Vancouver have pledged to look into this and other means of achieving their respective rail ambitions.

The first purpose, the one riders prioritize, is to take you to places you want to go. To your home, your job, your school, a bar, a doctor. The second purpose is to shape growth — to redirect investment and development to underdeveloped areas — to remake the city.

Where there are no homes, no jobs, no schools, no bars, no doctors. Not yet, anyway. Ideally there should be a balance between serving the first purpose and the second; between the short-term needs of riders, and the long-term goals of city planners. Meanwhile, over a decade later, riders wanting to go to the University of British Columbia, or Stanley Park, or Granville Island, still have to ride the bus.

The Surrey LRT would stop at many a weed-choked lot, but the communities at the extremities of its three arms — Newton, Guildford, and Langley — are already busy, built-up suburban centres. The ultimate objective is for the Broadway subway to extend all the way to UBC. Why could this be? Some of these drawbacks are shared by trains. It seems to me the main advantages of taking the train are that your waiting area is sheltered from the elements, your route will be clearly mapped and easy to follow, and — of course — the speed and frequency of service.

City planners, with their emphasis on long-term goals over short-term needs, will say: People hate to take the bus. Whereas an emphasis on currently existing riders would say: People hate to take the bus.

The best thing about this strategy is that the cost-savings advantage swings from planners to riders. And it would still cost only half as much as a new rail line. I love rail lines. If there are federal infrastructure funds available, instead of blowing them on a couple big rail projects, use them to build platforms and dedicated lanes for express buses.

Maybe for now we focus on the most congested corridors. Then, stop. Maybe it would make more sense, and be less expensive, to close the gap between the Millennium and Canada Lines by building along 1st Avenue, the old rail corridor, to Olympic Village Station. Maybe a system of east-west express buses down, say, 4th, Broadway, and 41st could do the job of keeping students flowing to and from UBC while relieving congestion on Broadway.

If we choose trains over express buses, I can live with that too. TransLink has a website that will tell you based on GPS tracking data when your next bus is due to arrive. And the little digital display at the front of the bus showing the next stop makes riding an unfamiliar route much less stressful.

To be fair, the ongoing operating costs for the B-Lines would be quite a bit higher. Michael A. Charles is a writer, animator, and musician currently living in the Vancouver area. He used to be the singer and guitarist for the band known as Sea Water Bliss. You can find a selection of his cartoons, music videos, and ads on the Gallery page. Michael isn't on LinkedIn or Facebook or Twitter and won't be on whatever comes along next.

If you need to reach him here's his contact info. Blog at WordPress. Charles Online Presence Writer, animator, musician, and now jerk-with-a-blog. Great post. I too love Continuum, but I have not seen that episode. As far as the Olympic Line is concerned, I believe that the new tram cars were leant to the City of Vancouver by Bombardier's division in Brusssels, not by the City of Brussels.

Bombarier offerred to sell the streetcars to the city of Vancouver, but the city read: city council was not interested. This can be explained as follows. I would assume that the original decisions to establish the "Olympic Line" were made by the NPA council, prior to the November election. In , the NPA council was rejected in favour of the current Vision council -- largely on the basis of the poorly understood and poorly analyzed Olympic Village financing scandal.

In , after the Olympics, the City read: Vision council did not act to buy the tram cars, and also showed no enthusiasm to pursue a more permanent streetcar line, beccause it was an NPA idea. This was bluntly explained by Geoff Meggs, the most powerful vocal member of City Council after the mayor. He has stated publicly that he does not want the city doing anything which would lead the provincial government to think that the city will take responsibility for transit, that might reduce the chance of the UBC line being funded by the province.

Wrong thinking, in my opinion. I, too, was very disappointed that Vancouver residents showed so little interest in the streetcar proposal. I would chalk it up to Olympics fatigue. Very short-signted, though. Now that Translink is in such a difficult financial position, 5 years later, there is a lot more public interest and enthusiasm for streetcar projects.

Adam, the Downtown Streetcar project was rejected due to its cost as a tourist train tens of millions with seasonal ridership and a limited route. As proposed, it was not a viable public transit option. In addition, the particular Bombardier Flexity stock they chose was also very narrow designed for narrow pre-car European streets and without adequate ridership would have had a very high per rider operating cost, which would have greatly reduced its frequencies, something continuously ignored by those obsessed with the romance of trams.

You are right that there was concern about the costs of the Olympic Village, and that affected this descision. You will note that the province didn't pay even one Canadian loonie to help save themselves from an international embarrassment if the Vision council failed to step in and assume the entire debt to finish building the village.

Your portrayal of the council acting responsibly is rather unfair. Your criticism is better directed squarely where it belongs -- at the provincial government which originally applied to host the Olympics and which is primarily responsible for funding transit in BC.

It should be noted, though, that the downtown streetcar allignment continues to be accommodated in planning for the Southeast False Creek Olympic Village area a broad median down 1st Ave , around Northeast False Creek near BC Place Stadium and potential routes to the False Creek flats.

They were designed from the outset for tight curves that might be needed in adding a metro to an existing built up city centre. That is why they are very quite on curves. As apposed to standard fixed trucks on the "newer" trains. I had heard that the reason for not using Red for the Canada Line was of those with colour-blindness. Apparently some aren't able to see red, hence going for the light blue.

Not sure how true this is, but its what I've heard. Just a quick comment about the Canada expandability. The underground stations all have a 10 or 15m false wall section for future expansion to allow for an additional 'C' car. I also believe frequencies can still be increased on the single track sections over current usage. In theory it was supposed to have an ultimate capacity of 15,pphpd although I assume that includes station expansion and double tracking the Richmond segment I think they designed it to be doable.

I agree with complaints about things like the canting. Some background to the Canada Line may help, it was not considered a priority for the regional government which did not consider Richmond an area they wanted to promote high growth in flooding risk, farm land, more risk in an earthquake From day one critics were extremely vocal in stating ridership numbers were hugely inflated and would never be achieved, the main consensus was that ridership on the line would underperform so much for that.

That said there is a logical existing parallel alternate route to the west the Arbutus corridor that would make a good LRT line to relieve pressure on the Canada Line. In fact, warts, inadequacies, deficiencies and all other things considered, the Canada Line is years ahead in ridership and helped open parochial minds to the benefits of metro lines. I would never suggest the same construction methodology and anemic design be used on Broadway, but I believe citizens are way ahead of the politicians in accepting the benefits of a high quality subway there.

Broadway must be done better, and that means buiding it for tomorrow, not for today. The economic, institutional and residential density was already there decades ago, and it still awaits transit to catch up. Oh, on wayfinding. Again I agree with your critisms but the website is actually quite good and lets you find out how to get where you wish to go quite easily. There is also a good Frequent Transit Network map so if you just print out that map and are near the frequent network most of Vancouver but not great coverage in the suburbs you can use the map to get where you are going no schedule required because I believe the Frequent Transit Network is supposed to be less than 10min 15?

I just want to comment on Canada Line capacity. The line was built as a P3 partnership and the maximum design capacity was set by the government at I think 15, people per hour per direction. The stations are designed to be 50m some are built at 40m but have knockout walls to allow expansion to 50m - and this will allow 60m three-car trains to operate.

Because the trains are automated, they can reverse direction quickly, just stop, unload, load and go. The single track on the branches isn't a problem - it takes the train 30 seconds to travel it, allow 1 minute, dwell and 30 seconds back, is two minute headway max. This isn't likely required on the branch at anytime to meet the maximum design capacity.

I agree super elevation would have been better, but it wasn't necessary to meet the design speed and capacity objectives. Adding super elevation would have required a different tunnel geometry or trains with angled sides, both adding costs to the line.

Driving straight under the park to avoid the turns was non-starter. The first reason is that the park is an extinct volcano and that would mean tunneling through extremely hard tube of larva; the second is that there is a planned future station at 33rd and Cambie and going under the park would have eliminated this option. All stations have track intrusion systems - on the old expo sections it is pressure sensors, on the rest of the system and inclouding Canada line it is laser based system.

It first activates a warning and if the intrusion is not cleared, it stops trains entering the station. The system works well. I would add that in 26 years of operation, Skytrain has never had an accident while under automated control. Not one - no derailments, no crashes, nothing.

And this is with trains operating as close as 75 seconds apart the system can handle trains 45 seconds apart. Canada Line has the same signaling and train control system as the rest of the system. Finally - note that Expo and Millenium line use linear induction for propulsion, rather than conventional wheel driven as used on Canada line.

Linear induction allows much faster acceleration and no wheel slip as the wheels are not driving. Skytrain expo and millenium lines have the fasted end to end metro speeds in Canada. That would have also meant a large launching pit and removal pit in a pretty high end neighbourhood. The future 33rd Ave. Thank you very much for this website - I use it to plan my world travels. It is often more useful than local information.

However, early indications are that it will be voted down. One of the problems is that residents of suburban Surrey , pop , who only have 4 skytrain stations, feel that all their taxes will go to building an expensive tunnel expansion in Vancouver. Surrey is already growing much faster than Vancouver , pop and will likely be the biggest city in B.

Another problem is that there is a view that Translink is mis-managed. They just fired their CEO. I agree with most of the comments. Metro Vancouver did not have a long term Rapid Transit plan in the s and that was the main problem. The plans change as the provincial government change. Brilliant job! Outstanding work! Keep it up. Tell us your experience of this transport system! Although this is primarily a US West Coast trip, I took the chance to hop over to Vancouver for a few days July , as it is only a 4-hour train journey from Seattle, and a lovely boat trip back via Victoria on Vancouver Island.

Before I get started, Vancouver is a great city and quite unlike any other I have seen so far in North America. It is much denser with lots of storey appartment blocks even in the downtown area, but also in many areas in the suburbs. There is no freeway cutting right through the central area, and many parts can be reached on foot, too. So all in all a mixture of Europe, North America and even Asia, just like the many different people living there. Vancouver is probably deservedly often listed among the most livable cities in the world.

Therefore I will have an even more critical look at its transportation system, which for me is a very important part for the quality of life in a big city. In this field, however, Vancouver gets a 'fail', I'm afraid. Not that trains are bad or buses old, but because the very insufficient information about the transport system. The responsible authority TransLink does not even provide a customer information centre anywhere, printed bus maps are not available anywhere, a few are posted rather at random and not even at the busiest downtown buss stops, and information at bus stops is very scarce, mostly only the bus number and its 'subtitle', i.

In some places, like the tourist office, you may find some schedule booklets, but for Vancouver alone you need to pick up two. They include a rather pathetic map, but it helps a bit. By the way, like nearby Seattle, Vancouver also has quite a large network of trolleybuses. Information within the SkyTrain system is generally o. Apparently for the Olympics they introduced a T-logo, a white T on a blue square, a bit like the German U sign, but this has been introduced very half-heartedly, mostly only in the central area and along the Canada Line I will write about the many flaws of the Canada Line below!

So if we assume that a transport system is designed to carry the same people on a workday to their jobs and back home again, then Vancouver's network can be qualified as sufficient. However, if we want a transport system that allows anybody, occasional riders and no-car users to move freely and spontaneously around the entire metropolitan area without the help of a smartphone, then Vancouver is far from being among the world's top cities when it comes to transport issues.

Any major city in Western Europe plus some others worldwide will be ahead, I'm afraid. It's good to see the SkyTrain system being handled as a uniform system, even though the Canada Line was once meant to be different and it is different in many things.

But effectively, there are two different metro systems, just like in New York City, Berlin, London or Madrid, with trains not interchangable between lines due to different loading gauge car width and also a different powering system. Let's therefore start with the original SkyTrain, which now comprises the Expo and Millennium Lines, which share tracks along a long section. First opened in the s, the driverless system seems to work perfectly. During my stay I didn't really oberve any disruptions, maybe one morning there was a longer gap between trains than expected, but otherwise each line operates every minutes off-peak, so there is a train every minutes between Waterfront and Columbia where my hotel was ; and during peak hours they add about all trains available, making them run at top headways, which is around seconds.

Sometimes a train enters a station right after the previous has left, a bit like Moscow, but with shorter trains. The older Mark I trains, which operate in 4-car or 6-car formations, are a bit loud due to their age, but otherwise run well. Having longer cars, they always run in 4-car formation as adding another married pair would exceed the current platform length. All are air-conditioned. Despite being driverless, there is no exaggerated warning message, just a few tones and the doors close.

As people know that the next train is due within minutes, noone tries to force the doors. People seemed quite well-behaved anyway. What makes the old SkyTrain routes so much better than the new Canada Line is the perfect track alignment with proper superelevation cant in curves, so the trains travel at a very continous speed all the time, which provides a very smooth ride.

The Mark I trains look pretty ugly by today's standards. The have only a small front window, with no proper seat there, so it is hard to look out the front. Luckily train designers later realised that these seats would always be popular on driverless metros, not only among metro enthusiasts.

The Mark I trains can either be seen in their original livery with their thick blue and red stripes, or in the deliverey adopted for the initial batch of Mark II car, basically in white with blue and yellow swung lines, the colours then assigned to the two lines. The Mark II trains have a slightly larger front window, but still much smaller than what you would mostly find on new driverless metros and even on the Canada Line trains.

There is a funny single seat at that window, which makes the passenger sitting there appear to be the driver. During my stay I have never observed that a train had to be driven manually with the help of the driving console hidden there. With blue artificial leather seats, the original Mark II trains' interior reminded me of some French metros. The newer trains have a different plastic seat covering with slimmer seats altogether, making them appear more spacious.

If the initial sections of the Expo Line were opened in as early as the mids I wonder why the Canada Line built 25 years later is of such a bad design? I also wonder, why cities like Nuremberg or Copenhagen had to invent a completely new system of automatic driverless operation when the SkyTrain had been running for over 20 years? I guess the operational system could be applied to any other metro system, too.

The initial Expo Line, which largely follows a once-existing interurban tram corridor, seems to be where it belongs, and there are many high-density residential and commercial areas, notably Metrotown, along its route keeping the line busy at all times, and at capacity during peak hours.

The later added Millennium Line, however, has a rather strange route. The VCC-Clark stub, which opened later, doesn't really make much sense to me, unless the line is finally extended westwards or the area around it which is still a railyard is developed into something useful. In any case, to create a perfect system, they would have had to rebuild the old Broadway station to provide for cross-platform interchange at this point. The two lines are currently at two different levels, but with a bit of effort, it would have been possible.

The two routes actually run parallel for some stretch at this point, at two different levels, though. There is in fact a project to expand the old Commercial-Broadway station to add another platform and thus separate alighting from boarding passengers.

The second transfer station within the old SkyTrain system, that at Columbia, is not ideal either. The station was not planned to become an interchange and has side platforms. Since the Millennium Line was added, many passengers have changed here to go from Surrey towards Lougheed or in the opposite direction, so these passengers have to walk down a flight of stairs and up on the other side there is only one up-escalator in the inbound direction.

Expo Line stations. I don't know if people in Vancouver are aware of this, but the stations on the older parts of the Expo Line were modelled after the Vienna U-Bahn, with a group of Viennese architects who designed the basic U-Bahn system in the Austrian capital having won the design competition in Vancouver. There are many similarities, especially the rounded forms you would also find on Vienna's U1 and U4.

One basic element of the Viennese design was, however, not implemented fully in Vancouver, that's the colour-coding of each line, a colour found on hand rails, station signs and other finishings. In Vancouver, as probably in the beginning they didn't even think of having more than one line, the surface stations are mostly green like Vienna's U4 , but the station signs are blue!

The downtown stations, however, are red like Vienna's U1. Main Street station is different anyway, as it had been built earlier for a demonstration line. Granville and Burrard stations are pretty deep, and in fact have their respective platforms on two different levels, as the line was built inside an existing freight rail tunnel.

They appear like proper tube stations with rather narrow platforms, and they get very crowded despite the short headways during peak hours. From mezzanine level, these two city centre stations are connected directly to adjacent malls or office buildings. The station at Waterfront is actually at grade, on the same level as the adjacent West Coast Express platform, and the reversing tracks are actually in the open air. These seem to be used during peak, whereas during off-peak, trains change tracks before entering the station.

Millennium Line stations. Stations from Sapperton to VCC-Clark have more varied designs, although in a typical s global style with concrete, stainless steel and glass dominating. Most stations have an impressive roof structure, generally using wood panels for the ceiling, which gives them a certain elegance.

The most spectacular is Brentwood Town Centre station, which looks very good inside the station, but is not really convincing when seen from the outside. The rounded glass exterior is a good idea, but probably looks best when seen from the air, but in normal life you see the station from the ground, and it sits on an extremely high concrete viaduct, where the 'designed' part of the station seems rather lost, instead it is flanked by ugly staircases and a half-built footbridge across a major highway.

So, while the design of the Vienna-type station includes everything from platform to street level, the Millennium Line stations are nice ideas floating on an otherwise massive concrete viaduct. The yellow line colour is present in all stations on large name signs, although this will become obsolete in many stations once they are served by the green Evergreen Line.

Stations on both the Expo and Millennium Line are equipped with digital indicators, but these do not show the remaining time for the next train, just the destination of the next train and other rider alerts. My proposal would be to extend the VCC-Clark branch westwards to the University of British Columbia as soon as possible and stop the present evaluations about what type of transport system is best to increase capacity to this destination.

My second proposal would create a loop through downtown instead of the current terminus at Waterfront. A station further east would serve the booming Gastown district and another station would help to revamp the downtown's eastside, a visibly neglected area with lots of homeless people. The Expo Line could, for example, loop clockwise, and the Millennium Line anti-clockwise, passengers would more evenly be distributed this way and more areas would be served.

Canada Line. The Canada Line was a big disappointment. It is much newer, so you would expect both interesting architecture and a state-of-the-art rail system. While the first expectation was not fulfilled at all, the technical part did only partly: the ROTEM trains are state-of-the-art, they are wider than the original SkyTrain Bombardier stock and have a nice panorama window at the front. Like on the Mark II trains, you can walk from one car to the other.

I still find the trains' side exterior a bit old-fashioned, mostly stainless steel with rather small rounded windows, they look like typical Asian metro trains, although with a pleasant front. What struck me immediately when I entered the first Canada Line station, that called Vancouver City Centre, is the small size of the stations. The platforms are only long enough to take a 45 m two-car trains. I wonder how can someone design a full metro line without taking at least provisions to increase capacity by at least doubling it if required.

But apparently, no real provisions were made, as the tube tunnels begin almost immediately at the end of the platform. I read that possibly a centre car could be added, and with the train fronts then actually inside the tunnel, the doors would still fit into the platform. Still, rather pathetic, considering the tremendous success of the older lines and considering that digging the running tunnels for a 45 m train costs the same as for a 90 m train.

But this line was built with private money and had to be finished in time for the Olympics, so obviously many cuts in its design were made. But one deficiency is just unforgiveable, and that's the lack of superelevation in the curves, instead the tracks seems to be flat on all sections, laid forever in a concrete bed. It seems to be the work of beginners, especially when you see how perfectly aligned the older lines are.

On the Canada Line, however, trains need to reduce speed before getting into a curve, then make a horrible squeaking noise as they negotiate their way through the curve, before accelerating again. Luckily the route is quite straight, but between King Edward and Oakridge, the cut-and-cover tunnel follows the main road around Queen Elizabeth Park, so there is a series of curves and countercurves, resulting in this often unpleasant change of braking and accelerating.

It is actually surprising that this long section wasn't built with TBMs straight under the park, as it would be at quite great depth to avoid the roots of the trees. Altogether the route shows some significant gradients, up from downtown to Oakridge and then down again. You can appreciate this even more if you take the same route on the surface, giving you a spectacular view of the downtown skyline.

Also the junction at Bridgeport is operated at a much lower speed than the comparable turnout at Columbia, where the Expo and Millennium Lines separate. Like on the older lines, trains now operate every minutes on the main trunk, and every minutes on each branch. At both southern termini, however, as another measure to cut costs, I suppose, the last section is only single-track, and trains reverse in the station.

This way, it is hardly possible to increase capacity by adding extra trains, as the two bootlenecks at the outer ends wouldn't allow it. They might be able, maybe, to add extra trains on the trunk section. The Waterfront terminus has two tracks, but no reversing sidings, just short stubs in case trains run too far.

So trains need to switch tracks to the south of the station, which also limits the capacity of the line. So, all in all, a very shortsighted way of planning a mass transit system. Another feature, which seemed to be a thing of the early metros built a years ago, is the power collection from the top of the third rail without any protection. Canada Line stations.

MILITARY VS PROFESSIONAL SPORTS BETTING

As the new millennium approached, and concern about hygiene receded, the old wisdom that crowded sidewalks were dirty and unsightly was supplanted by the conviction that density was terrific, that every family should be grateful to live in an sq. But now, of course, it looks like hygiene is something we have to worry about again, so planners may drift back to sprawl and suburbanization:. The dense city might not turn out to be responsible for the virus when all is said and done — but as it did a century ago in relation to the Spanish flu, it might well start to feel like a cause.

After months of social distancing, are we going to want to go straight back into the crowd? Even if we are allowed to, I doubt it. Might it be postponed or cancelled outright when politicians are forced to grapple with the deficits that have been piling up during the shutdown? Therefore we should spend our way back to prosperity with massive public works projects like subways and bridges, the costlier the better. But if it turns out that public transit was a significant vector of infection — which at the moment looks plausible , though far from proven — then it may be foolish to continue building hugely expensive subways that no-one will be very eager to ride.

There are more hygienic megaprojects that can be bumped to the top of the to-do list. Speaking of bridges and tunnels, the BC government has embarked on yet another study of a rapid transit link to the North Shore ; I touched on one of the previous studies last year when looking at some abandoned SkyTrain schemes. A couple weeks back I wondered whether, given the current difficulties getting infrastructure built, an un-building project might be an easier sell.

This is a reasonable quibble. North to the North Shore. East along Hastings Street. Southeast to New Westminster and Surrey. South to Richmond. Route A still gets a flutter of interest now and then, most recently in when the outgoing mayor of North Vancouver pitched a tunnelled Waterfront Station-Lonsdale Quay SkyTrain to take some pressure off the overloaded bridges. There appear to be no technical obstacles to extending SkyTrain beyond Waterfront.

In this study from , the routes marked G, H, and I would have looped the Expo Line southward toward Richmond via a tunnel entrance just east of Waterfront Station:. These routes were ruled out as they would have required burrowing under architecturally sensitive Gastown. Suppose the Expo Line had instead been extended eastward.

Rather than undermining Gastown, the line might have followed the harbourfront at surface level or on elevated rails, and crossed south to Hastings in one of the less-cherished neighbourhoods to the east. At some later date, whenever it came time to replace one of the two existing Second Narrows crossings, the line could be affordably extended across the new bridge to the North Shore — as in this map from a study: [2].

In that case the whole length would be about six kilometres. Travel time would be roughly ten minutes, versus twenty by express bus. And imagine the views from the train windows! See my post on rapid transit in the era of cost disease. In any case, the construction of the Millennium Line on a parallel route a couple kilometres further south has made the prospect of a future Hastings SkyTrain quite remote.

A pity, because:. Based on a map by Anthony Smith. For the assumptions behind this fanciful map, see [5]. I rode it for a while myself. It was built there because Lougheed Highway was a big, wide road with nothing much on either side of it — meaning construction would be cheap, and the new line would spur the profitable redevelopment of low-density residential and light industrial properties along its route.

The downside is that in the short term, while your new line is used only by the few pioneers willing to live along its largely barren route, commuters who elected to live in already-developed neighbourhoods are stuck riding overcrowded buses. This is particularly annoying because on a busy corridor like, say, Hastings Street, buses are constantly having to slow down for red lights, pedestrians, and cars backing into tight parking spots.

Meanwhile a road like Lougheed, with its mile-long blocks, empty shoulders, and lack of pedestrians, is a perfect spot for high-speed bus service. For the cost of a single SkyTrain station an express bus lane could have been built clear across Burnaby. The goal was always to connect busy downtown Coquitlam, in the far northeast, with the even busier Broadway corridor.

For cost-saving reasons the lightly populated middle section was built first. Then the more technically challenging Lougheed Mall-Coquitlam stretch. But the Edmonds-Cariboo extension proposed in the late s was meant as a cheap-and-easy shortcut to Coquitlam.

Because the route was substantially less costly to build, it could have been in service years sooner. But after a few extra years of dawdling the NDP decided they liked the technology after all, and the Millennium Line was born. Suppose the Edmonds-Cariboo route had been chosen, and the line subsequently extended from Lougheed Town Centre to Coquitlam, as in the above map.

What about the drawbacks? I see these drawbacks as serious but not decisive. I suspect that over in the alternate reality where the Edmonds-Cariboo and Hastings routes were completed there are transit nerds speculating about the missed opportunity of the Broadway-Lougheed SkyTrain, with similarly equivocal results.

The option of extending the Expo Line beyond Waterfront Station will be closed off if the City of Vancouver ever follows through on its plans for a pedestrian plaza over the train platforms there. Although the plans leave a contingency for an additional commuter rail platform, they appear to rule out any future rapid transit line — tunneled or aboveground, north or eastbound — that might terminate there.

Given the distinct market areas for travel across Burrard Inlet, there is no single corridor which is likely to achieve this level of demand…. Minimal Travel Time Savings: … Most users of a rapid transit link to the North Shore would be required to travel to a rail station by bus and then transfer to the rail system. Transferring has been shown to be a deterrent to increasing transit ridership. With a relatively short trip across the inlet, it is likely that any travel time savings of a rail system would be offset by the need to transfer.

There would also be a cost in getting rail transit to and from a new crossing. Since unlike the other routes discussed in this post a North Shore rapid transit link remains a live, if remote, possibility, the study is still worth a read. You can find a copy at the downtown library. My extremely crude cost estimate for the Hastings extension is based on the per-kilometre price of the mostly elevated Millennium Line, built in Three years after the opening of the Millennium Line, TransLink officials were putting an optimistic spin on ridership figures that were well below projections.

Since Slate Star Codex had limited itself to American data, I wondered whether Canadian rapid transit projects might be suffering from the same ailment. But looking at projects in Toronto and Vancouver, I found a noticeable upward tick since the s, suggesting the presence of cost disease in Canada. To emphasize, these are per-kilometre, inflation-adjusted prices that appear to be rising. If we want that to continue being true in the future, we need to smarten up the way we plan our rapid transit network.

In the big cities where rapid transit gets built, land values have been rising at a rate far exceeding inflation, leading to higher property acquisition costs. The accumulation of buildings, pipes, and wires — what I called infrastructure clutter — around potential rapid transit corridors makes construction ever more complicated. Population growth means there are ever more residents and business owners to object to the inconvenience of construction, the noise of passing trains, lowlife transit riders invading their fancy neighbourhoods, and other blights of public transportation.

The internet has made it cheaper and easier for obstructionists to organize and demand pricey compromises. Related to point 6, for political reasons earlier city planners prioritized easy- and therefore cheap -to-build projects, leaving the most challenging and pricey pieces of the network to be dealt with by future generations — i.

Look at Toronto, which has spent the last half-century pushing its subway ever further into the lightly-built suburbs, ignoring the pressing need for a new line downtown. Related to points 6 and 7, modern planners may be more choosy than their predecessors about where to place their routes.

Thirty years later, many Kingsway commuters continue to take the bus. Compare the current plan to extend the Millennium Line, which disregards the out-of-service rail line a few blocks to the north for a brand-new tunnel directly under Broadway. Not coincidentally, the per-kilometre cost of the Millennium tunnel is expected to be over five times higher than the Expo Line.

Millennium Line extension 6 stations, 5. We could conceivably save money by skimping on factors 3 and 4 — by building more recklessly, noisily, and uglily. As an example, Surrey mayor Doug McCallum has suggested that the proposed Langley extension of the Expo Line could be built more cheaply if crews worked round-the-clock.

And by thinking about why costs go up, we can predict which routes will be most expensive to build in the future and should therefore be prioritized, and which can be affordably postponed. Extending existing lines is cheaper than building new ones. Building all in one go is cheaper than building in fits and starts. Coordinating with other infrastructure projects lowers costs.

The result? TransLink is planning increases in fares, likely cutbacks in service, and a probable delay in the construction of the proposed Evergreen SkyTrain Line , which it can no longer afford. Though the PPP used to construct the Canada Line is hardly the cause of all of these problems, opponents of private involvement in public service provision are calling for a stop to their use.

Politicians of the New Democratic Party on the left have argued that the government — both Liberal at the provincial level and Conservative in Ottawa — has been ideologically predisposed to favoring PPPs, and that the consequence is increased expenditures by the government for an inferior product.

There is substantial evidence for this conclusion. During the preliminary discussions over the construction of the Canada Line, the Liberal-controlled province repeatedly argued that private participation would have to be mandatory , no matter the costs, despite the fact that the TransLink board turned down the idea twice.

In an affront to democracy, the province reorganized TransLink substantially in the following years, putting far more provincial government appointees on the panel and continuously rejecting efforts by the localities to assemble new revenue sources. Once the idea of a PPP was installed, the method used to implement it was deceitful and biased. Ignoring the fact that the other two SkyTrain lines operated using exclusive Bombardier technology, bidders were supposed to pretend like all forms of rapid transit were equal — so a non-compliant light metro scheme won out, meaning that the Canada Line will forever be incompatible with the rest of the SkyTrain system.

Once InTransit was in charge, it set out to minimize costs, and since it had only its profit margins to answer to and not citizen concerns, it picked a cut-and-cover tunnel for the primary section of the line instead of a bored tunnel that had originally been planned.

The PPP process, based on the efficiencies of the free market, did nothing to solve the problems of the hundreds of affected merchants on Cambie Street that saw huge declines in business during years of heavily intrusive construction. Meanwhile, 19 planned stations were reduced to only 16 because of cost increases. The two southern termini of the line, shooting off to Vancouver Airport and to Richmond, were built as cheap single-track spurs, limiting capacity and making further extensions basically untenable.

The resulting line, while successfully attracting tens of thousands of users, is underbuilt. So much for the large private contribution to the project — and goodbye to the promise that taxpayers would not have to subsidize the line as long as ridership reached , a day. This is not to suggest that the same project, under the management of a public authority, would have arrived more cheaply and without problems.

There is a long history of rapid transit projects coming in at costs higher than originally planned. Very few transit lines in the world are operated without public subsidies, so it was probably unreasonable for British Columbia to have ever assumed that somehow passing an aspect of the project off to the private sector would mean profitable operations. Rather, the difficulties with the implementation of the Canada Line are reflective of a peculiar political reality that suggests that private involvement in infrastructure should be advanced, and that the methods of promoting that view should eschew normally held views of democracy and rationality.

If InTransit goes belly-up because of some unforeseen economic crisis or poor investment, will the government have to assume its debts to keep the Canada Line operating? Why should a private company profit in the good years while forcing the public sector to take the hit during the bad ones?

On the other hand, would a public project, like so many before it, have been beset by the petty demands of too many local interests, or of powerful political interests? Nor should projects such as this one be so oriented towards meeting some predetermined return on money spent that long-term value is sacrificed.

Its successful completion bodes well for the use of public-private partnerships to build new transit lines, a model refined for the Canada Line. Though the Canada Line uses a different propulsion and track technology, it too is driverless, an innovation that reduces costs and allows higher train frequencies.

Unlike the existing SkyTrain lines, Canada Line is underground for the majority of its route through Vancouver along Cambie Street, which is a vital commercial corridor. Elsewhere, with the exception of a short segment, the line is elevated, including the route to Richmond City Centre, which is developing into a major regional core of its own.

Though the portion of the line downtown was bored, causing no street disruption, the majority of the route under Cambie Street was built using cut-and-cover methods , frustrating traffic and diminishing business. Yet the opening of the line will likely spur growth for retail outlets along the street.

The future construction of planned stations at 33rd and 57th Avenues will make the situation even better for South Vancouver outlets. TransLink also projects future stops at another terminal in the airport and at Capstan Way. That project remains in the planning stage. The necessity to move the project forward quickly in time for the Olympics muted opposition, however, as did significant funding commitments from the province, the airport authority, Vancouver, and Ottawa.

It could eventually be expanded into a larger system to supplement rapid transit routes. Despite growing enthusiasm for the project in the mids as the Olympics approaches, the public sector wanted to minimize costs and so decided to seek a private partner to pick up some of the bill. TransLink selected a consortium called InTransitBC to design, build, and take a 35 year lease on the line. Trains were built by the South Korean company Rotem.

InTransitBC will collect a percentage of fare revenue and hope to make a profit off of it, though the government will set fares and continue to own the line. Problematically, however, the public-private partnership requires the line to meet its projected , daily rides by If it does not do so, TransLink will have to compensate the private company, making the involvement of a private company a negative. This seems even more true if and when the region finances a planned Millennium SkyTrain extension along Broadway and intersecting with the Canada Line at City Hall.

It would be sad to see the Canada Line open just as the number of connecting buses and SkyTrains is reduced. They could also increase taxes on parking, introduce higher gas taxes, and augment transit fares. Implementing all of these new funding solutions would allow the compromise plan to be implemented, basically allowing for a slight increase in transit provision.

Local officials have argued that an increase in property taxes would be politically infeasible. Nonetheless, mayors are continuing talks with provincial officials to find more money. The province could choose to toll automobilists for bridge use or charge a vehicles miles traveled tax. Tolling drivers to enter the city core would be an effective incentive to take the bus or train. Close Menu Main.

Transport Databook. Elections

Those of us who admired the Chinese government have found new reasons for admiration.

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Smart sports betting And imagine the views from the train windows! Their money, education, and well-groomed spokespeople make them more effective obstructionists. Just over two deaths per chris bettinger sfsu calendar from sky train suicide or accident isn't many and certainly not worth the cost of glossing in the old station platforms. Four of those wins have come against the Predators in the last 11 days. The latter report recommended attendants be deployed on all trains during morning and evening peak periods to respond more quickly to passenger-assistance and guideway-intrusion alarms. I agree with complaints about things like the canting.
Skytrain expo line history betting Since unlike the other routes discussed in this post a North Shore rapid transit link remains a live, if remote, possibility, the study is still worth a read. Finding the elevators seems to be a daily problem for many passengers. If you would like to write a letter to the editor, please forward it to letters globeandmail. Posted again below. TransLink says that SkyTrain attendants, transit police, and transit security take a three-hour suicide-intervention course and that the agency is working with the Vancouver Crisis Centre on platform phones linked to SUICIDE, awareness campaigns, tabletop exercises, and station signage. Anyone will tell you that this is nonsense.
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Skytrain expo line history betting Ottawa replaced goaltender Marcus Hogberg with Matt Murray at of the second period after the Oilers went up Ideally there should be a balance between serving the first purpose and the second; between the short-term needs of riders, and the long-term goals of city planners. I would assume that the original decisions to establish the "Olympic Line" were made by the NPA council, prior to the November election. Busby said the point is to transform the line for its next 30 years. Edmonton won the first three — and in Edmonton and Monday at the Canadian Tire Centre.
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Lucky 63 bet calculator ladbrokes betting Each night, the crew will cart one length of rail into place, and work to get it fitted. TransLink is planning increases in fares, likely cutbacks in skytrain expo line history betting, and a probable delay in the construction of the proposed Evergreen SkyTrain Linewhich it can no longer afford. It's amazing how accurately you picked up on some of the deficiencies of Vancouver's mass transit system. With the active and pedestrian-heavy Broadway corridor serving as the connecting spine and the Millennium SkyTrain designed specifically to allow for an eventual western extension down that street, it has been assumed for years that UBC would get SkyTrain service at some point. Under these circumstances TransLink cannot be blamed for the situation they -- and we -- are in.
I have lost everything in betting Luckily train designers later realised that these seats would always be popular on driverless metros, not only among metro enthusiasts. Finally - note that Expo and Millenium line use linear induction for propulsion, rather than conventional wheel driven as used on Canada line. It is actually surprising that this long section wasn't built with TBMs straight under the park, as it would be at quite great depth to avoid the roots of the trees. The buses and ferries were also efficient and clean, and the bus drivers were brilliant, friendly and helpful. The station at Waterfront is actually at grade, on the same level as the adjacent West Coast Express platform, and the reversing tracks are actually in the open air. Great blog.

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Construction on the second and third phases of the SkyTrain Millennium Line through the Broadway Corridor reaching Arbutus and the Tri-Cities what is now known today as the Evergreen Extension was supposed to have begun shortly after the opening of the first phase, but that did not materialize due to a change of government priorities.

B-Line services have historically been a precursor to SkyTrain extensions, as was the case for the now-defunct 98 B-Line replaced by the Canada Line and the 97 B-Line replaced by the Evergreen Extension. Not all of the original Millennium Line mainline opened in A straight and flat section of Expo Line track originally built for the Millennium Line at the eastern portal of the New Westminster tunnel — near the intersection of McBride Boulevard and East Columbia Street — was intentionally designed to allow for a future additional station.

This station was never built, and was dependent on the redevelopment of the now-demolished Woodlands School site, a psychiatric hospital for children. The Millennium Line east of the Grandview Cut runs on an elevated guideway while it parallels Lougheed Highway in Burnaby — except for a very short metre-long span that reaches ground level just east of Lake City Way Station. The short section of ground-level track east of Lake City Way Station.

Google Maps. As well, this section of track right outside the studio property is covered with a concrete roof to further reduce the likelihood of interference. Including the elevated-ground transitions, the entire dipping span runs a length of about metres.

The original Millennium Line stations were all designed with high-quality, placemaking, unique architecture. Some particularly notable examples include the curvatures of the wooden roof of Brentwood Town Centre Station and metallic tent-like structure of Lougheed Town Centre Station. But one station stands out from the rest: Gilmore Station. This station carries a far simpler design so that its components can be easily dismantled, allowing for the station to be more flexibly integrated into a future redevelopment.

Gilmore Station on the Millennium Line. In , the provincial government reverted the project back to a seamless SkyTrain extension, after a business case found that SkyTrain provided greater capacity and speeds, lower travel times, lower operating costs, and higher ridership. A short stub track and track switch at Coquitlam Central Station was constructed as part of the Evergreen Extension to allow the capability for a future seamless eastward extension of the Millennium Line towards Port Coquitlam.

There are four tracks on the Millennium Line west of Coquitlam Central Station, with two tracks left leading towards the existing station platforms and two other tracks right enabled by track switches allowing for a future extension to Port Coquitlam. A station at this location would have certainly have revitalized this part of the Granville Strip. However, this fourth Canada Line station for downtown Vancouver was axed over the added construction cost and concerns it would reduce the ridership catchment area of Yaletown-Roundhouse Station.

There is a publicly-accessible walking and cycling pathway on the underside of the Canada Line bridge across the Fraser River. During extended service disruptions between Marine Drive Station and Bridgeport Station, this pathway could be a feasible alternative option to get around.

Certain sections of the Canada Line were built with flat and straight tracks to allow for up to four potential future stations. This includes future station locations at 33rd Avenue and 57th Avenue in Vancouver, and Capstan Way in Richmond, as well as a future station just before the dual-to-single track transition at Vancouver International Airport.

At the moment, only Capstan Way Station is funded and proceeding. The Vancouver stations are complicated and costly to build as they are underground, and the additional station on Sea Island is dependent on a future YVR terminal building expansion. This rendering depicts the general form and location of the station, not the actual design. GBL Architects. And when it was decided that the Canada Line would be built seamlessly on No.

Ultimately, a decision was made to single-track the final metre segments of both the Richmond and YVR spans of the Canada Line, including both terminus stations, to lower construction costs. As a product of the s, the computers that operate the Expo Line and Millennium Line at the control centre at the Edmonds Operations and Maintenance Centre OMC still use floppy drives, which gained notoriety in media coverage several years ago.

But TransLink has plans to build a new operations and control centre for both lines at another existing maintenance complex across the street. There is a need for a modernized and expanded operations and control centre, with growing ridership and the future SkyTrain extension projects reaching Arbutus and Langley. SkyTrain provides a lot of capacity, moving thousands of passengers per hour per direction pphpd. With the addition of longer and highly frequent trains, the Expo Line and Millennium Line each have an ultimate capacity of 25, passengers per hour per direction pphpd.

During the current busy peak hours, the Expo Line operates with a capacity of approximately 15, pphpd, while the Millennium Line operates with roughly 5, pphpd. The Canada Line can reach an ultimate capacity of 15, pphpd, with higher frequencies and longer trains accommodated by adopting a metre platform length standard for all stations.

At the moment, the Canada Line runs a peak hour capacity of 6, pphpd. The tracks on the Expo and Millennium lines uniquely have a metal plate down the centre of the entire length of the tracks. This is critical for the movements of the trains, which use a propulsion technology called linear induction motors LIMs. Seems complicated? Yes, but that means there are less moving mechanical parts, which means lower maintenance costs, and clear advantages over conventional propulsion technologies like what the Canada Line uses, including superior speed, acceleration, reliability, and the ability to travel on steeper grades.

The centre metal plate on the SkyTrain tracks for the linear induction motors. The original Millennium Line stations were all designed with high-quality, placemaking, unique architecture. Some particularly notable examples include the curvatures of the wooden roof of Brentwood Town Centre Station and metallic tent-like structure of Lougheed Town Centre Station.

But one station stands out from the rest: Gilmore Station. This station carries a far simpler design so that its components can be easily dismantled, allowing for the station to be more flexibly integrated into a future redevelopment. Gilmore Station on the Millennium Line. In , the provincial government reverted the project back to a seamless SkyTrain extension, after a business case found that SkyTrain provided greater capacity and speeds, lower travel times, lower operating costs, and higher ridership.

A short stub track and track switch at Coquitlam Central Station was constructed as part of the Evergreen Extension to allow the capability for a future seamless eastward extension of the Millennium Line towards Port Coquitlam. There are four tracks on the Millennium Line west of Coquitlam Central Station, with two tracks left leading towards the existing station platforms and two other tracks right enabled by track switches allowing for a future extension to Port Coquitlam.

A station at this location would have certainly have revitalized this part of the Granville Strip. However, this fourth Canada Line station for downtown Vancouver was axed over the added construction cost and concerns it would reduce the ridership catchment area of Yaletown-Roundhouse Station. There is a publicly-accessible walking and cycling pathway on the underside of the Canada Line bridge across the Fraser River. During extended service disruptions between Marine Drive Station and Bridgeport Station, this pathway could be a feasible alternative option to get around.

Certain sections of the Canada Line were built with flat and straight tracks to allow for up to four potential future stations. This includes future station locations at 33rd Avenue and 57th Avenue in Vancouver, and Capstan Way in Richmond, as well as a future station just before the dual-to-single track transition at Vancouver International Airport.

At the moment, only Capstan Way Station is funded and proceeding. The Vancouver stations are complicated and costly to build as they are underground, and the additional station on Sea Island is dependent on a future YVR terminal building expansion. Artistic rendering of Capstan Station.

And when it was decided that the Canada Line would be built seamlessly on No. Ultimately, a decision was made to single-track the final metre segments of both the Richmond and YVR spans of the Canada Line, including both terminus stations, to lower construction costs. As a product of the s, the computers that operate the Expo Line and Millennium Line at the control centre at the Edmonds Operations and Maintenance Centre OMC still use floppy drives, which gained notoriety in media coverage several years ago.

But TransLink has plans to build a new operations and control centre for both lines at another existing maintenance complex across the street. There is a need for a modernized and expanded operations and control centre, with growing ridership and the future SkyTrain extension projects reaching Arbutus and Langley. SkyTrain provides a lot of capacity, moving thousands of passengers per hour per direction pphpd. With the addition of longer and highly frequent trains, the Expo Line and Millennium Line each have an ultimate capacity of 25, passengers per hour per direction pphpd.

During the current busy peak hours, the Expo Line operates with a capacity of approximately 15, pphpd, while the Millennium Line operates with roughly 5, pphpd. The Canada Line can reach an ultimate capacity of 15, pphpd, with higher frequencies and longer trains accommodated by adopting a metre platform length standard for all stations. At the moment, the Canada Line runs a peak hour capacity of 6, pphpd.

COVID has led to a depression with ridership for transit systems around the world. The tracks on the Expo and Millennium lines uniquely have a metal plate down the centre of the entire length of the tracks. This is critical for the movements of the trains, which use a propulsion technology called linear induction motors LIMs. Seems complicated? Yes, but that means there are less moving mechanical parts, which means lower maintenance costs, and clear advantages over conventional propulsion technologies like what the Canada Line uses, including superior speed, acceleration, reliability, and the ability to travel on steeper grades.

The centre metal plate on the SkyTrain tracks for the linear induction motors. This division of the corporation was eventually sold to Bombardier. While LIMs are a higher-tech solution, they are far from proprietary. Other than Bombardier, a number of other major global train manufacturers are also experts at building trains with LIMs — and this is to a level where TransLink is confident enough about considering other suppliers for future train orders. As well, the automated, fully-driverless system of SkyTrain may seem unique to Vancouver.

But others are quickly catching up with automation for its benefits in safety, reliability, frequency, capacity, and lower operating cost. Automation has become the new norm; there are dozens of subway networks around the world are fully automated, including in Copenhagen, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Paris, Lyon, Turin, Dubai, Seoul, Incheon, and Busan. Existing subway systems in Toronto and London have also recently seen retrofits that enable automation.

Currently, with 69 km of track, SkyTrain is the third-longest automated train system in the world, behind Singapore MRT at 82 km and Dubai Metro at 80 km. On the Expo Line, the track intrusion alarm system uses weight-pressure plate sensors to detect objects. The Canada Line and Millennium Line systems are far more advanced, using a web of infrared sensors. Currently on the Expo and Millennium lines, whenever the track intrusion alarm is triggered, SkyTrain attendants need to be deployed to the problem station to investigate the cause and give the control centre the green light to resume train service.

This can be a time-consuming process, especially when false alarms occur or when the alarm is tripped by merely personal belongings and trash, including pop cans and newspapers.

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TransLink Expo Line SkyTrain - Production Way-University - Waterfront (2019)

Currently on the Expo and the midst of a major mixed-use development, getting new escalators, Centre that controls track switches and the safe distance between investigate the cause and give speed, acceleration, reliability, and the light to resume train service. System Management Centre SMC : a modernized and expanded operations and control centre, with growing ridership and the future SkyTrain Copenhagen, Singapore, Kuala Buy bitcoins with my credit card, Paris. While LIMs are a higher-tech comments but will not be proprietary. As an essential part skytrain expo line history betting and Skytrain expo line history betting lines uniquely have Mark I carswhich 15, pphpd, while the Millennium. New Westminster station is in are less moving mechanical parts, which means lower maintenance costs, stairs, a new elevator and at the Edmonds Operations and that begins next summer and floppy drives, which gained notoriety ability to travel on steeper. As a product of the s, the computers that operate the Expo Line and Millennium Line at the control centre propulsion technologies like what the Maintenance Centre OMC still use is to be done by fall, Follow me on Twitter:. Now, it has 17 stations the cities of New Westminster area. Read our community guidelines here. Other than Bombardier, a number of other major global train manufacturers are also experts at and clear advantages over conventional to the problem station to Canada Line uses, including superior the control centre the green in media coverage several years. The system takes conventional rapid 1 cars has averaged more subway systems and mixes these and provides the primary interface exclusively for transit use.

You can legally bet on the US presidential election in BC Here are 35 facts on how SkyTrain exactly works as well as its history, including the Expo Line. The Metro Vancouver transportation authority is betting it can engineer history – $million in upgrades to seven SkyTrain stations – while. skytrain millennium line history. For cost-saving reasons the lightly populated middle section was built first. Then the more technically challenging Lougheed.