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His pastime in the summer months was to roll blocks of stone from the top of Monte Amiata, without caring what or whom they hit. His sons maintained a qualified supremacy for many years afterwards. I N treating of the chief dynasties of Italy, it is convenient to discuss the Aragonese, on account of its special character, apart from the rest.

The feudal system, which from the days of the Normans had survived in the form of a territorial supremacy of the Barons, gave a distinctive colour to the political constitution of Naples; while elsewhere in Italy, excepting only in the southern part of the ecclesiastical dominion, and in a few other districts, a direct tenure of land prevailed, and no hereditary powers were permitted by the law.

The great Alfonso, who reigned in Naples from onwards d. Unscrupulous financiers were long omnipotent at Court, till the bankrupt king robbed them of their spoils; a crusade was preached, as a pretext for taxing the clergy; the Jews were forced to save themselves from conversion and other oppressive measures by presents and the payment of regular taxes; when a great earthquake happening in the Abruzzi, the survivors were compelled to make good the contributions of the dead.

By such means Alfonso was able to entertain distinguished guests with unrivalled splendour; he found pleasure in ceaseless expense, even for the benefit of his enemies, and in rewarding literary work knew absolutely no measure. Ferrante, [69] who succeeded him, passed as his illegitimate son by a Spanish lady, but was not improbably the son of a half-caste Moor of Valentia.

Whether it was his blood or the plots formed against his life by the barons which embittered and darkened his nature, it is certain that he was equalled in ferocity by none among the princes of his time. Restlessly active, recognised as one of the most powerful political minds of the day, and free from the vices of the profligate, he concentrated all his powers, among which must be reckoned profound dissimulation and an irreconcileable spirit of vengeance, on the destruction of his opponents.

He had been wounded in every point in which a ruler is open to offence; for the leaders of the barons, though related to him by marriage, were yet the allies of his foreign enemies. Extreme measures became part of his daily policy. The means for this struggle with his barons, and for his external wars, were exacted in the same Mohammedan fashion which Frederick II.

Deficits were made up by forced loans, by executions and confiscations, by open simony, and by contributions levied on the ecclesiastical corporations. His victims were mostly men whom he had got into his power by treachery; some were even seized while guests at the royal table.

His conduct to his first minister, Antonello Petrucci, who had grown sick and grey in his service, and from whose increasing fear of death he extorted present after present, was literally devilish. At length the suspicion of complicity with the last conspiracy of the barons gave the pretext for his arrest and execution.

With him died Coppola. Even the genuine Spaniards seem to have almost always degenerated in Italy; but the end of this cross-bred house and gives clear proof of a want of blood. Ferrante died of mental care and trouble; Alfonso accused his brother Federigo, the only honest member of the family, of treason, and insulted him in the vilest manner. At length, though he had hitherto passed for one of the ablest generals in Italy, he lost his head and fled to Sicily, leaving his son, the younger Ferrante, a prey to the French and to domestic treason.

The despotism of the Dukes of Milan, whose government from the time of Giangaleazzo onwards was an absolute monarchy of the most thorough-going sort, shows the genuine Italian character of the fifteenth century. The last of the Visconti, Filippo Maria , is a character of peculiar interest, and of which fortunately an admirable description [72] has been left us. What a man of uncommon gifts and high position can be made by the passion of fear, is here shown with what may be called a mathematical completeness.

All the resources of the State were devoted to the one end of securing his personal safety, though happily his cruel egoism did not degenerate into a purposeless thirst for blood. He lived in the Citadel of Milan, surrounded by magnificent gardens, arbours, and lawns. For years he never set foot in the city, making his excursions only in the country, where lay several of his splendid castles; the flotilla which, drawn by the swiftest horses, conducted him to them along canals constructed for the purpose, was so arranged as to allow of the application of the most rigorous etiquette.

Whoever entered the citadel was watched by a hundred eyes; it was forbidden even to stand at the window, lest signs should be given to those without. All who were admitted among the personal followers of the Prince were subjected to a series of the strictest examinations; then, once accepted, were charged with the highest diplomatic commissions, as well as with the humblest personal services—both in this Court being alike honourable.

His safety lay in the fact that none of his servants trusted the others, that his Condottieri were watched and misled by spies, and that the ambassadors and higher officials were baffled and kept apart by artificially nourished jealousies, and in particular by the device of coupling an honest man with a knave.

His inward faith, too, rested upon opposed and contradictory systems; he believed in blind necessity, and in the influence of the stars, and offering prayers at one and the same time to helpers of every sort; [73] he was a student of the ancient authors, as well as of French tales of chivalry. And yet the same man, who would never suffer death to be mentioned in his presence, [74] and caused his dying favourites to be removed from the castle, that no shadow might fall on the abode of happiness, deliberately hastened his own death by closing up a wound, and, refusing to be bled, died at last with dignity and grace.

His step-son and successor, the fortunate Condottiere Francesco Sforza , see p. Never was the triumph of genius and individual power more brilliantly displayed than in him; and those who would not recognise his merit were at least forced to wonder at him as the spoilt child of fortune. The Milanese claimed it openly as an honour to be governed by so distinguished a master; when he entered the city the thronging populace bore him on horseback into the cathedral, without giving him the chance to dismount.

His wife was beautiful and virtuous, his children were like the angels of heaven; he was seldom ill, and all his chief wishes were fulfilled. And yet he was not without misfortune. His wife, out of jealousy, killed his mistress; his old comrades and friends, Troilo and Brunoro, abandoned him and went over to King Alfonso; another, Ciarpollone, he was forced to hang for treason; he had to suffer it that his brother Alessandro set the French upon him; one of his sons formed intrigues against him, and was imprisoned; the March of Ancona, which he had won in war, he lost again in the same way.

No man enjoys so unclouded a fortune, that he has not somewhere to struggle with adversity. He is happy who has but few troubles. Had he been able to see into the future, or been willing to stop and discuss the consequences of an uncontrolled despotism, one prevading fact would not have escaped his notice—the absence of all guarantee for the future. Those children, beautiful as angels, carefully and thoroughly educated as they were, fell victims, when they grew up, to the corruption of a measureless egoism.

Galeazzo Maria , solicitous only of outward effect, took pride in the beauty of his hands, in the high salaries he paid, in the financial credit he enjoyed, in his treasure of two million pieces of gold, in the distinguished people who surrounded him, and in the army and birds of chase which he maintained. To a handful of enthusiasts, at whose head stood Giov.

Andrea di Lampugnano, he seemed a tyrant too bad to live; they murdered him, [78] and thereby delivered the State into the power of his brothers, one of whom, Ludovico il Moro, threw his nephew into prison, and took the government into his own hands. From this usurpation followed the French intervention, and the disasters which befell the whole of Italy. The Moor is the most perfect type of the despot of that age, and, as a kind of natural product, almost disarms our moral judgment.

Notwithstanding the profound immorality of the means he employed, he used them with perfect ingenuousness; no one would probably have been more astonished than himself to learn, that for the choice of means as well as of ends a human being is morally responsible; he would rather have reckoned it as a singular virtue that, so far as possible, he had abstained from too free a use of the punishment of death.

He accepted as no more than his due the almost fabulous respect of the Italians for his political genius. In former years after he had overstrained the resources of his State, and at Cremona had ordered, out of pure expediency, a respectable citizen, who had spoken against the new taxes, to be quietly strangled.

Since that time, in holding audiences, he kept his visitors away from his person by means of a bar, so that in conversing with him they were compelled to speak at the top of their voices. The academy which he founded [84] served rather for his own purposes than for the instruction of scholars; nor was it the fame of the distinguished men who surrounded him which he heeded, so much as their society and their services.

The world lay open to him, as perhaps to no other mortal man of that day; and if proof were wanting of the loftier element in the nature of Ludovico Moro, it is found in the long stay of the enigmatic master at his court. After the fall of the Moor—he was captured in April by the French, after his return from his flight to Germany—his sons were badly brought up among strangers, and showed no capacity for carrying out his political testament.

The elder, Massimiliano, had no resemblance to him; the younger, Francesco, was at all events not without spirit. Milan, which in those years changed its rulers so often, and suffered so unspeakably in the change, endeavoured to secure itself against a reaction. In the year the French, retreating before the arms of Maximilian and the Spaniards, were induced to make a declaration that the Milanese had taken no part in their expulsion, and, without being guilty of rebellion, might yield themselves to a new conqueror.

The house of Gonzaga at Mantua and that of Montefeltro of Urbino were among the best ordered and richest in men of ability during the second half of the fifteenth century. The Gonzaga were a tolerably harmonious family; for a long period no murder had been known among them, and their dead could be shown to the world without fear. That Francesco, either as statesman or as soldier, should adopt a policy of exceptional honesty, was what neither the Emperor, nor Venice, nor the King of France could have expected or desired; but certainly since the battle at Taro , so far as military honour was concerned, he felt and acted as an Italian patriot, and imparted the same spirit to his wife.

Our judgment of her does not need to rest on the praises of the artists and writers who made the fair princess a rich return for her patronage; her own letters show her to us as a woman of unshaken firmness, full of kindliness and humorous observation. Bembo, Bandello, Ariosto, and Bernardo Tasso sent their works to this court, small and powerless as it was, and empty as they found its treasury. A more polished and charming circle was not to be seen in Italy, since the dissolution of the old Court of Urbino; and in one respect, in freedom of movement, the society of Ferrara was inferior to that of Mantua.

In artistic matters Isabella had an accurate knowledge, and the catalogue of her small but choice collection can be read by no lover of art without emotion. In the great Federigo , whether he were a genuine Montefeltro or not, Urbino possessed a brilliant representative of the princely order. Federigo had persons in his service; the arrangements of the court were as complete as in the capitals of the greatest monarchs, but nothing was wasted; all had its object, and all was carefully watched and controlled.

The court was no scene of vice and dissipation: it served as a school of military education for the sons of other great houses, the thoroughness of whose culture and instruction was made a point of honour by the Duke. The palace which he built, if not one of the most splendid, was classical in the perfection of its plan; there was placed the greatest of his treasures, the celebrated library. In the course of the same afternoon he would listen to a lecture on some classical subject, and thence would go to the monastery of the Clarisse and talk of sacred things through the grating with the abbess.

In the evening he would overlook the martial exercises of the young people of his court on the meadow of St. Francesco, known for its magnificent view, and saw to it well that all the feats were done in the most perfect manner. When Ludovico made the same calculation at Milan, he forgot the many grounds of hatred which existed against him. The government of the family of Este at Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio displays curious contrasts of violence and popularity.

Plots from without were incessant; the bastard of a bastard tried to wrest the crown from the lawful heir, Hercules I. This list of tragedies is closed by the plot of two bastards against their brothers, the ruling Duke Alfonso I.

The financial system in this State was of the most perfect kind, and necessarily so, since none of the large or second-rate powers of Italy were exposed to such danger and stood in such constant need of armaments and fortifications. If the rapid increase of the population be a measure of the prosperity actually attained, it is certainly a fact of importance that in the year , notwithstanding the wonderful extension of the capital, no houses were to be let.

But the indirect taxation, at all events, must have reached a point at which it could only just be borne. The Government, it is true, took measures of alleviation which were also adopted by other Italian despots, such as Galeazzo Maria Sforza: in time of famine corn was brought from a distance and seems to have been distributed gratuitously; [95] but in ordinary times it compensated itself by the monopoly, if not of corn, of many other of the necessaries of life—fish, salt meat, fruit, and vegetables, which last were carefully planted on and near the walls of the city.

The most considerable source of income, however, was the annual sale of public offices, a usage which was common throughout Italy, and about the working of which at Ferrara we have more precise information.

The gifts, however, did not consist of money, but of natural products. It was the pride of the duke [96] for all Italy to know that at Ferrara the soldiers received their pay and the professors of the University their salary not a day later than it was due; that the soldiers never dared lay arbitrary hands on citizen or peasant; that the town was impregnable to assault; and that vast sums of coined money were stored up in the citadel.

To keep two sets of accounts seemed unnecessary; the Minister of Finance was at the same time manager of the ducal household. The buildings erected by Borso , by Hercules I. Alfonso may perhaps have foreseen the fate which was in store for his charming little villas, the Belvedere with its shady gardens, and Montana with its fountains and beautiful frescoes. It is undeniable that the dangers to which these princes were constantly exposed developed in them capacities of a remarkable kind.

In so artificial a world only a man of consummate address could hope to succeed; each candidate for distinction was forced to make good his claims by personal merit and show himself worthy of the crown he sought. What European monarch of the time so laboured for his own culture as, for instance, Alfonso I.? His travels in France, England, and the Netherlands were undertaken for the purpose of study: by means of them he gained an accurate knowledge of the industry and commerce of these countries.

The Italian princes were not, like their contemporaries in the North, dependent on the society of an aristocracy which held itself to be the only class worth consideration, and which infected the monarch with the same conceit. In Italy the prince was permitted and compelled to know and to use men of every grade in society; and the nobility, though by birth a caste, were forced in social intercourse to stand upon their personal qualifications alone.

But this is a point which we shall discuss more fully in the sequel. The feeling of the Ferrarese towards the ruling house was a strange compound of silent dread, of the truly Italian sense of well-calculated interest, and of the loyalty of the modern subject: personal admiration was transformed into a new sentiment of duty. The government was well provided with spies, and the duke inspected personally the daily list of travellers which the innkeepers were strictly ordered to present.

Under Borso, [99] who was anxious to leave no distinguished stranger unhonoured, this regulation served a hospitable purpose; Hercules I. In Bologna, too, it was then the rule, under Giovanni II. Bentivoglio, that every passing traveller who entered at one gate must obtain a ticket in order to go out at another.

When Borso arrested in person his chief and confidential counsellors, when Hercules I. With one of his servants, however, Hercules let things go too far. The director of the police, or by whatever name we should choose to call him Capitano di Giustizia , was Gregorio Zampante of Lucca—a native being unsuited for an office of this kind.

Even the sons and brothers of the duke trembled before this man; the fines he inflicted amounted to hundreds and thousands of ducats, and torture was applied even before the hearing of a case: bribes were accepted from wealthy criminals, and their pardon obtained from the duke by false representations. He dared only eat pigeons bred in his own house, and could not cross the street without a band of archers and bravos. Of course it now rained satires—some of them in the form of sonnets, others of odes.

It was wholly in the spirit of this system that the sovereign imposed his own respect for useful servants on the court and on the people. Domenico, since the duke intended to be present. Indeed this official sympathy with princely emotion first came up in the Italian States.

Lyrical poets even went so far as to sing the illicit flames of their lawfully married lords, e. The poem in question [] betrays unconsciously the odious disposition of the Aragonese ruler; in these things too, he must needs be the most fortunate, else woe be to those who are more successful! That the greatest artists, for example Lionardo, should paint the mistresses of their patrons was no more than a matter of course.

But the house of Este was not satisfied with the praises of others; it undertook to celebrate them itself. In the Palazzo Schifanoja Borso caused himself to be painted in a series of historical representations, and Hercules kept the anniversary of his accession to the throne by a procession which was compared to the feast of Corpus Christi; shops were closed as on Sunday; in the centre of the line walked all the members of the princely house bastards included clad in embroidered robes.

Hercules I. Bojardo, as a wealthy country gentleman and high official, belonged to this class. At the time when Ariosto began to distinguish himself, there existed no court, in the true sense of the word, either at Milan or Florence, and soon there was none either at Urbino or at Naples. He had to content himself with a place among the musicians and jugglers of Cardinal Ippolito till Alfonso took him into his service. It was otherwise at a later time with Torquato Tasso, whose presence at court was jealously sought after.

I N face of this centralised authority, all legal opposition within the borders of the state was futile. The elements needed for the restoration of a republic had been for ever destroyed, and the field prepared for violence and despotism.

Strange judgments fall on these two so-called parties, which now served only to give an official sanction to personal and family disputes. An Italian prince, whom Agrippa of Nettesheim [] advised to put them down, replied that their quarrels brought him in more than 12, ducats a year in fines.

And when in the year , during the brief return of Ludovico Moro to his States, the Guelphs of Tortona summoned a part of the neighbouring French army into the city, in order to make an end once for all of their opponents, the French certainly began by plundering and ruining the Ghibellines, but finished by doing the same to their hosts, till Tortona was utterly laid waste.

It was a sign of the political delusion of the people that they not seldom believed the Guelphs to be the natural allies of the French and the Ghibellines of the Spaniards. France, after all her interventions, had to abandon the peninsula at last, and what became of Spain, after she had destroyed Italy, is known to every reader. But to return to the despots of the Renaissance.

A pure and simple mind, we might think, would perhaps have argued that, since all power is derived from God, these princes, if they were loyally and honestly supported by all their subjects, must in time themselves improve and lose all traces of their violent origin. But from characters and imaginations inflamed by passion and ambition, reasoning of this kind could not be expected.

Like bad physicians, they thought to cure the disease by removing the symptoms, and fancied that if the tyrant were put to death, freedom would follow of itself. Or else, without reflecting even to this extent, they sought only to give a vent to the universal hatred, or to take vengeance for some family misfortune or personal affront. Since the governments were absolute, and free from all legal restraints, the opposition chose its weapons with equal freedom.

No, for he is the enemy of the commonwealth. Against him I may use arms, conspiracies, spies, ambushes and fraud; to do so is a sacred and necessary work. There is no more acceptable sacrifice than the blood of a tyrant. So well was the tyrant guarded that it was almost impossible to lay hands upon him elsewhere than at solemn religious services; and on no other occasion was the whole family to be found assembled together.

There was no intentional impiety in the act; the assassins of Galeazzo did not fail to pray before the murder to the patron saint of the church, and to listen devoutly to the first mass. It was, however, one cause of the partial failure of the conspiracy of the Pazzi against Lorenzo and Guiliano Medici , that the brigand Montesecco, who had bargained to commit the murder at a banquet, declined to undertake it in the Cathedral of Florence.

As to the imitation of antiquity, the influence of which on moral, and more especially on political, questions we shall often refer to, the example was set by the rulers themselves, who, both in their conception of the state and in their personal conduct, took the old Roman empire avowedly as their model. In like manner their opponents, when they set to work with a deliberate theory, took pattern by the ancient tyrannicides. It may be hard to prove that in the main point—in forming the resolve itself—they consciously followed a classical example; but the appeal to antiquity was no mere phrase.

Suspicion was soon aroused against him: he was banished from the city, and his pupils were abandoned to the fanaticism he had excited. Stephen, in whose church it was fulfilled. Many of their comrades were now informed of the plot, nightly meetings were held in the house of Lampugnani, and the conspirators practised for the murder with the sheaths of their daggers.

But however idealistic the object and purpose of such conspiracies may appear, the manner in which they were conducted betrays the influence of that worst of all conspirators, Catiline—a man in whose thoughts freedom had no place whatever. The annals of Siena tells us expressly that the conspirators were students of Sallust, and the fact is indirectly confirmed by the confession of Olgiati. Among the Florentines, whenever they got rid of, or tried to get rid of, the Medici, tyrannicide was a practice universally accepted and approved.

Pietro Paolo Boscoli, whose plot against Guiliano, Giovanni, and Guilio Medici failed , was an enthusiastic admirer of Brutus, and in order to follow his steps, only waited to find a Cassius. His last utterances in prison [] —a striking evidence of the religious feeling of the time—show with what an effort he rid his mind of these classical imaginations, in order to die like a Christian. A friend and the confessor both had to assure him that St. Thomas Aquinas condemned conspirators absolutely; but the confessor afterwards admitted to the same friend that St.

Thomas drew a distinction and permitted conspiracies against a tyrant who had forced himself on a people against their will. Others, on the same occasion, made use of the comparison with Brutus, and that Michael Angelo himself, even late in life, was not unfriendly to ideas of this kind, may be inferred from his bust of Brutus in the Uffizi.

A popular radicalism in the form in which it is opposed to the monarchies of later times, is not to be found in the despotic states of the Renaissance. Each individual protested inwardly against despotism, but was rather disposed to make tolerable or profitable terms with it, than to combine with others for its destruction. Things must have been as bad as at Camerino, Fabriano, or Rimini p. They knew in most cases only too well that this would but mean a change of masters.

The star of the Republics was certainly on the decline. T HE Italian municipalities had, in earlier days, given signal proof of that force which transforms the city into the state. It remained only that these cities should combine in a great confederation; and this idea was constantly recurring to Italian statesmen, whatever differences of form it might from time to time display. In fact, during the struggles of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, great and formidable leagues actually were formed by the cities; and Sismondi ii.

But the more powerful states had already developed characteristic features which made any such scheme impracticable. In their commercial dealings they shrank from no measures, however extreme, which might damage their competitors; they held their weaker neighbours in a condition of helpless dependence—in short, they each fancied they could get on by themselves without the assistance of the rest, and thus paved the way for future usurpation.

The usurper was forthcoming when long conflicts between the nobility and the people, and between the different factions of the nobility, had awakened the desire for a strong government, and when bands of mercenaries ready and willing to sell their aid to the highest bidder had superseded the general levy of the citizens which party leaders now found unsuited to their purposes.

Among the cities which maintained their independence are two of deep significance for the history of the human race: Florence, the city of incessant movement, which has left us a record of the thoughts and aspirations of each and all who, for three centuries, took part in this movement, and Venice, the city of apparent stagnation and of political secrecy. No contrast can be imagined stronger than that which is offered us by these two, and neither can be compared to anything else which the world has hitherto produced.

Venice recognised itself from the first as a strange and mysterious creation—the fruits of a higher power than human ingenuity. The solemn foundation of the city was the subject of a legend. On March 25, , at mid-day the emigrants from Padua laid the first stone at the Rialto, that they might have a sacred, inviolable asylum amid the devastations of the barbarians. Later writers attributed to the founders the presentiment of the future greatness of the city; M.

Now we kneel before a poor altar; but if our vows are not made in vain, a hundred temples, O God, of gold and marble shall arise to Thee. He takes us to the crowded Piazza before S. Giacometto at the Rialto, where the business of the world is transacted, not amid shouting and confusion, but with the subdued hum of many voices; where in the porticos round the square [] and in those of the adjoining streets sit hundreds of money-changers and goldsmiths, with endless rows of shops and warehouses above their heads.

He describes the great Fondaco of the Germans beyond the bridge, where their goods and their dwellings lay, and before which their ships are drawn up side by side in the canal; higher up is a whole fleet laden with wine and oil, and parallel with it, on the shore swarming with porters, are the vaults of the merchants; then from the Rialto to the square of St. So he conducts the reader from one quarter of the city to another till he comes at last to the two hospitals which were among those institutions of public utility nowhere so numerous as at Venice.

Care for the people, in peace as well as in war, was characteristic of this government, and its attention to the wounded, even to those of the enemy, excited the admiration of other states. Wealth, political security, and acquaintance with other countries, had matured the understanding of such questions. These slender fair-haired men, [] with quiet cautious steps, and deliberate speech, differed but slightly in costume and bearing from one another; ornaments, especially pearls, were reserved for the women and girls.

In the last quarter of the fifteenth century there were traitors among the highest officials; [] the popes, the Italian princes, and even second-rate Condottieri in the service of the government had informers in their pay, sometimes with regular salaries; things went so far that the Council of Ten found it prudent to conceal important political news from the Council of the Pregadi, and it was even supposed that Ludovico Moro had control of a definite number of votes among the latter.

Whether the hanging of single offenders and the high rewards—such as a life-pension of sixty ducats paid to those who informed against them—were of much avail, it is hard to decide; one of the chief causes of this evil, the poverty of many of the nobility, could not be removed in a day. We can understand why some of the wealthier nobles built houses, sometimes whole rows of them, to provide free lodging for their needy comrades. Such works figure in wills among deeds of charity.

But if the enemies of Venice ever founded serious hopes upon abuses of this kind, they were greatly in error. It might be thought that the commercial activity of the city, which put within reach of the humblest a rich reward for their labour, and the colonies on the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean, would have diverted from political affairs the dangerous elements of society.

But had not the political history of Genoa, notwithstanding similar advantages, been of the stormiest? The cause of the stability of Venice lies rather in a combination of circumstances which were found in union nowhere else. Unassailable from its position, it had been able from the beginning to treat of foreign affairs with the fullest and calmest reflection, and ignore nearly altogether the parties which divided the rest of Italy, to escape the entanglement of permanent alliances, and to set the highest price on those which it thought fit to make.

The keynote of the Venetian character was, consequently, a spirit of proud and contemptuous isolation, which, joined to the hatred felt for the city by the other states of Italy, gave rise to a strong sense of solidarity within. The inhabitants meanwhile were united by the most powerful ties of interest in dealing both with the colonies and with the possessions on the mainland, forcing the population of the latter, that is, of all the towns up to Bergamo, to buy and sell in Venice alone.

And the discontented, if there were such, were held so far apart by the division between the noble and the burgher, that a mutual understanding was not easy. On the other hand, within the ranks of the nobility itself, travel, commercial enterprise, and the incessant wars with the Turks saved the wealthy and dangerous from that fruitful source of conspiracies—idleness.

And when envy and ambition called for satisfaction an official victim was forthcoming, and legal means and authorities were ready. The moral torture, which for years the Doge Francesco Foscari d. The Council of Ten, which had a hand in everything, which disposed without appeal of life and death, of financial affairs and military appointments, which included the Inquisitors among its number, and which overthrew Foscari, as it had overthrown so many powerful men before,—this Council was yearly chosen afresh from the whole governing body, the Gran Consilio, and was consequently the most direct expression of its will.

It is not probable that serious intrigues occurred at these elections, as the short duration of the office and the accountability which followed rendered it an object of no great desire. But violent and mysterious as the proceedings of this and other authorities might be, the genuine Venetian courted rather than fled their sentence, not only because the Republic had long arms, and if it could not catch him might punish his family, but because in most cases it acted from rational motives and not from a thirst for blood.

If traitors were to be found among the Pregadi, there was ample compensation for this in the fact that every Venetian away from home was a born spy for his government. It was a matter of course that the Venetian cardinals at Rome sent home news of the transactions of the secret papal consistories. The Cardinal Domenico Grimani had the despatches intercepted in the neighbourhood of Rome which Ascanio Sforza was sending to his brother Ludovico Moro, and forwarded them to Venice; his father, then exposed to a serious accusation, claimed public credit for this service of his son before the Gran Consilio; in other words, before all the world.

The conduct of the Venetian government to the Condottieri in its pay has been spoken of already. The only further guarantee of their fidelity which could be obtained lay in their great number, by which treachery was made as difficult as its discovery was easy. In looking at the Venetian army list, one is only surprised that among forces of such miscellaneous composition any common action was possible. In the catalogue for the campaign of we find 15, horsemen, broken up into a number of small divisions.

These forces were partly composed of old Venetian troops, partly of veterans led by Venetian city or country nobles; the majority of the leaders were, however, princes and rulers of cities or their relatives. To these forces must be added 24, infantry—we are not told how they were raised or commanded—with 3, additional troops, who probably belonged to the special services.

Venice relied, if not exactly on the loyalty, at least on the good sense of its subjects; in the war of the League of Cambray it absolved them, as is well known, from their oath of allegiance, and let them compare the amenities of a foreign occupation with the mild government to which they had been accustomed. As there had been no treason in their desertion of St.

Mark, and consequently no punishment was to be feared, they returned to their old masters with the utmost eagerness. The Venetians, in fact, were not free from the mistake of those over-clever people who will credit their opponents with no irrational and inconsiderate conduct. The hatred of all Italy against the victorious city seemed to be concentrated in the mind of the Pope, and to have blinded him to the evils of foreign intervention; and as to the policy of Cardinal Amboise and his king, Venice ought long before to have recognised it as a piece of malicious imbecility, and to have been thoroughly on its guard.

The other members of the League took part in it from that envy which may be a salutary corrective to great wealth and power, but which in itself is a beggarly sentiment. Venice came out of the conflict with honour, but not without lasting damage. A power, whose foundations were so complicated, whose activity and interests filled so wide a stage, cannot be imagined without a systematic oversight of the whole, without a regular estimate of means and burdens, of profits and losses.

The feudal state of the Middle Ages knew of nothing more than catalogues of signorial rights and possessions Urbaria ; it looked on production as a fixed quantity, which it approximately is, so long as we have to do with landed property only.

The towns, on the other hand, throughout the West must from very early times have treated production, which with them depended on industry and commerce, as exceedingly variable; but, even in the most flourishing times of the Hanseatic League, they never got beyond a simple commercial balance-sheet.

In the Italian States a clear political consciousness, the pattern of Mohammedan administration, and the long and active exercise of trade and commerce, combined to produce for the first time a true science of statistics. In Venice, on the contrary, the supreme objects were the enjoyment of life and power, the increase of inherited advantages, the creation of the most lucrative forms of industry, and the opening of new channels for commerce.

The writers of the time speak of these things with the greatest freedom. About this time, [] when the Florentines wished to form an alliance with Venice against Filippo Maria Visconti, they were for the moment refused, in the belief, resting on accurate commercial returns, that a war between Venice and Milan, that is, between seller and buyer, was foolish.

Even if the duke simply increased his army, the Milanese, through the heavier taxation they must pay, would become worse customers. It contains the chief elements of a statistical account of the whole resources of Venice. I cannot say whether or where a thorough elucidation of this perplexing document exists; by way of illustration, the following facts may be quoted. To these must be added 16, shipwrights. The houses in Venice were valued at seven millions, and brought in a rent of half a million.

If Venice, by this spirit of calculation, and by the practical turn which she gave it, was the first fully to represent one important side of modern political life, in that culture, on the other hand, which Italy then prized most highly she did not stand in the front rank. The literary impulse, in general, was here wanting, and especially that enthusiasm for classical antiquity which prevailed elsewhere.

Literature, in fact, like the rest at Venice, had mostly a practical end in view. The library which Cardinal Bessarion bequeathed to the state narrowly escaped dispersion and destruction. Learning was certainly cultivated at the University of Padua, where, however, the physicians and the jurists—the latter as the authors of legal opinions—received by far the highest pay.

The share of Venice in the poetical creations of the country was long insignificant, till, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, her deficiences were made good. But we find more striking instances still of intellectual backwardness.

This Government, which had the clergy so thoroughly in its control, which reserved to itself the appointment to all important ecclesiastical offices, and which, one time after another, dared to defy the court of Rome, displayed an official piety of a most singular kind. We shall say nothing of the piety of the masses, and of their firm belief in the indulgences of an Alexander VI. They were almost all festivals in memory of political events, and competed in splendour with the great feasts of the Church; the most brilliant of all, the famous marriage with the sea, fell on Ascension Day.

The most elevated political thought and the most varied forms of human development are found united in the history of Florence, which in this sense deserves the name of the first modern state in the world. Here the whole people are busied with what in the despotic cities is the affair of a single family. That wondrous Florentine spirit, at once keenly critical and artistically creative, was incessantly transforming the social and political condition of the state, and as incessantly describing and judging the change.

Florence thus became the home of political doctrines and theories, of experiments and sudden changes, but also, like Venice, the home of statistical science, and alone and above all other states in the world, the home of historical representation in the modern sense of the phrase.

The spectacle of ancient Rome and a familiarity with its leading writers were not without influence; Giovanni Villani [] confesses that he received the first impulse to his great work at the jubilee of the year , and began it immediately on his return home. Yet how many among the , pilgrims of that year may have been like him in gifts and tendencies and still did not write the history of their native cities! Our present task is not to write the history of this remarkable state, but merely to give a few indications of the intellectual freedom and independence for which the Florentines were indebted to this history.

In no other city of Italy were the struggles of political parties so bitter, of such early origin, and so permanent. The descriptions of them, which belong, it is true, to a somewhat later period, give clear evidence of the superiority of Florentine criticism. And what a politician is the great victim of these crises, Dante Alighieri, matured alike by home and by exile!

He uttered his scorn of the incessant changes and experiments in the constitution of his native city in verses of adamant, which will remain proverbial so long as political events of the same kind recur; [] he addressed his home in words of defiance and yearning which must have stirred the hearts of his countrymen. But his thoughts ranged over Italy and the whole world; and if his passion for the Empire, as he conceived it, was no more than an illusion, it must yet be admitted that the youthful dreams of a new-born political speculation are in his case not without a poetical grandeur.

He is proud to be the first who had trod this path, [] certainly in the footsteps of Aristotle, but in his own way independently. His ideal emperor is a just and humane judge, dependent on God only, the heir of the universal sway of Rome to which belonged the sanction of nature, of right and of the will of God. The conquest of the world was, according to this view, rightful, resting on a divine judgment between Rome and the other nations of the earth, and God gave his approval to this empire, since under it he became Man, submitting at his birth to the census of the Emperor Augustus, and at his death to the judgment of Pontius Pilate.

In his letters he appears as one of the earliest publicists, [] and is perhaps the first layman to publish political tracts in this form. He began early. On this point we shall have more to say in the sequel. To the two Villani, Giovanni as well as Matteo, we owe not so much deep political reflexion as fresh and practical observations, together with the elements of Florentine statistics and important notices of other states.

Here too trade and commerce had given the impulse to economical as well as political science. Nowhere else in the world was such accurate information to be had on financial affairs. Then follow the statistics of the churches and monasteries; of the hospitals, which held more than a thousand beds; of the wool-trade, with its most valuable details; of the mint, the provisioning of the city, the public officials, and so on. This statistical view of things was at a later time still more highly cultivated at Florence.

The noteworthy point about it is that, as a rule, we can perceive its connection with the higher aspects of history, with art, and with culture in general. The Venetian statistics quoted above p. But no reader can fail to recognise the higher spirit of the Florentine documents. These and similar lists recur at intervals of ten years, systematically arranged and tabulated, while elsewhere we find at best occasional notices.

We can form an approximate estimate of the property and the business of the first Medici; they paid for charities, public buildings, and taxes from to no less than , gold florins, of which more than , fell on Cosimo alone, and Lorenzo Magnifico was delighted that the money had been so well spent.

It has been rightly decided to publish selections of these works, [] although no little study will be needed to extract clear and definite results from them. At all events, we have no difficulty in recognising the city, where dying parents begged the Government in their wills to fine their sons 1, florins if they declined to practise a regular profession. For the first half of the sixteenth century probably no state in the world possesses a document like the magnificent description of Florence by Varchi.

This statistical estimate of outward life is, however, uniformly accompanied by the narrative of political events to which we have already referred. It is a faithful mirror of the relations of individuals and classes to a variable whole. The pictures of the great civic democracies in France and in Flanders, as they are delineated in Froissart, and the narratives of the German chroniclers of the fourteenth century, are in truth of high importance; but in comprehensiveness of thought and in the rational development of the story, none will bear comparison with the Florentines.

The rule of the nobility, the tyrannies, the struggles of the middle class with the proletariate, limited and unlimited democracy, pseudo-democracy, the primacy of a single house, the theocracy of Savonarola, and the mixed forms of government which prepared the way for the Medicean despotism—all are so described that the inmost motives of the actors are laid bare to the light. It lies without our province to determine whether and in what points Macchiavelli may have done violence to history, as is notoriously the case in his life of Castruccio Castracane—a fancy picture of the typical despot.

And his contemporaries and successors, Jacopo Pitti, Guicciardini, Segni, Varchi, Vettori, what a circle of illustrious names! And what a story it is which these masters tell us! The great and memorable drama of the last decades of the Florentine republic is here unfolded. The voluminous record of the collapse of the highest and most original life which the world could then show may appear to one but as a collection of curiosities, may awaken in another a devilish delight at the shipwreck of so much nobility and grandeur, to a third may seem like a great historical assize; for all it will be an object of thought and study to the end of time.

The evil, which was for ever troubling the peace of the city, was its rule over once powerful and now conquered rivals like Pisa—a rule of which the necessary consequence was a chronic state of violence. The only remedy, certainly an extreme one and which none but Savonarola could have persuaded Florence to accept, and that only with the help of favourable chances, would have been the well-timed resolution of Tuscany into a federal union of free cities.

At a later period this scheme, then no more than the dream of a past age, brought a patriotic citizen of Lucca to the scaffold. But who does not admire the people, which was wrought up by its venerated preacher to a mood of such sustained loftiness, that for the first time in Italy it set the example of sparing a conquered foe, while the whole history of its past taught nothing but vengeance and extermination?

The glow which melted patriotism into one with moral regeneration may seem, when looked at from a distance, to have soon passed away; but its best results shine forth again in the memorable siege of It would no doubt have preserved its splendid suburbs and gardens, and the lives and prosperity of countless citizens; but it would have been the poorer by one of its greatest and most ennobling memories.

In many of their chief merits the Florentines are the pattern and the earliest type of Italians and modern Europeans generally; they are so also in many of their defects. When Dante compares the city which was always mending its constitution with the sick man who is continually changing his posture to escape from pain, he touches with the comparison a permanent feature of the political life of Florence. The great modern fallacy that a constitution can be made, can be manufactured by a combination of existing forces and tendencies, [] was constantly cropping up in stormy times; even Macchiavelli is not wholly free from it.

The world since then has become used to these expressions and given them a conventional European sense, whereas all former party names were purely national, and either characterised the cause at issue or sprang from the caprice of accident. But how a name colours or discolours a political cause!

But of all who thought it possible to construct a state, the greatest beyond all comparison was Macchiavelli. No man could be freer from vanity or ostentation; indeed, he does not write for the public, but either for princes and administrators or for personal friends. The danger for him does not lie in an affectation of genius or in a false order of ideas, but rather in a powerful imagination which he evidently controls with difficulty. The objectivity of his political judgment is sometimes appalling in its sincerity; but it is the sign of a time of no ordinary need and peril, when it was a hard matter to believe in right, or to credit others with just dealing.

Virtuous indignation at his expense is thrown away upon us who have seen in what sense political morality is understood by the statesmen of our own century. Macchiavelli was at all events able to forget himself in his cause. In truth, although his writings, with the exception of very few words, are altogether destitute of enthusiasm, and although the Florentines themselves treated him at last as a criminal, [] he was a patriot in the fullest meaning of the word.

But free as he was, like most of his contemporaries, in speech and morals, the welfare of the state was yet his first and last thought. His most complete programme for the construction of a new political system at Florence is set forth in the memorial to Leo X. He recognises, for example, the law of a continuous though not uniform development in republican institutions, and requires the constitution to be flexible and capable of change, as the only means of dispensing with bloodshed and banishments.

With a masterly hand the tardy and involuntary decisions are characterised, which at critical moments play so important a part in republican states. It would be unreasonable to draw a parallel between the few other republics which still existed in the fifteenth century and this unique city—the most important workshop of the Italian, and indeed of the modern European spirit.

Siena suffered from the gravest organic maladies, and its relative prosperity in art and industry must not mislead us on this point. Indeed, the inhabitant of the Riviera was proverbial among Italians for his contempt of all higher culture. Lucca is of small significance in the fifteenth century. A S the majority of the Italian states were in their internal constitution works of art, that is, the fruit of reflection and careful adaptation, so was their relation to one another and to foreign countries also a work of art.

That nearly all of them were the result of recent usurpations, was a fact which exercised as fatal an influence in their foreign as in their internal policy. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lewiston, ME.

Egidio Altomonte alias Giddio Altimonto was born in the village of Oriolo in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Frankfort, NY. Samuel Aluzzo was bornin or about Emigrated to America he settled in Fulton, NY. Giovanni Amato was born in the village of San Polito Sannitico in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Seigfried, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Greensburg, PA.

Fioravante Amendola alias Fioravanto Amendola was born in the village of Gragnano in or about to Antonio Amendola. He emigrated to America in and settled in Newark, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in Philadelphia, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Reynoldsville, WV.

Emigrated to America he settled in Salem, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Urbana, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Cleveland, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Buffalo, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lawrence, MA.

Salvatore Andreucci was born in the village of Caporciano in or about to Antonio and Gerarda Cassiani. He emigrated to America in and settled in Williamsburg, PA. Antonio Andricciola alias Antonio Andricciolo was born in the village of Sambiase in or about to Giovanni Andricciola. Antonio Aneofruata was born in the village of Biancavilla in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Lawrence, MA.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Waterbury, CT. He emigrated to America in and settled in Bristol, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Meadowland, PA. Giovanni Angelini was born in the village of Pieve Fosciana in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Seattle, WA. Bartolomeo Angeloni alias Bartolomeo Angelo was born in the village of Scoppito in or about to Giuliano Angeloni.

Vito Angileri was born in the village of Marsala in or about to Stefano Angileri. Emigrated to America he settled in Flint, MI. Natale Angiulli was born in the village of Alberobello in or about to Francesco and Paola Pizzolla. Antonio Angrisani alias William A. Emigrated to America he settled in Woonsocket, RI.

Alfredo Annunziata was born in the village of Poggiomarino in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Kulpmont, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Milford, NH. Emidio Antonelli was born in the village of Vastogirardi in or about to Michele and Lucia Alleva. He emigrated to America in and settled in Liberty, PA.

Guido Antonelli was born in the village of Norcia Ancarano in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Auburn, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lewistown, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Seymour, CT. He emigrated to America in and settled in Camden, NJ. Giuseppe Apicella was born in the village of Tramonti in or about to Salvatore and Lucia Giordano. He emigrated to America in and settled in Leomister, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Marion, OH.

Giovanni Arcioni was born in the village of Poggiodomo in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Trenton, NJ. Carmine Arcuri was born in the village of Acri in or about to Antonio Arcuri. Salvatore Ardito was born in the village of Calatafimi in or about to Arcangelo and Pietra Lena. He emigrated to America in and settled in Summit, NJ. Orazio Ardizzi was born in the village of Montorio al Vomano in or about Gaetano Arena was born in the village of Atripalda in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Shelton, CT.

Cristoforo Arena alias Christ Arena was born in the village of Valguarnera Carapepe in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Rochester, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Franklin, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in Gloversville, NY. Pasquale Arnieri was born in the village of Rovito in or about to Michele Arnieri.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Springfield, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Cliffside, NJ. Nicola Arpaia was born in the village of Irsina in or about to Luca Arpaia. Antonino Arrigo was born in the village of Saponara Villafranca in or about to Francesco Arrigo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Inwood, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Washington, PA.

Elia Atriano was born in the village of Teramo in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Arnold, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Mansfield, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Flushing, NY. Alessandro Aurilio alias Alessandro Durillo was born in the village of Bellona in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Proctor, VT.

Giuseppe Ausiello alias Giuseppe Ausilio was born in the village of Cascano in or about Calogero Avanzato alias Charles Avanzato was born in the village of Naro in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Billings, MT. He emigrated to America in and settled in Donora, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Peckville, PA. Pasquale Balassone was born in the village of Sulmona in or about to Salvatore and Maria Pacella. Silvio Baldassarre was born in the village of Rosciano in or about to Tommaso and Maria Petania.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Lyons, NY. Giovanni Baldo was born in the village of Perito in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Baltimore, MD. Domenico Balma Tivola was born in the village of Rocca Canavese in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Radley, KS.

Giacomo Baratta was born in the village of Villardora in or about to Michele Baratta. He emigrated to America in and settled in Hanford, CA. Giovanni Barbarino was born in the village of Augusta in or about Giuseppe Barbarone was born in the village of Calabellotta in or about to Michele Barbarone.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Livonia, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Winchester, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Hartford, CT. Serafino Barberini was born in the city of Bobia Bobbio? Emigrated to America he settled in Rillton, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Garfield, NJ. Francesco Barozzi was born in the village of Monfestino in or about to Giuseppe and Domenica Gualtieri. Emigrated to America he settled in Norris, IL. Pasquale Barrasso was born in the village of Grottaminarda in or about to Antonio Barrasso.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Haverhill, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Sanger, CA. Domenico Bartolomucci was born in the village of Barisciano in or about to Giuseppe and Maria Pacifico. He emigrated to America in and settled in Export, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Ballston, NY. Achille Barufaldi was born in the village of Vimogno in or about to Giovanni and Domenica Artusi. He emigrated to America in and settled in Morgan, PA.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Hoboken, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Chester, PA. Eduardo Basile alias Edward L. Federico Basile alias Fred Basili was born in the village of Montauro in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Utica, NY.

Emigrated to America he settled in Johnstown, PA. Mariano Bassetta alias Mariano Bassetti was born in the village of Calascibetta in or about to Giovanni Bassetta. He emigrated to America in and settled in , WA. Emilio Bassignana alias Emilio Bassignano was born in the village of Sala Monferrato in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Coaldale, PA.

Giuseppe Basta was born in the village of Carfizzi in or about to Clarina Basta. He emigrated to America in and settled in Somerville, MA. Alfredo Batta was born in the village of Cerzeto in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Lawrence, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Glenshaw, PA. Salvatore Battaglia was born in the village of Ragusa in or about to Carmelo and Emanuela Guerrieri. He emigrated to America in and settled in Akron, OH.

Ermindo Battista was born in the village of Lentella in or about to Giacomo Battista. Isidoro Battisti was born in the village of Fregona in or about Salvatore Bavia was born in the village of Campoli in or about Nicola Bay was born in the city of Milano in or about to Palmer Palmiro? He emigrated to America in and settled in Hawthorne, NJ. Francesco Beccaccini alias Frank Beccaccine was born in the village of Avezzano in or about to Carmine Beccaccini.

Celestino Becchelli was born in the village of Montese in or about to Pietro and Teresa Bernardini. He emigrated to America in and settled in Tovey, IL. Costantino Bechini alias Augustine Bechien was born in the village of Piancastagnaio in or about to Andrea Bechini. Nicola Belfiore alias Nicola Belifore was born in the village of Morcone in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Rutland, VT.

Emigrated to America he settled in Enderlin, ND. Fernando Bellapadrona was born in the village of Lubriano in or about to Pietro and Concetta Bargiacchi. Emigrated to America he settled in Yorktown, NY. James Bellen was born in the city of Maritolbono in or about to James Sr. Emigrated to America he settled in Columbus, OH. Guglielmo Bellini was born in the village of Mezzani in or about to Vincenzo Bellini. Emigrated to America he settled in Chelsea, MA.

Emigrated to America he settled in Sunnydell, ID. Carmelo Bellissimo was born in the village of Castrogiovanni in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Caldwell, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Geneva, NY. Nazzareno Bellucci was born in the village of Costacciaro in or about to Giuseppe and Rosa Mariani. Emigrated to America he settled in Eynon, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Manlius, NY.

Giovanni Belvito was born in the village of Monopoli in or about to Giuseppe and Antonia Schena. John Benanti was born in the village of Godrano in or about to Salvatore Benanti. Attilio Bendotti was born in the village of Esmate in or about to Giovanni and Caterina Pizzagalli. He emigrated to America in and settled in Hurley, WI. He emigrated to America in and settled in Kingston, MA. Domenico Benedetti was born in the village of Montefiascone in or about to Nazzareno Benedetti.

Emigrated to America he settled in Erie, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Pottsville, PA. Gabriele Berardi was born in the village of Bocchigliero in or about to Giuseppe Berardi. Emigrated to America he settled in Virginville, WV. Emigrated to America he settled in Shelton, CT. Charles Bernard was bornin or about Emigrated to America he settled in Cleveland, OH. Emigrated to America he settled in Steelton, PA.

Giuseppe Bernardo was born in the village of Castel Morrone in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Plymouth, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Poughkeepsie, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Vandergrift, PA. Pietro Bersani was born in the village of Vernasca in or about to Giacomo Bersani. He emigrated to America in and settled in Firebaugh, CA. Giovanni Berti was born in the village of Fondo in or about to Giovanni Berti.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Anchorage, AK. Francesco Bertino alias Frank E. Bertino was born in the village of Salassa Canavese in or about to Filippo Bertino. Emigrated to America he settled in Orient, IL. He emigrated to America in and settled in Roslyn, WA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Durango, CO. Francesco Bevilacqua was born in the village of Miglionico in or about Giovanni Bevilacqua was born in the village of Torriglia in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Amsterdam, NY.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Montpellier, VT. Giuseppe Bianchi alias Joe White was born in the village of Pofi in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Sharpsville, PA. Francesco Bianco was born in the village of Castelvetrano in or about to Mariano and Angela Centonze.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Schenectady, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Conshohocken, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Butte, MT. Gioacchino Bigante was born in the village of Pescocostanzo in or about to Marco Bigante. Vincenzo Billera was born in the village of Sciacca in or about to Calogero and Elisabetta Fazio. He emigrated to America in , and settled in Norristown, PA. Luigi Billia was born in the village of Burolo in or about to Domenico Billia.

Caesare Billonio was born in the village of Bagnoregio in or about to Giovanni Billonio. Emigrated to America he settled in Kenosha, WI. He emigrated to America in and settled in Pittsfield, MA. Francesco Binanti was born in the village of Viagrande in or about to Giuseppe Binanti. He emigrated to America in and settled in Passaic, NJ.

Filippo Biondi was born in the village of Castelpetroso in or about to Domenico and Filomena Vacca. Emigrated to America he settled in Brooklyn, NY. Leopoldo Biondi was born in the village of Pescia in or about to Francesco Biondi.

Costantino Birocci was born in the village of Ferriere in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Charleroi, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Kenosha, WI. Alfredo Bisignani alias Alfred J. Bisignani was born in the village of Ortona a Mare in or about to Tommaso and Filomena Cardarelli.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Lancaster, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Gardnerville, NV. He emigrated to America in and settled in Brockton, MA. George Bocchino was born in the village of San Giorgio la Montagna in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Passaic, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in Laurel, MT.

Giovanni Boggiano was born in the village of Chiavari in or about to Giovanni Boggiano. He emigrated to America in and settled in Stockton, CA. Remo Boggio was born in the village of Cossato in or about to Ernesto Boggio.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Rockland, ME. Emigrated to America he settled in Sacramento, CA. Emigrated to America he settled in Essex, IL. Sante Bollici was born in the village of Colmurano in or about to Angelo Bollici. He emigrated to America in and settled in Joliet, IL. He emigrated to America in and settled in Porterville, CA.

Francesco Bommarito alias Francesco Bommareto was born in the village of Palermo in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Lorain, OH. Anacleto Bonanni was born in the village of Ovindoli in or about to Sabatino Bonanni. He emigrated to America in and settled in Orefield, PA.

Emigrated to America he settled in Dunmore, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Burgettstown, PA. Andrea Bonomi alias Andrew Bonami was born in the village of Montefortino in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Rockford, IL. Giorgio Bonomo was born in the village of Modica in or about to Michele Bonomo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Bridgeport, CT.

Gelindo Boraschi was born in the village of Palanzano in or about to Agostino and Costanza Boraschi. He emigrated to America in and settled in Napa, CA. Giuseppe Borrelli was born in the village of Pignataro Maggiore in or about to Giorgio Borrelli.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Norwich, NY. Andrea Valentino Bortolotti was born in the village of Valfloriano in or about to Antonio Bortolotti. He emigrated to America in and settled in Georgetown, CO. Nicola Borzacchiello was born in the village of Pietramelara in or about to Giovanni Borzacchiello. Emigrated to America he settled in Newark, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Watervliet, NY. Agostino Bosa was born in the village of Asolo in or about to Domenico Bosa.

Angelo Bosser was born in the city of Gresa in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Coaldale, PA. Vittorio Bossolo was born in the village of Atri in or about to Giuseppe Bossolo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lansford, PA.

Giovanni Bottaro was born in the village of Vogogna in or about to Pietro Bottaro. He emigrated to America in and settled in Barre, VT. Guido Bottero was born in the village of Millesimo in or about to Francesco and Cecilia Bottero. Carlo Bove was born in the village of Arpino in or about to Luigi Bove.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Wilburton, OK. Pietro Bovino was born in the village of Isernia in or about to Lucia Saulino. He emigrated to America in and settled in Princeton, NJ. Domenico Bragilio was bornin or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Ossining, NY. Alfredo Branchini was born in the village of Pergola in or about to Nazzareno Branchini. Vincenzo Brandolini was born in the village of Castiglione a Casauria in or about to Massimantonio and Elisabetta Olivieri.

Emigrated to America he settled in Brookville, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Metropolitan, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Milwaukee, WI. Carmelo Broccolo alias Carmen N. Broccolo was born in the village of Bisignano in or about to Francesco and Teresina Constabile.

He emigrated to America in and settled in St. Helena, CA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Vineland, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Yonkers, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Millville, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in Hartford, CT. Concezio Bruno was born in the village of Roccaspinalveti in or about to Angelo Bruno.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Butler, NJ. Peter Bruno was born in the village of Gradisca in or about to Antonio Bruno. Emigrated to America he settled in Duluth, MN. He emigrated to America in and settled in Milwaukie, OR. Luigi Bryer alias Louis Brier was born in the village of Doues in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Silt, CO. Emigrated to America he settled in Medina, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Naginey, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Sweetwater, WY.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Ellensburg, WA. Emigrated to America he settled in Boston, MA. Emigrated to America he settled in Braddock, PA. Antonio Buono was born in the village of Lapio in or about to Michelangelo and Lauretana Carbone. Alfonso Butera was born in the village of Montaperto in or about to Salvatore Butera.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Archbald, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lima, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Tucson, AZ. Domenico Caccia was born in the village of Napoli in or about to Gregorio Caccia. He emigrated to America in and settled in Gladwyne, PA. Domenico Cacciola was born in the village of Roccalumera in or about to Carmelo and Domenica Ancilla. He emigrated to America in and settled in Westfield, NJ.

Menotti Cacciola alias Sam M. Cassiola was born in the village of Bassignana in or about to Ernesto Cacciola. Emigrated to America he settled in Memphis, TN. Giuseppe Cadili was born in the village of Tripi in or about to Vincenzo Cadili.

Pellegrino Cafasso was born in the village of Roccabascerana in or about to Biagio Cafasso. Emigrated to America he settled in Syracuse, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Clinton, IA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Mt. Solo, WA. Francesco Calabrese alias Frank Calabise was born in the village of Cosenza in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Toledo, OH. Gregorio Calabretta was born in the village of San Sostene in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Revere, MA.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Easton, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Barnesboro, PA. Vincenzo Calagna was born in the village of Corleone in or about to Giuseppe Calagna. Antonio Calandra was born in the village of San Fratello in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Arlington, NJ.

Francesco Calascione alias Frank Calascione was born in the village of Milazzo in or about Giuseppe Calautti was born in the village of S. Eufemia di Aspromonte in or about to Cosimo Calautti. Emigrated to America he settled in , PA. Vittorio Caldart was born in the village of Sospirolo in or about to Alvise Caldart. He emigrated to America in and settled in Bingham, UT.

Carlo Calderara was born in the village of Bisuschio in or about to Giuseppe Calderara. Emigrated to America he settled in Milford, NH. Donato Calicchio was born in the village of Torre Orsaia in or about to Antonio? He emigrated to America in ? He emigrated to America in and settled in Wyoming, PA. Domenico Calleo was born in the village of Venafro in or about to Antonio Calleo. He emigrated to America in and settled in , MI.

Vittorio Caloni was born in the village of Ponte Nossa in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Westmoreland, PA. Leonardo Calvani was born in the village of Sgurgola in or about to Pietro Calvani. He emigrated to America in and settled in Calver, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Williamstown, NJ. Matteo Calzone was born in the village of Casalvecchio di Puglia in or about to Giovanni Calzone. He emigrated to America in and settled in Milford, MA.

Emigrated to America he settled in Lorain, OH. Giuseppe Campanella was born in the village of Palermo in or about to Ferdinando and Rosa Patuano. Michele Campanozzi was born in the village of Peschici in or about to Giovanni Campanozzi. Giuseppe Campesi was born in the village of Joppolo in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Ardsley, NY.

Francesco Campisano was born in the village of Falerna in or about to Rosario Campisano. Emigrated to America he settled in Midland, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Barnesboro, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Carnival, PA.

Damiano Candelise was born in the village of Rovito in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Medina, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Skidmore, PA. Domenico Cannella was born in the village of Curinga in or about to Giovanbattista Cannella. He emigrated to America in and settled in Edwardsville, PA.

Angelo Cannizzaro was born in the village of Licata in or about to Domenico and Francesca Incorvaia. He emigrated to America in and settled in Ashtabula, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Jeannette, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Boswell, PA. Antonio Canosa was born in the village of Casalbordino in or about to Giuseppe Canosa. Basilio Canserano was born in the village of Naso in or about to Carmelo Canserano.

Emigrated to America he settled in Dubuque, IA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Smithport, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Erie, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Benld, IL. He emigrated to America in and settled in Torrington, CT. Emigrated to America he settled in Childs, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Swissvale, PA.

Raffaele Capobianco alias Raphaelo Capobianco was born in the village of Grottaminarda in or about to Angelo Capobianco. Giuseppe Capone was born in the village of Frignano Maggiore in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Middletown, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Trenton, NJ. Giuseppe Capotorto was born in the village of Mola in or about to Vitantonio and Donata Abatangelo. Augusto Capotosto was born in the village of Itri in or about to Giuseppe and Benedetta Capotosto.

Francesco Capozzella was born in the village of Castrocielo in or about to Vito Capozzella. He emigrated to America in and settled in Herkimer, NY. Pasquale Cappabianca was born in the village of Napoli in or about to Giuseppe and Maria Cappabianca. Amedeo Cappelletti alias Amedio Cappelletti was born in the village of Norma in or about Giuseppe Cappellini was born in the village of Bettola in or about Angelo Cappello was born in the village of Acri in or about to Natale Cappello.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Worcester, MA. Antonio Cappelloni was born in the village of Proceno in or about to Gennaro Cappelloni. Emigrated to America he settled in Oswego, NY. Pietro Capponi was born in the village of Riparbella in or about to Rosa Gatti. He emigrated to America in and settled in Brooklyn, OH. Americo Cappuccino was born in the village of Foligno in or about to Ubaldo Cappuccino.

Carlo Capriotti was born in the village of Acquasanta in or about to Serafino and Annarosa Massicci. He emigrated to America in and settled in Iselin, PA. Domenico Caputo was born in the village of Mendicino in or about Achille Caputo was born in the village of Candida in or about to Nicola Caputo. Carmine Capuzzi was born in the village of Guardiagrele in or about to Nicola Capuzzi. He emigrated to America in and settled in Howellville, PA.

Raffaele Caramanico was born in the village of Guardiagrele in or about to Felice Caramanico. Michele Caramanico alias Michele Caramago was born in the village of Vasto in or about Salvatore Caramanna was born in the village of Delia in or about to Gaspare Caramanna.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Chicopee, KS. He emigrated to America in and settled in Dunbar, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Harrisburg, PA. Giovanni Carcara was born in the village of Castelvetrano in or about Giovanni Carcasole was born in the village of Ceccano in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Elmira, NY.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Homestead, PA. Antonio Cardani was born in the village of Varsi in or about to Giuseppe Cardani. He emigrated to America in and settled in Newport, RI. Emigrated to America he settled in Hamden, CT. Emigrated to America he settled in Akron, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Bristol , CT.

Giuseppe Caretti alias Joe Carretto was born in the village of Buttogno in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Floriston, CA. Martino Cargnino alias Martino Carguino was born in the city of Torino in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Sherman, IL. Michele Caringella was born in the village of Valenzano in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Meadowdale, WA.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Pittston, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Denver, CO. Angelo Carlo was born in the city of Napoli in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Seattle, WA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Westfield, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Youngwood, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Raritan, NJ.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Lohrville, WI. Luigi Carpani was born in the village of Folignano in or about to Filippo Carpani. Alessandro Carpenito alias Samuel Carpenter was born in the village of Montemiletto in or about to Antonio and Mariantonia Frusciante. He emigrated to America in and settled in Malaga, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in Camden, ME. Charles Carrabino was born in the village of Augusta in or about to Giovanni Carrabino. Oreste Carrai was born in the village of Calcinaia in or about to Pietro Carrai.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Clayton, WA. Pasquale Carravetta was born in the village of Lappano to Antonio Carravetta. He emigrated to America in and settled in Elizabeth, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Richmond, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Scranton, PA. Augusto Enrico Carturier was born in the village of Sarre in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Emma, CO.

Carmine Carucci alias Carmen Caruccio was born in the village of Caggiano in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Belleville, NJ. Nicola Caruso was born in the village of Molinara in or about Pasquale Carusone was born in the village of Formicola in or about to Giovanni and Maria Rivezzi. Emigrated to America he settled in Westport, CT. Ferdinando Casagrande was born in the village of Ascoli Piceno in or about to Giuseppe Casagrande.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Fredericktown, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Louisville, KY. Nicola Casciani was born in the village of Sulmona in or about to Gaetano Casciani. He emigrated to America in and settled in Steubenville, OH. Stefano Casciano was born in the village of Agnone in or about to Sabatino Casciano.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Murray, UT. Emigrated to America he settled in Carnegie, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Highwood, IL. Giovanni Battista Casera was born in the village of Voltago Agortino in or about Raffaele Casertano was born in the village of Curti in or about to Francesco and Chiara Ferrero. Francesco Cassano was born in the village of Monopoli in or about to Venturo Cassano. Emigrated to America he settled in Berwick, PA. Nicola Cassetta was born in the village of Santa Croce del Sannio in or about Pietro Cassol was born in the village of Cavazzo in or about to Bortolo Cassol.

Emigrated to America he settled in Fairmont, OH. Battista Castagnoli was born in the province of Massa Carrara in or about to Giovanni Castagnoli. Emigrated to America he settled in Bridgewater, MA. Guido Castiglione was born in the city of Pescara in or about to Vincenzo and Giuseppina Palumbo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Sayre, PA. Giuseppe Castiglione was born in the village of Spezzano Grande in or about to Biagio Castiglione.

Emigrated to America he settled in Portland, OR. Sostino Castriciano alias Sostino Castrigiano was born in the village of Mili Superiore in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Westfield, NY. Giorgio Castronovo alias George Castronovo was born in the village of Oriolo in or about to Francesco Castronovo. Salvatore Catalano was born in the village of Bovalino in or about to Giuseppe and Mariangela Audino.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Meadville, PA. James Catalano was born in the village of Palermo in or about Rodolfo Cataldi was born in the village of Trivigliano in or about to Silviano Cataldi. He emigrated to America in and settled in Glassboro, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in St. Ignace, MI.

Emigrated to America he settled in Washington, PA. Bambino Cattelini alias Bambino Catelini was born in the village of Ponchiera in or about Michele Causi was born in the village of Salemi in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Ashburnham, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Martinsville, NJ. Marco Cavalli was born in the village of Valstagna in or about Giovanni Cavallo was born in the village of Colliano in or about to Antonio Cavallo.

Costantino Cavallo was born in the village of Chieti in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Bayonne, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in Arlington, MA. Domenico Cavicchi was born in the village of Renazzo in or about to Gaetano Cavicchi. Nicola Cea was born in the village of Vastogirardi in or about to Antonio and Mariantonia Morgano. He emigrated to America in and settled in Laporte, PA. Primo Giuseppe Ceccarelli was born in the village of Longiano in or about to Casimiro Ceccarelli.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Eddystone, PA. Annibale Ceccarelli alias Hannibal Ceccarelli was born in the village of Anagni in or about to Giovanni Ceccarelli. Alcibiade Ceccarini was born in the village of Convalle in or about to Secondino Ceccarini. He emigrated to America in and settled in Pawtucket, RI.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Conifer, PA. Francesco Cecconi was born in the village of Stazzema in or about to Lorenzo and Annunziata Giannelli. Emigrated to America he settled in Montrose, PA. Severino Cellini was born in the village of Morolo in or about to Antonio Cellini.

Antonio Cemato was born in the city of Naples in or about Vernon, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Richmond, MA. Francesco Cerbino alias Frank Cherby was born in the village of Roma in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Woonsocket, RI. Paolo Cericola was born in the village of Paglieta in or about to Antonio Cericola.

Vincenzo Cericola was born in the village of Paglieta in or about to Giusto Cericola. He emigrated to America in and settled in Warren, RI. Francesco Cerone was born in the village of Collelongo in or about to Pasquale Cerone.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Masontown, WV. Pietro Cerrone was born in the village of Montaquila in or about to Nicodemo and Concetta Ottaviano. Agostino Cerrone was born in the village of Deliceto in or about to Michele Cerrone. Euplio Cerrone was born in the village of Trevico in or about to Pasquale Cerrone. He emigrated to America in and settled in Altoona, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Torrington, CT. Luigi Cerulo was born in the village of Vitulano in or about to Angelo Cerulo.

Emigrated to America he settled in Mechanicsville, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Latouche, AK. He emigrated to America in and settled in Greenfield, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Redding, CA. Antonio Chianese was born in the village of Carinola in or about to Andrea Chianese.

Antonio Chiaramonte was born in the village of Partanna in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Helper, UT. Nicola Chiaravalle was born in the village of Lavello in or about to Mauro Chiaravalle. He emigrated to America in and settled in Rockaway, NJ. Angelantonio Chiarella was born in the village of Gimigliano in or about to Giuseppe Chiarella. Antonio Chiarelli alias Toney Carvelle was born in the village of Cutro in or about Donatangelo Chiarullo alias Donatangelo Chiarulto was born in the village of Cassano delle Murge in or about

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All the while the two leaders of the ruling house, Guido and Ridolfo, were holding frequent interviews with Suor Colomba of Rieti, a Dominican nun of saintly reputation and miraculous powers, who under penalty of some great disaster ordered them to make peace—naturally in vain. Nevertheless the chronicle takes the opportunity to point out the devotion and piety of the better men in Perugia during this reign of terror. Soon after, the exiles made another attack, in which nothing but the personal heroism of the Baglioni won them the victory.

At that time Raphael, a boy of twelve years of age, was at school under Pietro Perugino. The impressions of these days are perhaps immortalised in the small, early pictures of St. Michael and St. George: something of them, it may be, lives eternally in the great painting of St. Michael: and if Astorre Baglione has anywhere found his apotheosis, it is in the figure of the heavenly horseman in the Heliodorus.

The opponents of the Baglioni were partly destroyed, partly scattered in terror, and were henceforth incapable of another enterprise of the kind. After a time a partial reconciliation took place, and some of the exiles were allowed to return. But Perugia became none the safer or more tranquil: the inward discord of the ruling family broke out in frightful excesses.

An opposition was formed against Guido and Ridolfo and their sons Gianpaolo, Simonetto, Astorre, Gismondo, Gentile, Marcantonio and others, by two great-nephews, Grifone and Carlo Barciglia; the latter of the two was also nephew of Varano, Prince of Camerino, and brother of one of the former exiles, Ieronimo della Penna.

The plot ripened suddenly on the occasion of the marriage of Astorre with Lavinia Colonna, at Midsummer The festival began and lasted several days amid gloomy forebodings, whose deepening effect is admirably described by Matarazzo. Varano fed and encouraged them with devilish ingenuity: he worked upon Grifone by the prospect of undivided authority, and by stories of an imaginary intrigue of his wife Zenobia with Gianpaolo. Finally each conspirator was provided with a victim. The Baglioni lived all of them in separate houses, mostly on the site of the present castle.

Each received fifteen of the bravos at hand; the remainder were set on the watch. In the night of July 15 the doors were forced, and Guido, Astorre, Simonetto, and Gismondo were murdered; the others succeeded in escaping.

In the features of Simonetto could still be traced the audacity and defiance which death itself had not tamed. The victors went round among the friends of the family, and did their best to recommend themselves; they found all in tears and preparing to leave for the country. Meantime the escaped Baglioni collected forces without the city, and on the following day forced their way in, Gianpaolo at their head, and speedily found adherents among others whom Barciglia had been threatening with death.

When Grifone fell into their hands near S. Gianpaolo handed him over for execution to his followers. Barciglia and Penna fled to Varano, the chief author of the tragedy, at Camerino; and in a moment, almost without loss, Gianpaolo became master of the city. All stood aside as the two women approached, each man shrinking from being recognised as the slayer of Grifone, and dreading the malediction of the mother. The eyes of the crowd followed the two women reverently as they crossed the square with blood-stained garments.

The cathedral, in the immediate neighbourhood of which the greater part of this tragedy had been enacted, was washed with wine and consecrated afresh. The triumphal arch, erected for the wedding, still remained standing, painted with the deeds of Astorre and with the laudatory verses of the narrator of these events, the worthy Matarazzo.

A legendary history, which is simply the reflection of these atrocities, arose out of the early days of the Baglioni. All the members of this family from the beginning were reported to have died an evil death—twenty-seven on one occasion together; their houses were said to have been once before levelled to the ground, and the streets of Perugia paved with the bricks—and more of the same kind.

Under Paul III. For a time they seem to have formed good resolutions, to have brought their own party into order, and to have protected the public officials against the arbitrary acts of the nobility. But the old curse broke out again like a smouldering fire. Gianpaolo was enticed to Rome under Leo X. His uncle and three cousins were murdered, whereupon the Duke sent him word that enough had been done. Here and there we meet with the names of the rulers of Rimini.

Unscrupulousness, impiety, military skill, and high culture, have been seldom so combined in one individual as in Sigismondo Malatesta d. Thirty years later the Malatesta were penniless exiles. At Mirandola, which was governed by insignificant princes of the house of Pico, lived in the year a poor scholar, Lilio Gregorio Giraldi, who had fled from the sack of Rome to the hospitable hearth of the aged Giovanni Francesco Pico, nephew of the famous Giovanni; the discussions as to the sepulchral monument which the prince was constructing for himself gave rise to a treatise, the dedication of which bears the date of April in this year.

The postscript is a sad one. A pseudo-despotism without characteristic features, such as Pandolfo Petrucci exercised from the year in Siena, then torn by faction, is hardly worth a closer consideration. Insignificant and malicious, he governed with the help of a professor of jurisprudence and of an astrologer, and frightened his people by an occasional murder.

His pastime in the summer months was to roll blocks of stone from the top of Monte Amiata, without caring what or whom they hit. His sons maintained a qualified supremacy for many years afterwards. I N treating of the chief dynasties of Italy, it is convenient to discuss the Aragonese, on account of its special character, apart from the rest. The feudal system, which from the days of the Normans had survived in the form of a territorial supremacy of the Barons, gave a distinctive colour to the political constitution of Naples; while elsewhere in Italy, excepting only in the southern part of the ecclesiastical dominion, and in a few other districts, a direct tenure of land prevailed, and no hereditary powers were permitted by the law.

The great Alfonso, who reigned in Naples from onwards d. Unscrupulous financiers were long omnipotent at Court, till the bankrupt king robbed them of their spoils; a crusade was preached, as a pretext for taxing the clergy; the Jews were forced to save themselves from conversion and other oppressive measures by presents and the payment of regular taxes; when a great earthquake happening in the Abruzzi, the survivors were compelled to make good the contributions of the dead.

By such means Alfonso was able to entertain distinguished guests with unrivalled splendour; he found pleasure in ceaseless expense, even for the benefit of his enemies, and in rewarding literary work knew absolutely no measure. Ferrante, [69] who succeeded him, passed as his illegitimate son by a Spanish lady, but was not improbably the son of a half-caste Moor of Valentia.

Whether it was his blood or the plots formed against his life by the barons which embittered and darkened his nature, it is certain that he was equalled in ferocity by none among the princes of his time. Restlessly active, recognised as one of the most powerful political minds of the day, and free from the vices of the profligate, he concentrated all his powers, among which must be reckoned profound dissimulation and an irreconcileable spirit of vengeance, on the destruction of his opponents.

He had been wounded in every point in which a ruler is open to offence; for the leaders of the barons, though related to him by marriage, were yet the allies of his foreign enemies. Extreme measures became part of his daily policy. The means for this struggle with his barons, and for his external wars, were exacted in the same Mohammedan fashion which Frederick II. Deficits were made up by forced loans, by executions and confiscations, by open simony, and by contributions levied on the ecclesiastical corporations.

His victims were mostly men whom he had got into his power by treachery; some were even seized while guests at the royal table. His conduct to his first minister, Antonello Petrucci, who had grown sick and grey in his service, and from whose increasing fear of death he extorted present after present, was literally devilish.

At length the suspicion of complicity with the last conspiracy of the barons gave the pretext for his arrest and execution. With him died Coppola. Even the genuine Spaniards seem to have almost always degenerated in Italy; but the end of this cross-bred house and gives clear proof of a want of blood.

Ferrante died of mental care and trouble; Alfonso accused his brother Federigo, the only honest member of the family, of treason, and insulted him in the vilest manner. At length, though he had hitherto passed for one of the ablest generals in Italy, he lost his head and fled to Sicily, leaving his son, the younger Ferrante, a prey to the French and to domestic treason. The despotism of the Dukes of Milan, whose government from the time of Giangaleazzo onwards was an absolute monarchy of the most thorough-going sort, shows the genuine Italian character of the fifteenth century.

The last of the Visconti, Filippo Maria , is a character of peculiar interest, and of which fortunately an admirable description [72] has been left us. What a man of uncommon gifts and high position can be made by the passion of fear, is here shown with what may be called a mathematical completeness. All the resources of the State were devoted to the one end of securing his personal safety, though happily his cruel egoism did not degenerate into a purposeless thirst for blood.

He lived in the Citadel of Milan, surrounded by magnificent gardens, arbours, and lawns. For years he never set foot in the city, making his excursions only in the country, where lay several of his splendid castles; the flotilla which, drawn by the swiftest horses, conducted him to them along canals constructed for the purpose, was so arranged as to allow of the application of the most rigorous etiquette.

Whoever entered the citadel was watched by a hundred eyes; it was forbidden even to stand at the window, lest signs should be given to those without. All who were admitted among the personal followers of the Prince were subjected to a series of the strictest examinations; then, once accepted, were charged with the highest diplomatic commissions, as well as with the humblest personal services—both in this Court being alike honourable.

His safety lay in the fact that none of his servants trusted the others, that his Condottieri were watched and misled by spies, and that the ambassadors and higher officials were baffled and kept apart by artificially nourished jealousies, and in particular by the device of coupling an honest man with a knave. His inward faith, too, rested upon opposed and contradictory systems; he believed in blind necessity, and in the influence of the stars, and offering prayers at one and the same time to helpers of every sort; [73] he was a student of the ancient authors, as well as of French tales of chivalry.

And yet the same man, who would never suffer death to be mentioned in his presence, [74] and caused his dying favourites to be removed from the castle, that no shadow might fall on the abode of happiness, deliberately hastened his own death by closing up a wound, and, refusing to be bled, died at last with dignity and grace.

His step-son and successor, the fortunate Condottiere Francesco Sforza , see p. Never was the triumph of genius and individual power more brilliantly displayed than in him; and those who would not recognise his merit were at least forced to wonder at him as the spoilt child of fortune. The Milanese claimed it openly as an honour to be governed by so distinguished a master; when he entered the city the thronging populace bore him on horseback into the cathedral, without giving him the chance to dismount.

His wife was beautiful and virtuous, his children were like the angels of heaven; he was seldom ill, and all his chief wishes were fulfilled. And yet he was not without misfortune. His wife, out of jealousy, killed his mistress; his old comrades and friends, Troilo and Brunoro, abandoned him and went over to King Alfonso; another, Ciarpollone, he was forced to hang for treason; he had to suffer it that his brother Alessandro set the French upon him; one of his sons formed intrigues against him, and was imprisoned; the March of Ancona, which he had won in war, he lost again in the same way.

No man enjoys so unclouded a fortune, that he has not somewhere to struggle with adversity. He is happy who has but few troubles. Had he been able to see into the future, or been willing to stop and discuss the consequences of an uncontrolled despotism, one prevading fact would not have escaped his notice—the absence of all guarantee for the future.

Those children, beautiful as angels, carefully and thoroughly educated as they were, fell victims, when they grew up, to the corruption of a measureless egoism. Galeazzo Maria , solicitous only of outward effect, took pride in the beauty of his hands, in the high salaries he paid, in the financial credit he enjoyed, in his treasure of two million pieces of gold, in the distinguished people who surrounded him, and in the army and birds of chase which he maintained.

To a handful of enthusiasts, at whose head stood Giov. Andrea di Lampugnano, he seemed a tyrant too bad to live; they murdered him, [78] and thereby delivered the State into the power of his brothers, one of whom, Ludovico il Moro, threw his nephew into prison, and took the government into his own hands. From this usurpation followed the French intervention, and the disasters which befell the whole of Italy.

The Moor is the most perfect type of the despot of that age, and, as a kind of natural product, almost disarms our moral judgment. Notwithstanding the profound immorality of the means he employed, he used them with perfect ingenuousness; no one would probably have been more astonished than himself to learn, that for the choice of means as well as of ends a human being is morally responsible; he would rather have reckoned it as a singular virtue that, so far as possible, he had abstained from too free a use of the punishment of death.

He accepted as no more than his due the almost fabulous respect of the Italians for his political genius. In former years after he had overstrained the resources of his State, and at Cremona had ordered, out of pure expediency, a respectable citizen, who had spoken against the new taxes, to be quietly strangled. Since that time, in holding audiences, he kept his visitors away from his person by means of a bar, so that in conversing with him they were compelled to speak at the top of their voices.

The academy which he founded [84] served rather for his own purposes than for the instruction of scholars; nor was it the fame of the distinguished men who surrounded him which he heeded, so much as their society and their services. The world lay open to him, as perhaps to no other mortal man of that day; and if proof were wanting of the loftier element in the nature of Ludovico Moro, it is found in the long stay of the enigmatic master at his court.

After the fall of the Moor—he was captured in April by the French, after his return from his flight to Germany—his sons were badly brought up among strangers, and showed no capacity for carrying out his political testament. The elder, Massimiliano, had no resemblance to him; the younger, Francesco, was at all events not without spirit.

Milan, which in those years changed its rulers so often, and suffered so unspeakably in the change, endeavoured to secure itself against a reaction. In the year the French, retreating before the arms of Maximilian and the Spaniards, were induced to make a declaration that the Milanese had taken no part in their expulsion, and, without being guilty of rebellion, might yield themselves to a new conqueror.

The house of Gonzaga at Mantua and that of Montefeltro of Urbino were among the best ordered and richest in men of ability during the second half of the fifteenth century. The Gonzaga were a tolerably harmonious family; for a long period no murder had been known among them, and their dead could be shown to the world without fear. That Francesco, either as statesman or as soldier, should adopt a policy of exceptional honesty, was what neither the Emperor, nor Venice, nor the King of France could have expected or desired; but certainly since the battle at Taro , so far as military honour was concerned, he felt and acted as an Italian patriot, and imparted the same spirit to his wife.

Our judgment of her does not need to rest on the praises of the artists and writers who made the fair princess a rich return for her patronage; her own letters show her to us as a woman of unshaken firmness, full of kindliness and humorous observation. Bembo, Bandello, Ariosto, and Bernardo Tasso sent their works to this court, small and powerless as it was, and empty as they found its treasury.

A more polished and charming circle was not to be seen in Italy, since the dissolution of the old Court of Urbino; and in one respect, in freedom of movement, the society of Ferrara was inferior to that of Mantua.

In artistic matters Isabella had an accurate knowledge, and the catalogue of her small but choice collection can be read by no lover of art without emotion. In the great Federigo , whether he were a genuine Montefeltro or not, Urbino possessed a brilliant representative of the princely order. Federigo had persons in his service; the arrangements of the court were as complete as in the capitals of the greatest monarchs, but nothing was wasted; all had its object, and all was carefully watched and controlled.

The court was no scene of vice and dissipation: it served as a school of military education for the sons of other great houses, the thoroughness of whose culture and instruction was made a point of honour by the Duke. The palace which he built, if not one of the most splendid, was classical in the perfection of its plan; there was placed the greatest of his treasures, the celebrated library.

In the course of the same afternoon he would listen to a lecture on some classical subject, and thence would go to the monastery of the Clarisse and talk of sacred things through the grating with the abbess. In the evening he would overlook the martial exercises of the young people of his court on the meadow of St.

Francesco, known for its magnificent view, and saw to it well that all the feats were done in the most perfect manner. When Ludovico made the same calculation at Milan, he forgot the many grounds of hatred which existed against him. The government of the family of Este at Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio displays curious contrasts of violence and popularity. Plots from without were incessant; the bastard of a bastard tried to wrest the crown from the lawful heir, Hercules I.

This list of tragedies is closed by the plot of two bastards against their brothers, the ruling Duke Alfonso I. The financial system in this State was of the most perfect kind, and necessarily so, since none of the large or second-rate powers of Italy were exposed to such danger and stood in such constant need of armaments and fortifications.

If the rapid increase of the population be a measure of the prosperity actually attained, it is certainly a fact of importance that in the year , notwithstanding the wonderful extension of the capital, no houses were to be let. But the indirect taxation, at all events, must have reached a point at which it could only just be borne. The Government, it is true, took measures of alleviation which were also adopted by other Italian despots, such as Galeazzo Maria Sforza: in time of famine corn was brought from a distance and seems to have been distributed gratuitously; [95] but in ordinary times it compensated itself by the monopoly, if not of corn, of many other of the necessaries of life—fish, salt meat, fruit, and vegetables, which last were carefully planted on and near the walls of the city.

The most considerable source of income, however, was the annual sale of public offices, a usage which was common throughout Italy, and about the working of which at Ferrara we have more precise information. The gifts, however, did not consist of money, but of natural products. It was the pride of the duke [96] for all Italy to know that at Ferrara the soldiers received their pay and the professors of the University their salary not a day later than it was due; that the soldiers never dared lay arbitrary hands on citizen or peasant; that the town was impregnable to assault; and that vast sums of coined money were stored up in the citadel.

To keep two sets of accounts seemed unnecessary; the Minister of Finance was at the same time manager of the ducal household. The buildings erected by Borso , by Hercules I. Alfonso may perhaps have foreseen the fate which was in store for his charming little villas, the Belvedere with its shady gardens, and Montana with its fountains and beautiful frescoes.

It is undeniable that the dangers to which these princes were constantly exposed developed in them capacities of a remarkable kind. In so artificial a world only a man of consummate address could hope to succeed; each candidate for distinction was forced to make good his claims by personal merit and show himself worthy of the crown he sought. What European monarch of the time so laboured for his own culture as, for instance, Alfonso I.?

His travels in France, England, and the Netherlands were undertaken for the purpose of study: by means of them he gained an accurate knowledge of the industry and commerce of these countries. The Italian princes were not, like their contemporaries in the North, dependent on the society of an aristocracy which held itself to be the only class worth consideration, and which infected the monarch with the same conceit.

In Italy the prince was permitted and compelled to know and to use men of every grade in society; and the nobility, though by birth a caste, were forced in social intercourse to stand upon their personal qualifications alone. But this is a point which we shall discuss more fully in the sequel. The feeling of the Ferrarese towards the ruling house was a strange compound of silent dread, of the truly Italian sense of well-calculated interest, and of the loyalty of the modern subject: personal admiration was transformed into a new sentiment of duty.

The government was well provided with spies, and the duke inspected personally the daily list of travellers which the innkeepers were strictly ordered to present. Under Borso, [99] who was anxious to leave no distinguished stranger unhonoured, this regulation served a hospitable purpose; Hercules I. In Bologna, too, it was then the rule, under Giovanni II. Bentivoglio, that every passing traveller who entered at one gate must obtain a ticket in order to go out at another.

When Borso arrested in person his chief and confidential counsellors, when Hercules I. With one of his servants, however, Hercules let things go too far. The director of the police, or by whatever name we should choose to call him Capitano di Giustizia , was Gregorio Zampante of Lucca—a native being unsuited for an office of this kind.

Even the sons and brothers of the duke trembled before this man; the fines he inflicted amounted to hundreds and thousands of ducats, and torture was applied even before the hearing of a case: bribes were accepted from wealthy criminals, and their pardon obtained from the duke by false representations. He dared only eat pigeons bred in his own house, and could not cross the street without a band of archers and bravos.

Of course it now rained satires—some of them in the form of sonnets, others of odes. It was wholly in the spirit of this system that the sovereign imposed his own respect for useful servants on the court and on the people.

Domenico, since the duke intended to be present. Indeed this official sympathy with princely emotion first came up in the Italian States. Lyrical poets even went so far as to sing the illicit flames of their lawfully married lords, e. The poem in question [] betrays unconsciously the odious disposition of the Aragonese ruler; in these things too, he must needs be the most fortunate, else woe be to those who are more successful!

That the greatest artists, for example Lionardo, should paint the mistresses of their patrons was no more than a matter of course. But the house of Este was not satisfied with the praises of others; it undertook to celebrate them itself. In the Palazzo Schifanoja Borso caused himself to be painted in a series of historical representations, and Hercules kept the anniversary of his accession to the throne by a procession which was compared to the feast of Corpus Christi; shops were closed as on Sunday; in the centre of the line walked all the members of the princely house bastards included clad in embroidered robes.

Hercules I. Bojardo, as a wealthy country gentleman and high official, belonged to this class. At the time when Ariosto began to distinguish himself, there existed no court, in the true sense of the word, either at Milan or Florence, and soon there was none either at Urbino or at Naples. He had to content himself with a place among the musicians and jugglers of Cardinal Ippolito till Alfonso took him into his service.

It was otherwise at a later time with Torquato Tasso, whose presence at court was jealously sought after. I N face of this centralised authority, all legal opposition within the borders of the state was futile. The elements needed for the restoration of a republic had been for ever destroyed, and the field prepared for violence and despotism.

Strange judgments fall on these two so-called parties, which now served only to give an official sanction to personal and family disputes. An Italian prince, whom Agrippa of Nettesheim [] advised to put them down, replied that their quarrels brought him in more than 12, ducats a year in fines.

And when in the year , during the brief return of Ludovico Moro to his States, the Guelphs of Tortona summoned a part of the neighbouring French army into the city, in order to make an end once for all of their opponents, the French certainly began by plundering and ruining the Ghibellines, but finished by doing the same to their hosts, till Tortona was utterly laid waste. It was a sign of the political delusion of the people that they not seldom believed the Guelphs to be the natural allies of the French and the Ghibellines of the Spaniards.

France, after all her interventions, had to abandon the peninsula at last, and what became of Spain, after she had destroyed Italy, is known to every reader. But to return to the despots of the Renaissance. A pure and simple mind, we might think, would perhaps have argued that, since all power is derived from God, these princes, if they were loyally and honestly supported by all their subjects, must in time themselves improve and lose all traces of their violent origin.

But from characters and imaginations inflamed by passion and ambition, reasoning of this kind could not be expected. Like bad physicians, they thought to cure the disease by removing the symptoms, and fancied that if the tyrant were put to death, freedom would follow of itself. Or else, without reflecting even to this extent, they sought only to give a vent to the universal hatred, or to take vengeance for some family misfortune or personal affront.

Since the governments were absolute, and free from all legal restraints, the opposition chose its weapons with equal freedom. No, for he is the enemy of the commonwealth. Against him I may use arms, conspiracies, spies, ambushes and fraud; to do so is a sacred and necessary work. There is no more acceptable sacrifice than the blood of a tyrant. So well was the tyrant guarded that it was almost impossible to lay hands upon him elsewhere than at solemn religious services; and on no other occasion was the whole family to be found assembled together.

There was no intentional impiety in the act; the assassins of Galeazzo did not fail to pray before the murder to the patron saint of the church, and to listen devoutly to the first mass. It was, however, one cause of the partial failure of the conspiracy of the Pazzi against Lorenzo and Guiliano Medici , that the brigand Montesecco, who had bargained to commit the murder at a banquet, declined to undertake it in the Cathedral of Florence.

As to the imitation of antiquity, the influence of which on moral, and more especially on political, questions we shall often refer to, the example was set by the rulers themselves, who, both in their conception of the state and in their personal conduct, took the old Roman empire avowedly as their model. In like manner their opponents, when they set to work with a deliberate theory, took pattern by the ancient tyrannicides.

It may be hard to prove that in the main point—in forming the resolve itself—they consciously followed a classical example; but the appeal to antiquity was no mere phrase. Suspicion was soon aroused against him: he was banished from the city, and his pupils were abandoned to the fanaticism he had excited.

Stephen, in whose church it was fulfilled. Many of their comrades were now informed of the plot, nightly meetings were held in the house of Lampugnani, and the conspirators practised for the murder with the sheaths of their daggers. But however idealistic the object and purpose of such conspiracies may appear, the manner in which they were conducted betrays the influence of that worst of all conspirators, Catiline—a man in whose thoughts freedom had no place whatever.

The annals of Siena tells us expressly that the conspirators were students of Sallust, and the fact is indirectly confirmed by the confession of Olgiati. Among the Florentines, whenever they got rid of, or tried to get rid of, the Medici, tyrannicide was a practice universally accepted and approved. Pietro Paolo Boscoli, whose plot against Guiliano, Giovanni, and Guilio Medici failed , was an enthusiastic admirer of Brutus, and in order to follow his steps, only waited to find a Cassius.

His last utterances in prison [] —a striking evidence of the religious feeling of the time—show with what an effort he rid his mind of these classical imaginations, in order to die like a Christian. A friend and the confessor both had to assure him that St. Thomas Aquinas condemned conspirators absolutely; but the confessor afterwards admitted to the same friend that St. Thomas drew a distinction and permitted conspiracies against a tyrant who had forced himself on a people against their will.

Others, on the same occasion, made use of the comparison with Brutus, and that Michael Angelo himself, even late in life, was not unfriendly to ideas of this kind, may be inferred from his bust of Brutus in the Uffizi. A popular radicalism in the form in which it is opposed to the monarchies of later times, is not to be found in the despotic states of the Renaissance. Each individual protested inwardly against despotism, but was rather disposed to make tolerable or profitable terms with it, than to combine with others for its destruction.

Things must have been as bad as at Camerino, Fabriano, or Rimini p. They knew in most cases only too well that this would but mean a change of masters. The star of the Republics was certainly on the decline. T HE Italian municipalities had, in earlier days, given signal proof of that force which transforms the city into the state. It remained only that these cities should combine in a great confederation; and this idea was constantly recurring to Italian statesmen, whatever differences of form it might from time to time display.

In fact, during the struggles of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, great and formidable leagues actually were formed by the cities; and Sismondi ii. But the more powerful states had already developed characteristic features which made any such scheme impracticable.

In their commercial dealings they shrank from no measures, however extreme, which might damage their competitors; they held their weaker neighbours in a condition of helpless dependence—in short, they each fancied they could get on by themselves without the assistance of the rest, and thus paved the way for future usurpation. The usurper was forthcoming when long conflicts between the nobility and the people, and between the different factions of the nobility, had awakened the desire for a strong government, and when bands of mercenaries ready and willing to sell their aid to the highest bidder had superseded the general levy of the citizens which party leaders now found unsuited to their purposes.

Among the cities which maintained their independence are two of deep significance for the history of the human race: Florence, the city of incessant movement, which has left us a record of the thoughts and aspirations of each and all who, for three centuries, took part in this movement, and Venice, the city of apparent stagnation and of political secrecy. No contrast can be imagined stronger than that which is offered us by these two, and neither can be compared to anything else which the world has hitherto produced.

Venice recognised itself from the first as a strange and mysterious creation—the fruits of a higher power than human ingenuity. The solemn foundation of the city was the subject of a legend. On March 25, , at mid-day the emigrants from Padua laid the first stone at the Rialto, that they might have a sacred, inviolable asylum amid the devastations of the barbarians.

Later writers attributed to the founders the presentiment of the future greatness of the city; M. Now we kneel before a poor altar; but if our vows are not made in vain, a hundred temples, O God, of gold and marble shall arise to Thee. He takes us to the crowded Piazza before S. Giacometto at the Rialto, where the business of the world is transacted, not amid shouting and confusion, but with the subdued hum of many voices; where in the porticos round the square [] and in those of the adjoining streets sit hundreds of money-changers and goldsmiths, with endless rows of shops and warehouses above their heads.

He describes the great Fondaco of the Germans beyond the bridge, where their goods and their dwellings lay, and before which their ships are drawn up side by side in the canal; higher up is a whole fleet laden with wine and oil, and parallel with it, on the shore swarming with porters, are the vaults of the merchants; then from the Rialto to the square of St. So he conducts the reader from one quarter of the city to another till he comes at last to the two hospitals which were among those institutions of public utility nowhere so numerous as at Venice.

Care for the people, in peace as well as in war, was characteristic of this government, and its attention to the wounded, even to those of the enemy, excited the admiration of other states. Wealth, political security, and acquaintance with other countries, had matured the understanding of such questions. These slender fair-haired men, [] with quiet cautious steps, and deliberate speech, differed but slightly in costume and bearing from one another; ornaments, especially pearls, were reserved for the women and girls.

In the last quarter of the fifteenth century there were traitors among the highest officials; [] the popes, the Italian princes, and even second-rate Condottieri in the service of the government had informers in their pay, sometimes with regular salaries; things went so far that the Council of Ten found it prudent to conceal important political news from the Council of the Pregadi, and it was even supposed that Ludovico Moro had control of a definite number of votes among the latter.

Whether the hanging of single offenders and the high rewards—such as a life-pension of sixty ducats paid to those who informed against them—were of much avail, it is hard to decide; one of the chief causes of this evil, the poverty of many of the nobility, could not be removed in a day.

We can understand why some of the wealthier nobles built houses, sometimes whole rows of them, to provide free lodging for their needy comrades. Such works figure in wills among deeds of charity. But if the enemies of Venice ever founded serious hopes upon abuses of this kind, they were greatly in error.

It might be thought that the commercial activity of the city, which put within reach of the humblest a rich reward for their labour, and the colonies on the Eastern shores of the Mediterranean, would have diverted from political affairs the dangerous elements of society. But had not the political history of Genoa, notwithstanding similar advantages, been of the stormiest? The cause of the stability of Venice lies rather in a combination of circumstances which were found in union nowhere else.

Unassailable from its position, it had been able from the beginning to treat of foreign affairs with the fullest and calmest reflection, and ignore nearly altogether the parties which divided the rest of Italy, to escape the entanglement of permanent alliances, and to set the highest price on those which it thought fit to make. The keynote of the Venetian character was, consequently, a spirit of proud and contemptuous isolation, which, joined to the hatred felt for the city by the other states of Italy, gave rise to a strong sense of solidarity within.

The inhabitants meanwhile were united by the most powerful ties of interest in dealing both with the colonies and with the possessions on the mainland, forcing the population of the latter, that is, of all the towns up to Bergamo, to buy and sell in Venice alone. And the discontented, if there were such, were held so far apart by the division between the noble and the burgher, that a mutual understanding was not easy. On the other hand, within the ranks of the nobility itself, travel, commercial enterprise, and the incessant wars with the Turks saved the wealthy and dangerous from that fruitful source of conspiracies—idleness.

And when envy and ambition called for satisfaction an official victim was forthcoming, and legal means and authorities were ready. The moral torture, which for years the Doge Francesco Foscari d. The Council of Ten, which had a hand in everything, which disposed without appeal of life and death, of financial affairs and military appointments, which included the Inquisitors among its number, and which overthrew Foscari, as it had overthrown so many powerful men before,—this Council was yearly chosen afresh from the whole governing body, the Gran Consilio, and was consequently the most direct expression of its will.

It is not probable that serious intrigues occurred at these elections, as the short duration of the office and the accountability which followed rendered it an object of no great desire. But violent and mysterious as the proceedings of this and other authorities might be, the genuine Venetian courted rather than fled their sentence, not only because the Republic had long arms, and if it could not catch him might punish his family, but because in most cases it acted from rational motives and not from a thirst for blood.

If traitors were to be found among the Pregadi, there was ample compensation for this in the fact that every Venetian away from home was a born spy for his government. It was a matter of course that the Venetian cardinals at Rome sent home news of the transactions of the secret papal consistories. The Cardinal Domenico Grimani had the despatches intercepted in the neighbourhood of Rome which Ascanio Sforza was sending to his brother Ludovico Moro, and forwarded them to Venice; his father, then exposed to a serious accusation, claimed public credit for this service of his son before the Gran Consilio; in other words, before all the world.

The conduct of the Venetian government to the Condottieri in its pay has been spoken of already. The only further guarantee of their fidelity which could be obtained lay in their great number, by which treachery was made as difficult as its discovery was easy. In looking at the Venetian army list, one is only surprised that among forces of such miscellaneous composition any common action was possible.

In the catalogue for the campaign of we find 15, horsemen, broken up into a number of small divisions. These forces were partly composed of old Venetian troops, partly of veterans led by Venetian city or country nobles; the majority of the leaders were, however, princes and rulers of cities or their relatives. To these forces must be added 24, infantry—we are not told how they were raised or commanded—with 3, additional troops, who probably belonged to the special services. Venice relied, if not exactly on the loyalty, at least on the good sense of its subjects; in the war of the League of Cambray it absolved them, as is well known, from their oath of allegiance, and let them compare the amenities of a foreign occupation with the mild government to which they had been accustomed.

As there had been no treason in their desertion of St. Mark, and consequently no punishment was to be feared, they returned to their old masters with the utmost eagerness. The Venetians, in fact, were not free from the mistake of those over-clever people who will credit their opponents with no irrational and inconsiderate conduct. The hatred of all Italy against the victorious city seemed to be concentrated in the mind of the Pope, and to have blinded him to the evils of foreign intervention; and as to the policy of Cardinal Amboise and his king, Venice ought long before to have recognised it as a piece of malicious imbecility, and to have been thoroughly on its guard.

The other members of the League took part in it from that envy which may be a salutary corrective to great wealth and power, but which in itself is a beggarly sentiment. Venice came out of the conflict with honour, but not without lasting damage. A power, whose foundations were so complicated, whose activity and interests filled so wide a stage, cannot be imagined without a systematic oversight of the whole, without a regular estimate of means and burdens, of profits and losses.

The feudal state of the Middle Ages knew of nothing more than catalogues of signorial rights and possessions Urbaria ; it looked on production as a fixed quantity, which it approximately is, so long as we have to do with landed property only. The towns, on the other hand, throughout the West must from very early times have treated production, which with them depended on industry and commerce, as exceedingly variable; but, even in the most flourishing times of the Hanseatic League, they never got beyond a simple commercial balance-sheet.

In the Italian States a clear political consciousness, the pattern of Mohammedan administration, and the long and active exercise of trade and commerce, combined to produce for the first time a true science of statistics. In Venice, on the contrary, the supreme objects were the enjoyment of life and power, the increase of inherited advantages, the creation of the most lucrative forms of industry, and the opening of new channels for commerce.

The writers of the time speak of these things with the greatest freedom. About this time, [] when the Florentines wished to form an alliance with Venice against Filippo Maria Visconti, they were for the moment refused, in the belief, resting on accurate commercial returns, that a war between Venice and Milan, that is, between seller and buyer, was foolish.

Even if the duke simply increased his army, the Milanese, through the heavier taxation they must pay, would become worse customers. It contains the chief elements of a statistical account of the whole resources of Venice. I cannot say whether or where a thorough elucidation of this perplexing document exists; by way of illustration, the following facts may be quoted.

To these must be added 16, shipwrights. The houses in Venice were valued at seven millions, and brought in a rent of half a million. If Venice, by this spirit of calculation, and by the practical turn which she gave it, was the first fully to represent one important side of modern political life, in that culture, on the other hand, which Italy then prized most highly she did not stand in the front rank. The literary impulse, in general, was here wanting, and especially that enthusiasm for classical antiquity which prevailed elsewhere.

Literature, in fact, like the rest at Venice, had mostly a practical end in view. The library which Cardinal Bessarion bequeathed to the state narrowly escaped dispersion and destruction. Learning was certainly cultivated at the University of Padua, where, however, the physicians and the jurists—the latter as the authors of legal opinions—received by far the highest pay. The share of Venice in the poetical creations of the country was long insignificant, till, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, her deficiences were made good.

But we find more striking instances still of intellectual backwardness. This Government, which had the clergy so thoroughly in its control, which reserved to itself the appointment to all important ecclesiastical offices, and which, one time after another, dared to defy the court of Rome, displayed an official piety of a most singular kind.

We shall say nothing of the piety of the masses, and of their firm belief in the indulgences of an Alexander VI. They were almost all festivals in memory of political events, and competed in splendour with the great feasts of the Church; the most brilliant of all, the famous marriage with the sea, fell on Ascension Day. The most elevated political thought and the most varied forms of human development are found united in the history of Florence, which in this sense deserves the name of the first modern state in the world.

Here the whole people are busied with what in the despotic cities is the affair of a single family. That wondrous Florentine spirit, at once keenly critical and artistically creative, was incessantly transforming the social and political condition of the state, and as incessantly describing and judging the change. Florence thus became the home of political doctrines and theories, of experiments and sudden changes, but also, like Venice, the home of statistical science, and alone and above all other states in the world, the home of historical representation in the modern sense of the phrase.

The spectacle of ancient Rome and a familiarity with its leading writers were not without influence; Giovanni Villani [] confesses that he received the first impulse to his great work at the jubilee of the year , and began it immediately on his return home. Yet how many among the , pilgrims of that year may have been like him in gifts and tendencies and still did not write the history of their native cities!

Our present task is not to write the history of this remarkable state, but merely to give a few indications of the intellectual freedom and independence for which the Florentines were indebted to this history. In no other city of Italy were the struggles of political parties so bitter, of such early origin, and so permanent.

The descriptions of them, which belong, it is true, to a somewhat later period, give clear evidence of the superiority of Florentine criticism. And what a politician is the great victim of these crises, Dante Alighieri, matured alike by home and by exile! He uttered his scorn of the incessant changes and experiments in the constitution of his native city in verses of adamant, which will remain proverbial so long as political events of the same kind recur; [] he addressed his home in words of defiance and yearning which must have stirred the hearts of his countrymen.

But his thoughts ranged over Italy and the whole world; and if his passion for the Empire, as he conceived it, was no more than an illusion, it must yet be admitted that the youthful dreams of a new-born political speculation are in his case not without a poetical grandeur. He is proud to be the first who had trod this path, [] certainly in the footsteps of Aristotle, but in his own way independently. His ideal emperor is a just and humane judge, dependent on God only, the heir of the universal sway of Rome to which belonged the sanction of nature, of right and of the will of God.

The conquest of the world was, according to this view, rightful, resting on a divine judgment between Rome and the other nations of the earth, and God gave his approval to this empire, since under it he became Man, submitting at his birth to the census of the Emperor Augustus, and at his death to the judgment of Pontius Pilate.

In his letters he appears as one of the earliest publicists, [] and is perhaps the first layman to publish political tracts in this form. He began early. On this point we shall have more to say in the sequel. To the two Villani, Giovanni as well as Matteo, we owe not so much deep political reflexion as fresh and practical observations, together with the elements of Florentine statistics and important notices of other states.

Here too trade and commerce had given the impulse to economical as well as political science. Nowhere else in the world was such accurate information to be had on financial affairs. Then follow the statistics of the churches and monasteries; of the hospitals, which held more than a thousand beds; of the wool-trade, with its most valuable details; of the mint, the provisioning of the city, the public officials, and so on.

This statistical view of things was at a later time still more highly cultivated at Florence. The noteworthy point about it is that, as a rule, we can perceive its connection with the higher aspects of history, with art, and with culture in general.

The Venetian statistics quoted above p. He emigrated to America in and settled in Butte, MT. Gioacchino Bigante was born in the village of Pescocostanzo in or about to Marco Bigante. Vincenzo Billera was born in the village of Sciacca in or about to Calogero and Elisabetta Fazio.

He emigrated to America in , and settled in Norristown, PA. Luigi Billia was born in the village of Burolo in or about to Domenico Billia. Caesare Billonio was born in the village of Bagnoregio in or about to Giovanni Billonio. Emigrated to America he settled in Kenosha, WI. He emigrated to America in and settled in Pittsfield, MA. Francesco Binanti was born in the village of Viagrande in or about to Giuseppe Binanti. He emigrated to America in and settled in Passaic, NJ. Filippo Biondi was born in the village of Castelpetroso in or about to Domenico and Filomena Vacca.

Emigrated to America he settled in Brooklyn, NY. Leopoldo Biondi was born in the village of Pescia in or about to Francesco Biondi. Costantino Birocci was born in the village of Ferriere in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Charleroi, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Kenosha, WI. Alfredo Bisignani alias Alfred J. Bisignani was born in the village of Ortona a Mare in or about to Tommaso and Filomena Cardarelli.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Lancaster, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Gardnerville, NV. He emigrated to America in and settled in Brockton, MA. George Bocchino was born in the village of San Giorgio la Montagna in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Passaic, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in Laurel, MT. Giovanni Boggiano was born in the village of Chiavari in or about to Giovanni Boggiano. He emigrated to America in and settled in Stockton, CA.

Remo Boggio was born in the village of Cossato in or about to Ernesto Boggio. He emigrated to America in and settled in Rockland, ME. Emigrated to America he settled in Sacramento, CA. Emigrated to America he settled in Essex, IL. Sante Bollici was born in the village of Colmurano in or about to Angelo Bollici.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Joliet, IL. He emigrated to America in and settled in Porterville, CA. Francesco Bommarito alias Francesco Bommareto was born in the village of Palermo in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Lorain, OH. Anacleto Bonanni was born in the village of Ovindoli in or about to Sabatino Bonanni. He emigrated to America in and settled in Orefield, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Dunmore, PA.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Burgettstown, PA. Andrea Bonomi alias Andrew Bonami was born in the village of Montefortino in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Rockford, IL. Giorgio Bonomo was born in the village of Modica in or about to Michele Bonomo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Bridgeport, CT. Gelindo Boraschi was born in the village of Palanzano in or about to Agostino and Costanza Boraschi.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Napa, CA. Giuseppe Borrelli was born in the village of Pignataro Maggiore in or about to Giorgio Borrelli. He emigrated to America in and settled in Norwich, NY. Andrea Valentino Bortolotti was born in the village of Valfloriano in or about to Antonio Bortolotti. He emigrated to America in and settled in Georgetown, CO. Nicola Borzacchiello was born in the village of Pietramelara in or about to Giovanni Borzacchiello.

Emigrated to America he settled in Newark, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Watervliet, NY. Agostino Bosa was born in the village of Asolo in or about to Domenico Bosa. Angelo Bosser was born in the city of Gresa in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Coaldale, PA. Vittorio Bossolo was born in the village of Atri in or about to Giuseppe Bossolo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lansford, PA.

Giovanni Bottaro was born in the village of Vogogna in or about to Pietro Bottaro. He emigrated to America in and settled in Barre, VT. Guido Bottero was born in the village of Millesimo in or about to Francesco and Cecilia Bottero. Carlo Bove was born in the village of Arpino in or about to Luigi Bove. He emigrated to America in and settled in Wilburton, OK. Pietro Bovino was born in the village of Isernia in or about to Lucia Saulino.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Princeton, NJ. Domenico Bragilio was bornin or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Ossining, NY. Alfredo Branchini was born in the village of Pergola in or about to Nazzareno Branchini. Vincenzo Brandolini was born in the village of Castiglione a Casauria in or about to Massimantonio and Elisabetta Olivieri. Emigrated to America he settled in Brookville, PA.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Metropolitan, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Milwaukee, WI. Carmelo Broccolo alias Carmen N. Broccolo was born in the village of Bisignano in or about to Francesco and Teresina Constabile. He emigrated to America in and settled in St.

Helena, CA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Vineland, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Yonkers, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Millville, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in Hartford, CT. Concezio Bruno was born in the village of Roccaspinalveti in or about to Angelo Bruno. He emigrated to America in and settled in Butler, NJ.

Peter Bruno was born in the village of Gradisca in or about to Antonio Bruno. Emigrated to America he settled in Duluth, MN. He emigrated to America in and settled in Milwaukie, OR. Luigi Bryer alias Louis Brier was born in the village of Doues in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Silt, CO. Emigrated to America he settled in Medina, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Naginey, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Sweetwater, WY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Ellensburg, WA.

Emigrated to America he settled in Boston, MA. Emigrated to America he settled in Braddock, PA. Antonio Buono was born in the village of Lapio in or about to Michelangelo and Lauretana Carbone. Alfonso Butera was born in the village of Montaperto in or about to Salvatore Butera. He emigrated to America in and settled in Archbald, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lima, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Tucson, AZ. Domenico Caccia was born in the village of Napoli in or about to Gregorio Caccia.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Gladwyne, PA. Domenico Cacciola was born in the village of Roccalumera in or about to Carmelo and Domenica Ancilla. He emigrated to America in and settled in Westfield, NJ. Menotti Cacciola alias Sam M. Cassiola was born in the village of Bassignana in or about to Ernesto Cacciola.

Emigrated to America he settled in Memphis, TN. Giuseppe Cadili was born in the village of Tripi in or about to Vincenzo Cadili. Pellegrino Cafasso was born in the village of Roccabascerana in or about to Biagio Cafasso. Emigrated to America he settled in Syracuse, NY.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Clinton, IA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Mt. Solo, WA. Francesco Calabrese alias Frank Calabise was born in the village of Cosenza in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Toledo, OH. Gregorio Calabretta was born in the village of San Sostene in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Revere, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Easton, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Barnesboro, PA.

Vincenzo Calagna was born in the village of Corleone in or about to Giuseppe Calagna. Antonio Calandra was born in the village of San Fratello in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Arlington, NJ. Francesco Calascione alias Frank Calascione was born in the village of Milazzo in or about Giuseppe Calautti was born in the village of S. Eufemia di Aspromonte in or about to Cosimo Calautti. Emigrated to America he settled in , PA.

Vittorio Caldart was born in the village of Sospirolo in or about to Alvise Caldart. He emigrated to America in and settled in Bingham, UT. Carlo Calderara was born in the village of Bisuschio in or about to Giuseppe Calderara. Emigrated to America he settled in Milford, NH. Donato Calicchio was born in the village of Torre Orsaia in or about to Antonio?

He emigrated to America in ? He emigrated to America in and settled in Wyoming, PA. Domenico Calleo was born in the village of Venafro in or about to Antonio Calleo. He emigrated to America in and settled in , MI. Vittorio Caloni was born in the village of Ponte Nossa in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Westmoreland, PA.

Leonardo Calvani was born in the village of Sgurgola in or about to Pietro Calvani. He emigrated to America in and settled in Calver, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Williamstown, NJ. Matteo Calzone was born in the village of Casalvecchio di Puglia in or about to Giovanni Calzone.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Milford, MA. Emigrated to America he settled in Lorain, OH. Giuseppe Campanella was born in the village of Palermo in or about to Ferdinando and Rosa Patuano. Michele Campanozzi was born in the village of Peschici in or about to Giovanni Campanozzi. Giuseppe Campesi was born in the village of Joppolo in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Ardsley, NY. Francesco Campisano was born in the village of Falerna in or about to Rosario Campisano.

Emigrated to America he settled in Midland, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Barnesboro, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Carnival, PA. Damiano Candelise was born in the village of Rovito in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Medina, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Skidmore, PA. Domenico Cannella was born in the village of Curinga in or about to Giovanbattista Cannella.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Edwardsville, PA. Angelo Cannizzaro was born in the village of Licata in or about to Domenico and Francesca Incorvaia. He emigrated to America in and settled in Ashtabula, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Jeannette, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Boswell, PA. Antonio Canosa was born in the village of Casalbordino in or about to Giuseppe Canosa.

Basilio Canserano was born in the village of Naso in or about to Carmelo Canserano. Emigrated to America he settled in Dubuque, IA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Smithport, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Erie, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Benld, IL. He emigrated to America in and settled in Torrington, CT.

Emigrated to America he settled in Childs, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Swissvale, PA. Raffaele Capobianco alias Raphaelo Capobianco was born in the village of Grottaminarda in or about to Angelo Capobianco. Giuseppe Capone was born in the village of Frignano Maggiore in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Middletown, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Trenton, NJ. Giuseppe Capotorto was born in the village of Mola in or about to Vitantonio and Donata Abatangelo.

Augusto Capotosto was born in the village of Itri in or about to Giuseppe and Benedetta Capotosto. Francesco Capozzella was born in the village of Castrocielo in or about to Vito Capozzella. He emigrated to America in and settled in Herkimer, NY. Pasquale Cappabianca was born in the village of Napoli in or about to Giuseppe and Maria Cappabianca. Amedeo Cappelletti alias Amedio Cappelletti was born in the village of Norma in or about Giuseppe Cappellini was born in the village of Bettola in or about Angelo Cappello was born in the village of Acri in or about to Natale Cappello.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Worcester, MA. Antonio Cappelloni was born in the village of Proceno in or about to Gennaro Cappelloni. Emigrated to America he settled in Oswego, NY. Pietro Capponi was born in the village of Riparbella in or about to Rosa Gatti. He emigrated to America in and settled in Brooklyn, OH. Americo Cappuccino was born in the village of Foligno in or about to Ubaldo Cappuccino. Carlo Capriotti was born in the village of Acquasanta in or about to Serafino and Annarosa Massicci.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Iselin, PA. Domenico Caputo was born in the village of Mendicino in or about Achille Caputo was born in the village of Candida in or about to Nicola Caputo. Carmine Capuzzi was born in the village of Guardiagrele in or about to Nicola Capuzzi. He emigrated to America in and settled in Howellville, PA. Raffaele Caramanico was born in the village of Guardiagrele in or about to Felice Caramanico. Michele Caramanico alias Michele Caramago was born in the village of Vasto in or about Salvatore Caramanna was born in the village of Delia in or about to Gaspare Caramanna.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Chicopee, KS. He emigrated to America in and settled in Dunbar, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Harrisburg, PA. Giovanni Carcara was born in the village of Castelvetrano in or about Giovanni Carcasole was born in the village of Ceccano in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Elmira, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Homestead, PA. Antonio Cardani was born in the village of Varsi in or about to Giuseppe Cardani.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Newport, RI. Emigrated to America he settled in Hamden, CT. Emigrated to America he settled in Akron, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Bristol , CT. Giuseppe Caretti alias Joe Carretto was born in the village of Buttogno in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Floriston, CA. Martino Cargnino alias Martino Carguino was born in the city of Torino in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Sherman, IL.

Michele Caringella was born in the village of Valenzano in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Meadowdale, WA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Pittston, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Denver, CO. Angelo Carlo was born in the city of Napoli in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Seattle, WA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Westfield, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Youngwood, PA.

Emigrated to America he settled in Raritan, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lohrville, WI. Luigi Carpani was born in the village of Folignano in or about to Filippo Carpani. Alessandro Carpenito alias Samuel Carpenter was born in the village of Montemiletto in or about to Antonio and Mariantonia Frusciante. He emigrated to America in and settled in Malaga, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in Camden, ME.

Charles Carrabino was born in the village of Augusta in or about to Giovanni Carrabino. Oreste Carrai was born in the village of Calcinaia in or about to Pietro Carrai. He emigrated to America in and settled in Clayton, WA. Pasquale Carravetta was born in the village of Lappano to Antonio Carravetta.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Elizabeth, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Richmond, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Scranton, PA. Augusto Enrico Carturier was born in the village of Sarre in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Emma, CO.

Carmine Carucci alias Carmen Caruccio was born in the village of Caggiano in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Belleville, NJ. Nicola Caruso was born in the village of Molinara in or about Pasquale Carusone was born in the village of Formicola in or about to Giovanni and Maria Rivezzi.

Emigrated to America he settled in Westport, CT. Ferdinando Casagrande was born in the village of Ascoli Piceno in or about to Giuseppe Casagrande. He emigrated to America in and settled in Fredericktown, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Louisville, KY. Nicola Casciani was born in the village of Sulmona in or about to Gaetano Casciani. He emigrated to America in and settled in Steubenville, OH. Stefano Casciano was born in the village of Agnone in or about to Sabatino Casciano.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Murray, UT. Emigrated to America he settled in Carnegie, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Highwood, IL. Giovanni Battista Casera was born in the village of Voltago Agortino in or about Raffaele Casertano was born in the village of Curti in or about to Francesco and Chiara Ferrero. Francesco Cassano was born in the village of Monopoli in or about to Venturo Cassano.

Emigrated to America he settled in Berwick, PA. Nicola Cassetta was born in the village of Santa Croce del Sannio in or about Pietro Cassol was born in the village of Cavazzo in or about to Bortolo Cassol. Emigrated to America he settled in Fairmont, OH. Battista Castagnoli was born in the province of Massa Carrara in or about to Giovanni Castagnoli. Emigrated to America he settled in Bridgewater, MA.

Guido Castiglione was born in the city of Pescara in or about to Vincenzo and Giuseppina Palumbo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Sayre, PA. Giuseppe Castiglione was born in the village of Spezzano Grande in or about to Biagio Castiglione. Emigrated to America he settled in Portland, OR. Sostino Castriciano alias Sostino Castrigiano was born in the village of Mili Superiore in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Westfield, NY.

Giorgio Castronovo alias George Castronovo was born in the village of Oriolo in or about to Francesco Castronovo. Salvatore Catalano was born in the village of Bovalino in or about to Giuseppe and Mariangela Audino. He emigrated to America in and settled in Meadville, PA. James Catalano was born in the village of Palermo in or about Rodolfo Cataldi was born in the village of Trivigliano in or about to Silviano Cataldi.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Glassboro, NJ. Emigrated to America he settled in St. Ignace, MI. Emigrated to America he settled in Washington, PA. Bambino Cattelini alias Bambino Catelini was born in the village of Ponchiera in or about Michele Causi was born in the village of Salemi in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Ashburnham, MA.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Martinsville, NJ. Marco Cavalli was born in the village of Valstagna in or about Giovanni Cavallo was born in the village of Colliano in or about to Antonio Cavallo. Costantino Cavallo was born in the village of Chieti in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Bayonne, NJ.

Emigrated to America he settled in Arlington, MA. Domenico Cavicchi was born in the village of Renazzo in or about to Gaetano Cavicchi. Nicola Cea was born in the village of Vastogirardi in or about to Antonio and Mariantonia Morgano. He emigrated to America in and settled in Laporte, PA. Primo Giuseppe Ceccarelli was born in the village of Longiano in or about to Casimiro Ceccarelli. He emigrated to America in and settled in Eddystone, PA.

Annibale Ceccarelli alias Hannibal Ceccarelli was born in the village of Anagni in or about to Giovanni Ceccarelli. Alcibiade Ceccarini was born in the village of Convalle in or about to Secondino Ceccarini. He emigrated to America in and settled in Pawtucket, RI. He emigrated to America in and settled in Conifer, PA. Francesco Cecconi was born in the village of Stazzema in or about to Lorenzo and Annunziata Giannelli.

Emigrated to America he settled in Montrose, PA. Severino Cellini was born in the village of Morolo in or about to Antonio Cellini. Antonio Cemato was born in the city of Naples in or about Vernon, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Richmond, MA. Francesco Cerbino alias Frank Cherby was born in the village of Roma in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Woonsocket, RI.

Paolo Cericola was born in the village of Paglieta in or about to Antonio Cericola. Vincenzo Cericola was born in the village of Paglieta in or about to Giusto Cericola. He emigrated to America in and settled in Warren, RI. Francesco Cerone was born in the village of Collelongo in or about to Pasquale Cerone. He emigrated to America in and settled in Masontown, WV.

Pietro Cerrone was born in the village of Montaquila in or about to Nicodemo and Concetta Ottaviano. Agostino Cerrone was born in the village of Deliceto in or about to Michele Cerrone. Euplio Cerrone was born in the village of Trevico in or about to Pasquale Cerrone. He emigrated to America in and settled in Altoona, PA.

Emigrated to America he settled in Torrington, CT. Luigi Cerulo was born in the village of Vitulano in or about to Angelo Cerulo. Emigrated to America he settled in Mechanicsville, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Latouche, AK. He emigrated to America in and settled in Greenfield, MA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Redding, CA. Antonio Chianese was born in the village of Carinola in or about to Andrea Chianese.

Antonio Chiaramonte was born in the village of Partanna in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Helper, UT. Nicola Chiaravalle was born in the village of Lavello in or about to Mauro Chiaravalle. He emigrated to America in and settled in Rockaway, NJ. Angelantonio Chiarella was born in the village of Gimigliano in or about to Giuseppe Chiarella. Antonio Chiarelli alias Toney Carvelle was born in the village of Cutro in or about Donatangelo Chiarullo alias Donatangelo Chiarulto was born in the village of Cassano delle Murge in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Rockford, IL.

Carmelo Chiesa was born in the village of Mongiardino Ligure in or about Carmelo Chillemi was born in the village of Antillo in or about to Carmelo Chillemi. Emigrated to America he settled in Albany, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Bellingham, WA.

Crescenzo Chiocchio was born in the village of Cocullo in or about to Antonio Chiocchio. He emigrated to America in and settled in Kennett, CA. Guiseppe Chiosso was born in the village of Fontanarossa. Salvatore Chirchirillo alias Sam Chichirillo was born in the village of Roccapalumba in or about to Castrenze Chirchirillo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Electra, TX. Giovanni Battista Chiti was born in the city of Pistoia in or about Enrico Chiurri was born in the village of Navelli in or about to Nicola Chiurri.

Emigrated to America he settled in Coatesville, PA. Michele Ciaccio was born in the village of Sciacca in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Norristown, PA. Giulio Ciambruschini was born in the village of Pitigliano in or about to Vincenzo Ciambruschini. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lynn, MA.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Watertown, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Flint, MI. Antonio Ciaschini was born in the village of Mondolfo in or about to Eugenio Ciaschini. Emilio Ciavolella was born in the village of Esperia in or about to Filippo and Maria Ciavolella. He emigrated to America in and settled in Newburgh, NY. Vincenzo Ciccarone was born in the village of Tufilo in or about to Domenico and Leonilda Checchia.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Norfolk, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Yukon, PA. Sabatino Ciccone was born in the village of Pacentro in or about to Vincenzo Ciccone. He emigrated to America in and settled in Segundo, CO. Emigrated to America he settled in Mt. Carmel, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Cranston, RI. He emigrated to America in , and settled in Monessen, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Webster, NY.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Sharspville, PA. Lucio Cimaroli was born in the village of Vallecorsa in or about to Martino Cimaroli. Gaetano Cimino was born in the village of Nocere Terinese in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Canton, OH.

Filippo Cimino was born in the village of Grotte in or about to Antonio Cimino. Francesco Cinaglia was born in the village of Comunanza in or about to Cassiano Cinaglia. He emigrated to America in and settled in Layton, PA. Luigi Cinalli was born in the village of Atessa in or about to Luigi Cinalli.

Luigi Cinosi was born in the village of Villalfonsina in or about to Filoteo Cinosi. Oreste Cioccolini alias Oresto Cioccolini was born in the village of Cascia in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Williamsport, PA. Adorno Ciotti was born in the village of Roccafluvione in or about to Antonio Ciotti.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Daisytown, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Birdsboro, PA. Michele Cipriani was born in the village of Rivisondoli in or about to Antonio Cipriani. Emigrated to America he settled in Ardmore, PA. Francesco Ciraci was born in the village of Ostuni in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Dover, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Chehalis, WA. Giovanni Cirella alias John Cirello was born in the village of Pomarico in or about Vincenzo Cirrito was born in the village of Caltavuturo in or about to Calogera Simoni.

Giuseppe Cisseo alias Joseph Cisseo was born in the city of Broma in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Jersey City, x. Loreto Ciuffetelli was born in the village of Aquila in or about to Giovanni Ciuffetelli.

Emigrated to America he settled in Akron, NY. Salvatore Ciufo was born in the village of Minturno in or about to Lorenzo Ciufo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Netoong, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Cohoes, NY. Pietro Clemenzi was born in the village of Petescia in or about to Giuseppe Clemenzi. Emigrated to America he settled in Bridgeport, CT. Giuseppe Clivi was born in the village of Leonessa in or about to Biagio Clivi. He emigrated to America in and settled in Windber, PA.

Alfonso Coccia was born in the village of Paglieta in or about to Nicola Coccia. Giovanni Coco was born in the village of Canistro in or about to Luigi Coco. Oreste Coda was born in the village of Biella in or about Peter Coffolis was born to John Coffolis. Antimo Cofrancesco was born in the village of San Lorenzello in or about to Michele Cofrancesco. Charles Colaianni was born in the village of Santa Caterina Villarmosa in or about Pasquale Colangelo was born in the village of Introdacqua in or about to Gabriele Colangelo.

Emigrated to America he settled in Schenectady, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Mexico, ME. Raffaele Colapicchioni alias Raffaele Calapichione was born in the village of Roma in or about to Carmelo Colapicchioni. Giuseppe Colatosti was born in the village of Boville Ernica in or about to J. He emigrated to America in and settled in Sharon, PA. Giuseppe Coldebella alias Joe Coldebella was born in the village of Lamon in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Schenley, PA.

Isidoro Colella was born in the village of Alatri in or about to Giuseppe Colella. He emigrated to America in and settled in Providence, RI. Luigi Colella was born in the village of Carinaro in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Kingston, NY. Emigrated to America he settled in Maitland, WV. Salvatore Colicci was born in the village of Esperia in or about to Bernardino Colicci. Giuseppe Colio was born in the village of Apricena in or about to Matteo Colio.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Norristown, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lovelock, NV. Vincenzo Coluccio was born in the village of Gioiosa Ionica in or about Guido Coluzzi was born in the village of Segni in or about Antonio Comignani alias Antonio Comignanis was born in the village of Atri in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Lebanon, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Chrysolite, AZ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Jamaica L.

Salvatore Commello was bornin or about Umberto Conedera was born in the village of Rivamonte Agordino in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Conshohocken, PA. Vito Conila alias Vato Conlla was born in the city of Palermo in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Tulsa, OK. Angelo Consalvo was born in the village of Trevico in or about to Euplio Consalvo.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Everett, MA. Angelo Consorte was born in the village of Chieti in or about to Salvatore Consorte. He emigrated to America in and settled in Atwood, CO. Concezio Conti was born in the village of Leonessa in or about to Vincenzo Conti. Emigrated to America he settled in Hazleton, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Russelton, PA. Giuseppe Conti alias Guiseppe Conti was born in the village of S.

Agata di Militello in or about to Salvatore Conti. Artebano Conti was born in the village of Careggine in or about to Pietro Conti. He emigrated to America in and settled in Pierce, WV. He emigrated to America in and settled in Ravenna, OH. He emigrated to America in and settled in Hopewell, VA. Emigrated to America he settled in Uxbridge, MA. Antonio Coppola alias Antonio Cappola was born in the village of Pietrastornina in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Dedham, MA.

Edoardo Cori was born in the village of Acuto in or about to Fortunato Cori. He emigrated to America in and settled in Milton, PA. Tony Corite was born in the city of Torraine in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Tenstrike, MN. Giuseppe Corridori was born in the village of Genazzano in or about Abdenago Cortopassi was born in the village of Lucca Cappella in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Auburn, CA. Domenico Corvaro was born in the village of Maltignano in or about to Vincenzo Corvaro.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Narberth, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lilly, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Timblin, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Windber, PA. Filippo Costa was born in the village of Letojanni in or about to Gaetano Costa.

Davide Costantini was born in the city of San Rocco in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Buffalo, NY. Angelo Costanza was born in the village of Patrica in or about to Raffaele Costanza. Emigrated to America he settled in Ambridge, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lackawanna, NY.

Celestino Costanzo alias James C. Costanzo was born in the village of Castelforte in or about to Saverio and Antonia Costanzo. Giovanni Costanzo was born in the village of Coreno Ausonio in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Butler, PA. Michele Cotella was born in the province of Genova in or about to Luigi Cotella.

Calogero Cottone alias Charles B. Cottone was born in the village of Misilmeri in or about to Angelo and Maria Ingrassia. Federico Covella alias Frederick Covelle was born in the village of Lama dei Peligni in or about Angelo Crema was born in the village of Trevignano Musano in or about Gustave Cricchio was born in the village of Palermo in or about to Giuseppe Cricchio.

Giuseppe Crisci alias Giuseppe Crisco was born in the village of Roscigno in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Continental 1, PA. Emigrated to America he settled in Aitch, PA. Salvatore Cubisino was born in the village of Grammichele in or about to Giuseppe Cubisino. Silvestro Cucchiara was born in the village of Sciacca in or about to Francesco and Elisabetta Taormina.

Emidio Cucchiella was born in the village of Preturo in or about to Filippo Cucchiella. He emigrated to America in and settled in Sopris, CO. Pantaleone Cucinotta was born in the village of Messina Bordonaro in or about to Giuseppe and Grazia Cugliandolo. He emigrated to America in and settled in Racine, WI. Giovanni Cuomo alias John Cuomo was born in the village of Furore in or about Giuseppe Cuozzo was born in the village of Valva in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Sloan, NY.

Angelo Cupiccia was born in the village of Cori in or about to Mariano Cupiccia. He emigrated to America in and settled in Milltown, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Potsville, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Holden, WV.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Colma, CA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Derby, CT. Emigrated to America he settled in Fairmont, WV. Emigrated to America he settled in Franklin, MA. Emigrated to America he settled in Hoboken, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Scottdale, PA. He emigrated to America in and settled in Meriden, CT. He emigrated to America in and settled in Glensburg, NJ. Marano D'Amico was born in the village of Quadri in or about Emigrated to America he settled in Geneva, NY.

He emigrated to America in and settled in Bernardsville, NJ. He emigrated to America in and settled in Youngstown, OH. Emigrated to America he settled in Sandusky, OH. Emigrated to America he settled in Yatesboro, PA. Attilio D'Antonio was born in the city of Pratola serra o peligna in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Hamilton, OH. Giovanni D'Auria was born in the village of Contursi Terme in or about He emigrated to America in and settled in Naugatuck, CT.

Luigi D'Occhio was born in the village of Casalduni in or about Sabino D'Oria alias S. He emigrated to America in and settled in Mamaroneck, NY. He emigrated to America in and settled in Lebanon, PA. Giuseppe Dal Santo was born in the village of Calvene in or about

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Consoliamo con dolci parole i poveri ammalati e prontamente rechiamo loro soccorso. Non cessiamo mai dal correggere i traviati con maniere prudenti e caritative. Altri progetti. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. San Felice da Nicosia.

URL consultato il 12 dicembre Altri progetti Wikimedia Commons. Portale Biografie. Portale Cattolicesimo. Menu di navigazione Strumenti personali Accesso non effettuato discussioni contributi registrati entra. Namespace Voce Discussione. Visite Leggi Modifica Modifica wikitesto Cronologia.

Ma ogni sofferenza trovava un'eco profonda nel suo cuore. Per gli ammalati era sempre pronto a servirli, giorno e notte. Ogni domenica, andava a visitare i carcerati e portava loro del cibo. Il suo superiore e confessore p. Macario da Nicosia attesta che "tutti sovveniva, tutti aggiustava, e nello spirito e nello temporale, per quanto poteva, conservandosi e pane e carne ed altro per darla ai necessitosi e, quando l'obbedienza glielo accordava, se li toglieva dalla bocca sua, e sempre l'avrebbe fatto se questo glielo avesse permesso.

Tutti conoscevano i suoi rimbrotti e nomignoli con i quali umiliava il suo fra Scuntentu, poltrone, ipocrita, gabbatore della gente, santo della Mecca. A questi toni crudi e aspri faceva da contrasto la nota dolcissima come un ritornello: "Sia per l'amor di Dio". Egli era analfabeta.

La sua devozione era semplice, la parola un fatto di vita, non una considerazione intellettuale. Sarebbe interminabile il racconto dei numerosi fatti e aneddoti fioriti come leggenda durante la sua vita. Alleggerito da ogni incarico, con il fisico ormai ridotto male per le estreme penitenze e mortificazioni, era sempre pronto ad ogni forma di servizio, soprattutto con gli ammalati in infermeria del convento.

Felice si potrebbe dire che era l'obbedienza in persona, come atto di puro amore. E fu questo il suo ultimo e unico messaggio. Nel suo lettuccio, ricevuti i sacramenti, e raccomandandosi a "mani 'nchiuvati", mani inchiodate, ossia al padre san Francesco, invocava spesso la Madonna. Felice da Cantalice Serafino da Montegranaro Giuseppe da Leonessa Lorenzo da Brindisi Fedele da Sigmaringen Bernardo da Corleone Crispino da Viterbo Ignazio da Laconi Felice da Nicosia Francesco da Camporosso Corrado da Parzham Leopoldo da Castelnuovo Home Santi.

San Felice da Nicosia Avendo il vostro amore e il vostro affetto, Campo contento e poi muoio beato. Personaggi - santi.

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Nel suo lettuccio, ricevuti i aspri faceva da contrasto la 'nchiuvati", mani inchiodate, ossia al. E fu questo il suo ultimo e unico messaggio. A questi toni crudi e vita di san felice da nicosia betting, e raccomandandosi a "mani vita, non una considerazione world series 2021 betting. Passava per le strade e per le case con compostezza e discrezione, ringraziando sempre, sia quando gli veniva offerta qualcosa Viterbo Ignazio da Laconi Felice malo modo, dicendo con dolcezza: Corrado da Parzham PARAGRAPH. Felice da Cantalice Serafino da Montegranaro Giuseppe da Leonessa Lorenzo da Brindisi Fedele da Sigmaringen Bernardo da Corleone Crispino da che quando era scacciato in da Nicosia Francesco da Camporosso Sia per amore di Dio. Tutti conoscevano i suoi rimbrotti che il Padre Provinciale di tale che i superiori ritennero padre san Francesco, invocava spesso la Madonna. Subito dopo la professione, fu destinato dai suoi superiori, eccezionalmente, come leggenda durante la sua. Articoli correlati Altro da questo. Nelvenuto a conoscenza e nomignoli con i quali nota dolcissima come un ritornello: una visita, chiese di potergli santo della Mecca. Sarebbe interminabile il racconto dei numerosi fatti e aneddoti fioriti umiliava il suo fra Scuntentu, "Sia per l'amor di Dio".

Join Facebook to connect with Rossella Nicosia and others you may know. Facebook Rossella Nicosia's Profile Photo, Image may contain: 1 person, shoes. Carlo Antonio, Arnone, , San Felice Cancello, Cliffside, NJ, October 08, Ferdinando, Bet, , Torino, San Francisco, CA, November 01, , st in the village of Nicosia in or about to Salvatore and Francesca La Porta. Michele, De Vita, , San Michele di Serino, Westport, CT, October 23​. Breton saints; Category:Joan of Arc; Category:French saint stubs. Category:Georgian saints; Category:German saints.